viral hemorrhagic septicemia

Summary

Summary: A systemic infection of various salmonid and a few nonsalmonid fishes caused by Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (see NOVIRHABDOVIRUS),

Top Publications

  1. McLauchlan P, Collet B, Ingerslev E, Secombes C, Lorenzen N, Ellis A. DNA vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in rainbow trout: size, dose, route of injection and duration of protection-early protection correlates with Mx expression. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;15:39-50 pubmed
    ..m. NAb was detected in sera of fish at 8 weeks after vaccination with 0.1 microg i.m. but not in fish vaccinated with doses of 0.01-0.5 microg i.p. Early protection (1 week p.v.) correlated with elevated Mx gene expression...
  2. Skall H, Slierendrecht W, King J, Olesen N. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:99-110 pubmed
    ..The 2 farmed turbot isolates did not cause mortality by immersion, supporting the view that they originated from the marine environment...
  3. Byon J, Ohira T, Hirono I, Aoki T. Use of a cDNA microarray to study immunity against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following DNA vaccination. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005;18:135-47 pubmed
    Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles were vaccinated against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) by intramuscular injection of 10 microg of a plasmid DNA vector which encodes the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) ..
  4. Jimenez N, Coll J, Salguero F, Tafalla C. Co-injection of interleukin 8 with the glycoprotein gene from viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) modulates the cytokine response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Vaccine. 2006;24:5615-26 pubmed
    ..showed that interleukin 8 (IL-8) was induced in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection, we have cloned IL-8 in an expression vector (pIL8+) and studied its possible ..
  5. Brudeseth B, Raynard R, King J, Evensen O. Sequential pathology after experimental infection with marine viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates of low and high virulence in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L). Vet Pathol. 2005;42:9-18 pubmed
    Three marine viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates were used to bath challenge turbot with the purpose of studying mortality and the pathology and antigen distribution over time...
  6. Raja Halli M, Vehmas T, Rimaila Pärnänen E, Sainmaa S, Skall H, Olesen N, et al. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in Finnish rainbow trout farms. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:201-11 pubmed
    ..As the Finnish isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments, they could represent an intermediate stage of marine isolates evolving towards pathogenicity in rainbow trout...
  7. Novoa B, Romero A, Mulero V, Rodriguez I, Fernandez I, Figueras A. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Vaccine. 2006;24:5806-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, the high protection obtained with the live attenuated virus demonstrates that the zebrafish is able to mount an efficient antiviral immune response at 15 degrees C...
  8. Matejusova I, McKay P, McBeath A, Collet B, Snow M. Development of a sensitive and controlled real-time RT-PCR assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine salmonid aquaculture. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;80:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a continued surveillance of these species in marine environment is recommended...
  9. Mas V, Rocha A, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. Reversible inhibition of spreading of in vitro infection and imbalance of viral protein accumulation at low pH in viral hemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus, a salmonid rhabdovirus. J Virol. 2004;78:1936-44 pubmed
    The inhibition of viral hemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus (VHSV) in vitro infection by pHs of <7 (low pH) has been previously reported. Nevertheless, the details of the mechanism underlying this effect remain obscure...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Tafalla C, Chico V, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. In vitro and in vivo differential expression of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx isoforms in response to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G gene, poly I:C and VHSV. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:210-21 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this is also the first report showing Mx induction after cell transfection with a plasmid coding for the VHSV-G protein...
  2. Lopez Vazquez C, Dopazo C, Barja J, Bandín I. Experimental infection of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), with strains of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from wild and farmed marine fish. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:303-12 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Greenland halibut, as other wild fish, may play an important role in the epizootiology of VHSV and suggest a potential risk for the turbot farming industry...
  3. Nishizawa T, Savas H, Isidan H, Ustündağ C, Iwamoto H, Yoshimizu M. Genotyping and pathogenicity of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus from free-living turbot (Psetta maxima) in a Turkish coastal area of the Black Sea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2373-8 pubmed
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most serious fish viral diseases for cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), although VHS virus (VHSV) seems to be ubiquitous among marine fishes...
  4. Tafalla C, Sanchez E, Lorenzen N, Dewitte Orr S, Bols N. Effects of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) monocyte cell line RTS-11. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1439-48 pubmed
    The effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was studied on the established rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) monocyte/macrophage-like cell line RTS11...
  5. Skall H, Olesen N, Mellergaard S. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming--a review. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:509-29 pubmed
    ..Examples of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture...
  6. Cuesta A, Tafalla C. Transcription of immune genes upon challenge with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in DNA vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Vaccine. 2009;27:280-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the current work, we vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a DNA vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and 30 days post-vaccination we challenged the fish with a virulent VHSV...
  7. Byon J, Ohira T, Hirono I, Aoki T. Comparative immune responses in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after vaccination with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) recombinant glycoprotein and DNA vaccine using a microarray analysis. Vaccine. 2006;24:921-30 pubmed
    A viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), recombinant glycoprotein vaccine (VHSVg) and a DNA vaccine (pCMV-VHSg) were injected in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)...
  8. Dale O, Ørpetveit I, Lyngstad T, Kahns S, Skall H, Olesen N, et al. Outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in seawater-farmed rainbow trout in Norway caused by VHS virus Genotype III. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..For Atlantic salmon, no mortality was observed in immersion trials, whereas 52% mortality was observed after intraperitoneal injection. The Norwegian isolate thus represents the first VHSV of Genotype III pathogenic to rainbow trout...
  9. Hope K, Casey R, Groocock G, Getchell R, Bowser P, Casey J. Comparison of quantitative RT-PCR with cell culture to detect viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) IVb infections in the Great Lakes. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:50-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish in marine and freshwater environments. A new genotype, VHSV IVb, was isolated from a fish collected from the Great Lakes in 2003...
  10. Takami I, Kwon S, Nishizawa T, Yoshimizu M. Protection of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus from viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) by Poly(I:C) immunization. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..effiacy of Poly(I:C) immunization was investigated in japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) as a model; the minimum dose of Poly(I:C) required for inducing protection and the ..
  11. Chico V, Martinez Lopez A, Ortega Villaizan M, Falco A, Perez L, Coll J, et al. Pepscan mapping of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus glycoprotein G major lineal determinants implicated in triggering host cell antiviral responses mediated by type I interferon. J Virol. 2010;84:7140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..60 synthetic 20-mer overlapping peptides (pepscan) spanning the full length of glycoprotein G (gpG) of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to investigate what regions of this protein are implicated in triggering the type I IFN-..
  12. Utke K, Kock H, Schuetze H, Bergmann S, Lorenzen N, Einer Jensen K, et al. Cell-mediated immune responses in rainbow trout after DNA immunization against the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:239-52 pubmed
    To identify viral proteins that induce cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-infected cells, rainbow trout were immunized with DNA vectors encoding the glycoprotein G or the nucleocapsid ..
  13. Brudeseth B, Castric J, Evensen O. Studies on pathogenesis following single and double infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Vet Pathol. 2002;39:180-9 pubmed
    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were bath challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus or infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus or with both viruses simultaneously...
  14. Yang H, Jung M, Avunje S, Nikapitiya C, Kang S, Ryu Y, et al. Efficacy of algal Ecklonia cava extract against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;72:273-281 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, oral administration of the E. cava extract to the olive flounder enhanced antiviral immune responses and the efficacy of protection against VHSV, resulting in an anti-viral status in the olive flounder. ..
  15. Tien N, Kim T, Kim T. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus glycoprotein production in tobacco. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;133:170-176 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater fish species resulting in heavy losses in fish farming...
  16. Pereiro P, Romero A, Diaz Rosales P, Estepa A, Figueras A, Novoa B. Nucleated Teleost Erythrocytes Play an Nk-Lysin- and Autophagy-Dependent Role in Antiviral Immunity. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1458 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we observed that the blockage of autophagy increased the replication of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in nucleated teleost erythrocytes, which suggests that this mechanism may also be a key process ..
  17. Baillon L, Merour E, Cabon J, Louboutin L, Quenault H, Touzain F, et al. A single amino acid change in the non-structural NV protein impacts the virulence phenotype of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in trout. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1181-1184 pubmed publisher
    Novirhabdoviruses like the Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are rhabdoviruses infecting fish...
  18. Najib A, Kim M, Choi S, Kang Y, Kim K. Changes in microRNAs expression profile of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;51:384-391 pubmed publisher
    To know the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection on the cellular microRNA expression profile in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), fish were infected with VHSV, and cellular microRNAs expression was analyzed ..
  19. Kim K, Kim Y, Kwon W, Jeong H. Evaluation of blue mussel Mytilus edulis as vector for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;126:239-246 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) survivability analysis of blue mussel Mytilus edulis digestive enzymes, viral depuration, ..
  20. Andersen N, Lorenzen E, Snogdal Boutrup T, Hansen P, Lorenzen N. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2016;117:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that depending on the local exposure conditions, sublethal concentrations of P. parvum could affect susceptibility of fish to infectious agents such as VHSV. ..
  21. Cho H, Kim J, Moon J, Nam B, Kim Y, Kim W, et al. Microarray analysis of gene expression in olive flounder liver infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;49:66-78 pubmed publisher
    The most fatal viral pathogen in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, is viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, which afflicts over 48 species of freshwater and marine fish...
  22. Hwang J, Ahn S, Kwon M, Seo J, Hwang S, Son M. Interferon-induced protein 56 (IFI56) is induced by VHSV infection but not by bacterial infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;66:382-389 pubmed publisher
    ..olive flounder, its characteristic features, and expression levels in various tissues before and after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection...
  23. Ke Q, Weaver W, Pore A, Gorgoglione B, WILDSCHUTTE J, Xiao P, et al. Role of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Matrix (M) Protein in Suppressing Host Transcription. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the Northern Hemisphere...
  24. Jung J, Lee J, Kim Y, Im S, Kim S, Lazarte J, et al. Development of a monoclonal antibody against the CD3? of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its application in evaluating immune response related to CD3?. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;65:179-185 pubmed publisher
    ..During a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection in olive flounder, the number of CD3? lymphocytes was seen to gradually increase ..
  25. Kim H, Park J, Choi M, Kwon S. Comparison of the efficacy of Poly(I:C) immunization with live vaccine and formalin-killed vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;48:206-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, causes significant economic loss for the flounder aquaculture industry in Korea...
  26. Park J, Kim M, Choi S, Kang Y, Kim K. Effect of truncation of the N-terminal region of the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) P protein on viral replication. Arch Virol. 2015;160:2827-31 pubmed publisher
    The phosphoprotein (P) of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) plays an essential role in viral replication by interconnecting the L protein and the N protein-RNA complex...
  27. Parreño R, Almagro L, Bello Perez M, Medina Gali R, Estepa A, Perez L. Restricted replication of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in a birnavirus-carrier cell culture. Arch Virol. 2017;162:1037-1041 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) are economically important pathogens of the salmonid aquaculture industry...
  28. Avunje S, Jung S. Poly (I:C) and imiquimod induced immune responses and their effects on the survival of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;71:338-345 pubmed publisher
  29. Kavaliauskis A, Arnemo M, Kim S, Ulanova L, Speth M, Novoa B, et al. Use of Poly(I:C) Stabilized with Chitosan As a Vaccine-Adjuvant Against Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Infection in Zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2015;12:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The adjuvant was co-injected with inactivated viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) (CSpIC+iV vaccine) in adult zebrafish and its efficiency in protection against VHSV ..
  30. Reperant L, Brown I, Haenen O, de Jong M, Osterhaus A, Papa A, et al. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. J Comp Pathol. 2016;155:S41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The current list of viruses provides an objective basis for more in-depth analysis of the risk of companion animals as sources of viruses for human and food production animal health. ..
  31. Priyathilaka T, Bathige S, Lee S, Lee J. Molecular identification and functional analysis of two variants of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). Dev Comp Immunol. 2018;79:113-127 pubmed publisher
    ..after a challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes), virus (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C)...
  32. Thim H, Villoing S, McLoughlin M, Christie K, Grove S, Frost P, et al. Vaccine Adjuvants in Fish Vaccines Make a Difference: Comparing Three Adjuvants (Montanide ISA763A Oil, CpG/Poly I:C Combo and VHSV Glycoprotein) Alone or in Combination Formulated with an Inactivated Whole Salmonid Alphavirus Antigen. Vaccines (Basel). 2014;2:228-51 pubmed publisher
  33. Park Y, Moon C, Kang J, Choi T. Antiviral effects of extracts from Celosia cristata and Raphanus sativus roots against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Arch Virol. 2017;162:1711-1716 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral activity of an extract mixture from Celosia cristata and Raphanus sativus was tested against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)...
  34. Kim M, Lee S, Kim D, Kim K. Generation of Recombinant Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (rVHSV) Expressing Two Foreign Proteins and Effect of Lengthened Viral Genome on Viral Growth and In Vivo Virulence. Mol Biotechnol. 2016;58:280-6 pubmed publisher
  35. Schönherz A, Lorenzen N, Guldbrandtsen B, Buitenhuis B, Einer Jensen K. Ultra-deep sequencing of VHSV isolates contributes to understanding the role of viral quasispecies. Vet Res. 2016;47:10 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that deep sequencing and analysis methodologies can be useful for future in vivo host adaption studies of VHSV. ..
  36. Diserens N, Falzon L, von Siebenthal B, Schüpbach Regula G, Wahli T. Validation of a model for ranking aquaculture facilities for risk-based disease surveillance. Prev Vet Med. 2017;145:32-40 pubmed publisher
  37. Lazarte J, Kim Y, Lee J, Im S, Kim S, Jung J, et al. Enhancement of glycoprotein-based DNA vaccine for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) via addition of the molecular adjuvant, DDX41. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;62:356-365 pubmed publisher
    ..Our novel findings could facilitate the development of more effective DNA vaccines for the aquaculture industry. ..
  38. Hwang J, Kwon M, Kim Y, Jung S, Park M, Son M. Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant enhances the efficacy of immersion vaccine of inactivated viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;60:420-425 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of immersion vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) containing Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)...
  39. Gorgoglione B, Carpio Y, Secombes C, Taylor N, Lugo J, Estrada M. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. ..
  40. Cano I, Collet B, Pereira C, Paley R, Aerle R, Stone D, et al. In vivo virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss correlates inversely with in vitro Mx gene expression. Vet Microbiol. 2016;187:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-inoculation assays showed a J167-dose dependent inhibition of the luciferase activity. The data suggest that virulent VHSV isolates may interfere in the interferon pathways, potentially determining higher pathogenicity. ..
  41. Kim M, Lee J, Kim K. Effects of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, on viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection-mediated apoptosis and viral replication. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;51:41-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of cell survival time by the inhibition of apoptosis can lead to an increase of the final titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)...
  42. Gorgoglione B, Zahran E, Taylor N, Feist S, Zou J, Secombes C. Comparative study of CXC chemokines modulation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) following infection with a bacterial or viral pathogen. Mol Immunol. 2016;71:64-77 pubmed publisher
    ..p.i. in both tissues. This study gives clues to the role of the novel CXC chemokines, in comparison to the other known CXC chemokines in salmonids. ..
  43. Getchell R, Cornwell E, Bogdanowicz S, Andrés J, Batts W, Kurath G, et al. Complete sequences of 4 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb isolates and their virulence in northern pike fry. Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;126:211-227 pubmed publisher
    Four viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb isolates were sequenced, their genetic variation explored, and comparative virulence assayed with experimental infections of northern pike Esox lucius fry...
  44. Kim M, Choi S, Kim K. Effect of G gene-deleted recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-?G) on the replication of wild type VHSV in a fish cell line and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;54:598-601 pubmed publisher
    In an earlier study, we generated a replicon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) particle that was lacking the G gene in the genome (rVHSV-?G), and proved the potential of it as a protective vaccine through the immunization of olive ..
  45. Bathige S, Umasuthan N, Park H, Lee J. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;56:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..AbSTAT5 were analyzed upon live bacterial (Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes), viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lipopolysaccharides and Poly I:C) stimulations, and ..
  46. Stone D, Ferguson H, Tyson P, Savage J, Wood G, Dodge M, et al. The first report of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in the United Kingdom. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Following waterborne challenge, cumulative mortalities reached 96.67-100% by 12 days post-infection. This represents the first isolation of a pathogenic freshwater VHSV in the UK...
  47. Lumsden J, Morrison B, Yason C, Russell S, Young K, Yazdanpanah A, et al. Mortality event in freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens from Lake Ontario, Canada, associated with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus, type IV. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:99-111 pubmed
    ..The effects of ongoing mortality in freshwater drum and in multiple species during spring 2006 suggest that this newly recognised virus in the Great Lakes will have continued impact in the near future...
  48. Peeler E, Thrush M. Assessment of exotic fish disease introduction and establishment in the United Kingdom via live fish transporters. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;83:85-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in the way in which UK-based live fish transporters operate in mainland Europe need to be monitored and development of a code of practice to minimise the risk of disease introduction considered...
  49. Kim R, Faisal M. The Laurentian Great Lakes strain (MI03) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus is highly pathogenic for juvenile muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill). J Fish Dis. 2010;33:513-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus was recovered from kidney and spleen tissues through tissue culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  50. Skall H, Olesen N, Mellergaard S. Prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in Danish marine fishes and its occurrence in new host species. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;66:145-51 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on the isolation of VHSV from dab, flounder and plaice and the first publication on VHSV from sand eel from Europe and sand goby...
  51. Fregeneda Grandes J, Olesen N. Detection of rainbow trout antibodies against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) by neutralisation test is highly dependent on the virus isolate used. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;74:151-8 pubmed
    ..When conducting WB analysis, the viral glycoprotein was the protein most frequently recognized, followed by the viral nucleoprotein...
  52. Snow M, King J, Garden A, Raynard R. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (L.), and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), to different genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:737-42 pubmed
    ..The known adaptability of RNA viruses, together with the selection pressures associated with intensive aquaculture would thus advocate a cautious approach to VHSV surveillance within these emerging industries...
  53. Lovell S, Drake L. Tiny stowaways: analyzing the economic benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permit regulating ballast water discharges. Environ Manage. 2009;43:546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges...
  54. Hershberger P, Gregg J, Pacheco C, Winton J, Richard J, Traxler G. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:445-58 pubmed
  55. Encinas P, Rodriguez Milla M, Novoa B, Estepa A, Figueras A, Coll J. Zebrafish fin immune responses during high mortality infections with viral haemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus. A proteomic and transcriptomic approach. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:518 pubmed publisher
  56. Marty G, Hulson P, Miller S, Quinn T, Moffitt S, Merizon R. Failure of population recovery in relation to disease in Pacific herring. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..by (1) epidemics associated with ulcers (prevalence about 3%) and the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV Type IVa; prevalence up to 14%) in 1994 and 1998 and (2) relatively high prevalence of the ..
  57. Seo J, Kim K, Kim S, Oh M, Nam S, Kim Y, et al. Protection of flounder against hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) with a DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein gene. Vaccine. 2006;24:1009-15 pubmed
    ..5% cumulative mortality, respectively. These results show that the G gene is effective for the induction of protective immunity against HIRRV infection in injected fish...
  58. Falco A, Mas V, Tafalla C, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. Dual antiviral activity of human alpha-defensin-1 against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV): inactivation of virus particles and induction of a type I interferon-related response. Antiviral Res. 2007;76:111-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results further confirm that molecules that mediate the innate resistance of animals to virus may prove useful as templates for new antivirals in both human and animal health...
  59. Rehulka J. Haematological analyses in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss affected by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;56:185-93 pubmed
    ..Fish with VHS in the chronic stage, compared with healthy fish, were in worse condition, with a significantly reduced Fulton coefficient and Clark coefficient, and a higher hepatosomatic index and visceral somatic index...
  60. Dixon P, Avery S, Chambers E, Feist S, Mandhar H, Parry L, et al. Four years of monitoring for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine waters around the United Kingdom. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;54:175-86 pubmed
    ..In 1998, an aquareovirus was isolated from haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, a previously unrecorded host for the virus...
  61. Hong S, Jeong H, Hong S. QCM DNA biosensor for the diagnosis of a fish pathogenic virus VHSV. Talanta. 2010;82:899-903 pubmed publisher
    ..0016muM. Diagnosis using the QCM biosensor system was more sensitive and much faster than a conventional RT-PCR analysis in detecting the viral RNA...
  62. Rocha A, Ruiz S, Tafalla C, Coll J. Characterisation of the syncytia formed by VHS salmonid rhabdovirus G gene transfected cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:143-52 pubmed
  63. Hershberger P, Gregg J, Grady C, Collins R, Winton J. Susceptibility of three stocks of pacific herring to viral hemorrhagic septicemia. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pallasii from three distinct populations indicated that stock origin had no effect on susceptibility to viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS)...
  64. Muroga K, Iida H, Mori K, Nishizawa T, Arimoto M. Experimental horizontal transmission of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:111-5 pubmed
    Infection by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has recently occurred among wild and farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan...
  65. Skall H, Kjaer T, Olesen N. Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:401-8 pubmed
    ..The experimental studies, however, showed that whitefish are potential carriers of VHSV as they suffer only low mortality after infection but continue to carry virus...
  66. Gagne N, MacKinnon A, Boston L, Souter B, Cook Versloot M, Griffiths S, et al. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:213-23 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass...
  67. Duesund H, Nylund S, Watanabe K, Ottem K, Nylund A. Characterization of a VHS virus genotype III isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) at a marine site on the west coast of Norway. Virol J. 2010;7:19 pubmed publisher
    ..This virus was also used in a challenge experiment to see if it could cause any mortality in rainbow trout in sea water...
  68. Quillet E, Dorson M, Aubard G, Torhy C. In vitro assay to select rainbow trout with variable resistance/susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:7-16 pubmed
    ..Possible implications of the relationship between VREFT and resistance for the study of resistance mechanisms are discussed...
  69. Lorenzen E, Einer Jensen K, Rasmussen J, Kjaer T, Collet B, Secombes C, et al. The protective mechanisms induced by a fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccine depend on temperature. Vaccine. 2009;27:3870-80 pubmed publisher
  70. Chico V, Ortega Villaizan M, Falco A, Tafalla C, Perez L, Coll J, et al. The immunogenicity of viral haemorragic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV) DNA vaccines can depend on plasmid regulatory sequences. Vaccine. 2009;27:1938-48 pubmed publisher
  71. Adelmann M, Köllner B, Bergmann S, Fischer U, Lange B, Weitschies W, et al. Development of an oral vaccine for immunisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia. Vaccine. 2008;26:837-44 pubmed publisher
    ..While the cumulative mortality in the non-vaccinated control group reached 70%, more than 75% of the orally vaccinated fish were protected upon challenge...
  72. Sanchez E, Coll J, Tafalla C. Expression of inducible CC chemokines in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to a viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) DNA vaccine and interleukin 8. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:916-26 pubmed
    ..In this case, all CC chemokines studied except for CK5B were significantly induced by rainbow trout IL-8...
  73. Hershberger P, Hart A, Gregg J, Elder N, Winton J. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;70:201-8 pubmed
    ..from Puget Sound (Washington, USA) and confinement in laboratory tanks resulted in outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) and ichthyophoniasis; however, the timing and progression of ..
  74. Soliman H, El Matbouli M. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for rapid detection of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHS). Vet Microbiol. 2006;114:205-13 pubmed
    ..The assay was evaluated using clinical samples and the results indicated the suitability and simplicity of the test as a rapid, field diagnostic tool for VHS virus...
  75. Campbell S, Collet B, Einer Jensen K, Secombes C, Snow M. Identifying potential virulence determinants in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) for rainbow trout. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;86:205-12 pubmed publisher
  76. Ito T, Olesen N, Skall H, Sano M, Kurita J, Nakajima K, et al. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Using cell cultures that were transfected with each of the viral protein genes, it was shown that the MAb VHS-10 recognizes a nonlinear genotype IVa-specific epitope on the VHSV N-protein...
  77. Peddie S, McLauchlan P, Ellis A, Secombes C. Effect of intraperitoneally administered IL-1beta-derived peptides on resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;56:195-200 pubmed
    ..0 micromol of P3. Furthermore, resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was soon augmented (2 d) post-injection of P3...
  78. Pakingking R, Okinaka Y, Mori K, Arimoto M, Muroga K, Nakai T. In vivo and in vitro analysis of the resistance against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) precedingly infected with aquabirnavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2004;17:1-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the non-specific protection against the secondary VHSV infection in flounder was due to IFN(s) induced by the primary ABV infection...