rabies

Summary

Summary: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.

Top Publications

  1. Biswal M, Ratho R, Mishra B. Role of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of human rabies. Indian J Med Res. 2012;135:837-42 pubmed
    Traditionally, rabies diagnosis is made by demonstration of rabies viral antigen by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and mouse inoculation test (MIT)...
  2. Cabral C, Morais A, Dias A, Araújo M, Moreira W, Mattos G. Circulation of the rabies virus in non-hematophagous bats in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2001-2010. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:180-3 pubmed
    b>Rabies is one of the most known lethal zoonosis, responsible for 55,000 human deaths per year. It is transmitted to humans mainly by the bite of domestic or wild animals infected with the virus...
  3. Piñero C, Gury Dohmen F, Beltran F, Martínez L, Novaro L, Russo S, et al. High diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in Argentina: presence of several independent enzootics. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1635 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites...
  4. Putra A, Hampson K, Girardi J, Hiby E, Knobel D, Mardiana I, et al. Response to a rabies epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:648-51 pubmed publisher
    Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008-2009...
  5. Escobar L, Peterson A, Favi M, Yung V, Pons D, Medina Vogel G. Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2577 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus...
  6. Gilbert A, Petersen B, Recuenco S, Niezgoda M, Gomez J, Laguna Torres V, et al. Evidence of rabies virus exposure among humans in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNAs) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested...
  7. Guo Z, Tao X, Yin C, Han N, Yu J, Li H, et al. National borders effectively halt the spread of rabies: the current rabies epidemic in China is dislocated from cases in neighboring countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2039 pubmed publisher
    China has seen a massive resurgence of rabies cases in the last 15 years with more than 25,000 human fatalities. Initial cases were reported in the southwest but are now reported in almost every province...
  8. Streicker D, Lemey P, Velasco Villa A, Rupprecht C. Rates of viral evolution are linked to host geography in bat rabies. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002720 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed sequence data from hundreds of rabies viruses collected from bats throughout the Americas to describe dramatic variation in the speed of rabies virus ..
  9. Un H, Eskiizmirliler S, Unal N, Freuling C, Johnson N, Fooks A, et al. Oral vaccination of foxes against rabies in Turkey between 2008 and 2010. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:203-8 pubmed
    Following a sustained spill-over event from dogs to foxes, fox rabies spread rapidly in the Aegean region, Turkey. In order to control the outbreak a program of oral vaccination of foxes against rabies was introduced...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Turki I, Hammami A, Kharmachi H, Mousli M. Engineering of a recombinant trivalent single-chain variable fragment antibody directed against rabies virus glycoprotein G with improved neutralizing potency. Mol Immunol. 2014;57:66-73 pubmed publisher
    Human and equine rabies immunoglobulins are currently available for passive immunization against rabies. However, these are hampered by the limited supply and some drawbacks...
  2. Beyer H, Hampson K, Lembo T, Cleaveland S, Kaare M, Haydon D. The implications of metapopulation dynamics on the design of vaccination campaigns. Vaccine. 2012;30:1014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of alternative vaccination strategies on reducing disease occurrence (presence/absence), using canine rabies as a model system, and a domestic dog population within a Tanzanian district divided into sub-populations ..
  3. Warrell M. Current rabies vaccines and prophylaxis schedules: preventing rabies before and after exposure. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012;10:1-15 pubmed publisher
    Travellers are probably the largest group in the general population to receive rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis...
  4. Zhao P, Zhao L, Zhang T, Wang H, Qin C, Yang S, et al. Changes in microRNA expression induced by rabies virus infection in mouse brains. Microb Pathog. 2012;52:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, evidence has shown that cellular miRNAs have key regulatory roles in virus-host interactions. The rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal infection of the central nervous systems (CNS) of warm-blooded animals, yet its ..
  5. Machado G, Antunes J, Uieda W, Biondo A, Cruvinel T, Kataoka A, et al. Exposure to rabies virus in a population of free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil. Primates. 2012;53:227-31 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of rabies antibodies in free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected, rural area of southeastern Brazil...
  6. Sugiura N, Uda A, Inoue S, Kojima D, Hamamoto N, Kaku Y, et al. Gene expression analysis of host innate immune responses in the central nervous system following lethal CVS-11 infection in mice. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:463-72 pubmed
    The central nervous system (CNS) tissue of mice infected with the CVS-11 strain of rabies virus (RABV) was subjected to gene expression analysis using microarray and canonical pathway analyses...
  7. Kulkarni P, Sapru A, D costa P, Pandit A, Madhusudana S, Yajaman A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a new purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) administered by intramuscular and intradermal routes in healthy volunteers. Vaccine. 2013;31:2719-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is 100% fatal but preventable with modern vaccines and immunoglobulins. There is a huge demand for rabies vaccines in developing countries of Asia and Africa...
  8. O Sullivan A, Willoughby R, Mishchuk D, Alcarraz B, Cabezas Sánchez C, Condori R, et al. Metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid from humans treated for rabies. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:481-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a rapidly progressive lyssavirus encephalitis that is statistically 100% fatal. There are no clinically effective antiviral drugs for rabies...
  9. Fitzpatrick M, Hampson K, Cleaveland S, Meyers L, Townsend J, Galvani A. Potential for rabies control through dog vaccination in wildlife-abundant communities of Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1796 pubmed publisher
    Canine vaccination has been successful in controlling rabies in diverse settings worldwide...
  10. Cliquet F, Robardet E, Must K, Laine M, Peik K, Picard Meyer E, et al. Eliminating rabies in Estonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1535 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs...
  11. Both L, Banyard A, van Dolleweerd C, Horton D, Ma J, Fooks A. Passive immunity in the prevention of rabies. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:397-407 pubmed publisher
    Prevention of clinical disease in those exposed to viral infection is an important goal of human medicine. Using rabies virus infection as an example, we discuss the advances in passive immunoprophylaxis, most notably the shift from the ..
  12. Morters M, Restif O, Hampson K, Cleaveland S, Wood J, Conlan A. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction. J Anim Ecol. 2013;82:6-14 pubmed publisher
    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization...
  13. Patyk K, Turmelle A, Blanton J, Rupprecht C. Trends in national surveillance data for bat rabies in the United States: 2001-2009. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:666-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies remains an important public health concern in the United States, with most human cases associated with bat rabies virus variants...
  14. Wieten R, Leenstra T, van Thiel P, van Vugt M, Stijnis C, Goorhuis A, et al. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:414-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules...
  15. Lapiz S, Miranda M, Garcia R, Daguro L, Paman M, Madrinan F, et al. Implementation of an intersectoral program to eliminate human and canine rabies: the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1891 pubmed publisher
    ..13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and ..
  16. Zhou M, Zhang G, Ren G, Gnanadurai C, Li Z, Chai Q, et al. Recombinant rabies viruses expressing GM-CSF or flagellin are effective vaccines for both intramuscular and oral immunizations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63384 pubmed publisher
    Our previous studies indicated that recombinant rabies viruses (rRABV) expressing chemokines or cytokines (including GM-CSF) could enhance the immunogenicity by recruiting and/or activating dendritic cells (DC)...
  17. Silva S, Katz I, Mori E, Carnieli P, Vieira L, Batista H, et al. Biotechnology advances: a perspective on the diagnosis and research of Rabies Virus. Biologicals. 2013;41:217-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a widespread zoonotic disease responsible for approximately 55,000 human deaths/year...
  18. Reinke S, Resch L, Maingat F, Branton W, Jackson A, Holt R, et al. Metagenomic and metabolomic characterization of rabies encephalitis: new insights into the treatment of an ancient disease. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1451-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RV) infection is a fatal nervous system disorder. We describe a patient who died of rabies despite a neuroprotective intervention...
  19. Nouvellet P, Donnelly C, De Nardi M, Rhodes C, De Benedictis P, Citterio C, et al. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61588 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia...
  20. Zhang G, Fu Z. Complete genome sequence of a street rabies virus from Mexico. J Virol. 2012;86:10892-3 pubmed publisher
    A canine rabies virus (RABV) has been used as a street rabies virus in laboratory investigations. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to that of canine RABV circulating in Mexico...
  21. Kammouni W, Hasan L, Saleh A, Wood H, Fernyhough P, Jackson A. Role of nuclear factor-?B in oxidative stress associated with rabies virus infection of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Virol. 2012;86:8139-46 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies in an experimental model of rabies showed major structural changes in the brain involving neuronal processes that are associated with severe clinical disease...
  22. Wang L, Cao Y, Tang Q, Liang G. Role of the blood-brain barrier in rabies virus infection and protection. Protein Cell. 2013;4:901-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by infection with rabies virus (RABV). It is one of the most important zoonotic infections and causes more than 70,000 human deaths annually ( http://www.rabiescontrol.net )...
  23. Thanomsridetchai N, Singhto N, Tepsumethanon V, Shuangshoti S, Wacharapluesadee S, Sinchaikul S, et al. Comprehensive proteome analysis of hippocampus, brainstem, and spinal cord from paralytic and furious dogs naturally infected with rabies. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4911-24 pubmed publisher
    Paralytic and furious forms are unique clinical entities of rabies in humans and dogs. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remained unclear...
  24. Duan Y, Gu T, Jiang C, Yuan R, Zhang H, Hou H, et al. A novel disulfide-stabilized single-chain variable antibody fragment against rabies virus G protein with enhanced in vivo neutralizing potency. Mol Immunol. 2012;51:188-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a fatal infectious disease requiring efficient protection provided by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG)...
  25. Suraweera W, Morris S, Kumar R, Warrell D, Warrell M, Jha P. Deaths from symptomatically identifiable furious rabies in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1847 pubmed publisher
    It is estimated that India has more deaths from rabies than any other country. However, existing estimates are indirect and rely on non-representative studies.
  26. Zhao P, Zhao L, Zhang K, Feng H, Wang H, Wang T, et al. Infection with street strain rabies virus induces modulation of the microRNA profile of the mouse brain. Virol J. 2012;9:159 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal infection of the central nervous systems (CNS) of warm-blooded animals. Once the clinical symptoms develop, rabies is almost invariably fatal. The mechanism of RABV pathogenesis remains poorly understood...
  27. Polo G, Acosta C, Dias R. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil. Prev Vet Med. 2013;111:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control ..
  28. Banyard A, Horton D, Freuling C, Muller T, Fooks A. Control and prevention of canine rabies: the need for building laboratory-based surveillance capacity. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:357-64 pubmed publisher
    Dogs are the source of more than 99% of human rabies virus infections in endemic regions. Without postexposure prophylaxis, almost all cases are fatal, making rabies the most lethal infectious disease...
  29. Vigilato M, Clavijo A, Knobl T, Silva H, Cosivi O, Schneider M, et al. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120143 pubmed publisher
    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015...
  30. Vora N, Basavaraju S, Feldman K, Paddock C, Orciari L, Gitterman S, et al. Raccoon rabies virus variant transmission through solid organ transplantation. JAMA. 2013;310:398-407 pubmed publisher
    The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through tissue or organ transplantation...
  31. Guo D, Zhou H, Zou Y, Yin W, Yu H, Si Y, et al. Geographical analysis of the distribution and spread of human rabies in china from 2005 to 2011. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72352 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a significant public health problem in China in that it records the second highest case incidence globally...
  32. Nishizono A, Yamada K, Khawplod P, Shiota S, Perera D, Matsumoto T, et al. Evaluation of an improved rapid neutralizing antibody detection test (RAPINA) for qualitative and semiquantitative detection of rabies neutralizing antibody in humans and dogs. Vaccine. 2012;30:3891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..developed a method called RAPINA (Rapid Neutralizing Antibody detection test) that can measure the level of rabies virus -neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum samples [Shiota S, Mannen K, Matsumoto T, Yamada K, Yasui T, Takayama ..
  33. Horton D, Ismail M, Siryan E, Wali A, Ab dulla H, Wise E, et al. Rabies in Iraq: trends in human cases 2001-2010 and characterisation of animal rabies strains from Baghdad. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2075 pubmed publisher
    Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance...
  34. Liang H, Liu Q, Zheng X, Gai W, Xue X, Hu G, et al. Aptamers targeting rabies virus-infected cells inhibit viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Virus Res. 2013;173:398-403 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is an acute fatal encephalitis disease that affects many warm-blooded mammals. The causative agent of the disease is Rabies virus (RABV). Currently, no approved therapy is available once the clinical signs have appeared...
  35. Feiden W. [Neuritis cordis and myocarditis in rabies]. Pathologe. 2013;34:165-9 pubmed publisher
    Once the rabies virus has spread through the central nervous system (CNS), the virus is also transported centrifugally along axons, especially of the autonomic nervous system, to a wide range of organs including the heart...
  36. Li J, Ertel A, Portocarrero C, Barkhouse D, Dietzschold B, Hooper D, et al. Postexposure treatment with the live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine TriGAS triggers the clearance of wild-type RV from the Central Nervous System (CNS) through the rapid induction of genes relevant to adaptive immunity in CNS tissues. J Virol. 2012;86:3200-10 pubmed publisher
    Postexposure treatment (PET) of wild-type rabies virus (RV)-infected mice with a live-attenuated triple-glycoprotein RV variant (TriGAS) promotes survival but does not prevent the pathogenic RV from invading and replicating in the brain...
  37. Queiroz L, Favoretto S, Cunha E, Campos A, Lopes M, de Carvalho C, et al. Rabies in southeast Brazil: a change in the epidemiological pattern. Arch Virol. 2012;157:93-105 pubmed publisher
    This epidemiological study was conducted using antigenic and genetic characterisation of rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in the southeast of Brazil from 1993 to 2007...
  38. Yamada K, Park C, Noguchi K, Kojima D, Kubo T, Komiya N, et al. Serial passage of a street rabies virus in mouse neuroblastoma cells resulted in attenuation: potential role of the additional N-glycosylation of a viral glycoprotein in the reduced pathogenicity of street rabies virus. Virus Res. 2012;165:34-45 pubmed publisher
    Street rabies viruses are field isolates known to be highly neurotropic. However, the viral elements related to their pathogenicity have yet to be identified at the nucleotide or amino acid level...
  39. Frey J, Mindekem R, Kessely H, Doumagoum Moto D, Naissengar S, Zinsstag J, et al. Survey of animal bite injuries and their management for an estimate of human rabies deaths in N'Djaména, Chad. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18:1555-62 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the annual human rabies incidence as a baseline prior to mass dog vaccination campaigns in N'Djaména, Chad.
  40. Morikawa V, Ribeiro J, Biondo A, Fellini A, Bier D, Molento M. Cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:255-6 pubmed
    After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil.
  41. Virojanapirom P, Khawplod P, Sawangvaree A, Wacharapluesadee S, Hemachudha T, Yamada K, et al. Molecular analysis of the mutational effects of Thai street rabies virus with increased virulence in mice after passages in the BHK cell line. Arch Virol. 2012;157:2201-5 pubmed publisher
    QS-BHK-P7, street rabies virus, after passages in the BHK cell line, had an in vitro phenotype that distinguished it from its parental virus...
  42. Picard Meyer E, Robardet E, Moroz D, Trotsenko Z, Drozhzhe Z, Biarnais M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in Ukraine. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the circulation of rabies virus in Ukraine, 78 rabies virus isolates were acquired from 14 states in 2002 and 2008-2010 for characterization...
  43. Zhang J, Wu X, Zan J, Wu Y, Ye C, Ruan X, et al. Cellular chaperonin CCT? contributes to rabies virus replication during infection. J Virol. 2013;87:7608-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies, as the oldest known infectious disease, remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin TRiC/CCT complex facilitates the folding of proteins through ATP hydrolysis...
  44. Hergert M, Nel L. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2059 pubmed publisher
    ..records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa...
  45. Boruah B, Liu D, Ye D, Gu T, Jiang C, Qu M, et al. Single domain antibody multimers confer protection against rabies infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71383 pubmed publisher
    Post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) neutralizing antibodies against Rabies are the most effective way to prevent infection-related fatality...
  46. Wang L, Wu H, Tao X, Li H, Rayner S, Liang G, et al. Genetic and evolutionary characterization of RABVs from China using the phosphoprotein gene. Virol J. 2013;10:14 pubmed publisher
    While the function of the phosphoprotein (P) gene of the rabies virus (RABV) has been well studied in laboratory adapted RABVs, the genetic diversity and evolution characteristics of the P gene of street RABVs remain unclear...
  47. Dimitrov D, Hallam T. Effects of immune system diversity and physical variation of immunotypic mixing on the dynamics of rabies in bats. J Biol Dyn. 2009;3:164-79 pubmed publisher
    The ecology and life history of rabies viruses in bats suggest a need for an integrated modelling treatment that extends beyond traditional epidemiological approaches...
  48. Susilawathi N, Darwinata A, Dwija I, Budayanti N, Wirasandhi G, Subrata K, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:81 pubmed publisher
    Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak.
  49. Seetahal J, Velasco Villa A, Allicock O, Adesiyun A, Bissessar J, Amour K, et al. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of rabies viruses associated with outbreaks in Trinidad. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2365 pubmed publisher
    Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population...
  50. Gsell A, Knobel D, Kazwala R, Vounatsou P, Zinsstag J. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:236 pubmed publisher
    Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies...
  51. Okell C, Pinchbeck G, Stringer A, Tefera G, Christley R. A community-based participatory study investigating the epidemiology and effects of rabies to livestock owners in rural Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2013;108:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study was carried out in the Oromia region of Ethiopia to ascertain the principal epidemiological features of rabies and its impact on livestock owners...
  52. Yin C, Zhou H, Wu H, Tao X, Rayner S, Wang S, et al. Analysis on factors related to rabies epidemic in China from 2007-2011. Virol Sin. 2012;27:132-43 pubmed publisher
    To analyze features of the rabies epidemic in China between 2007 and 2011, identify factors influencing the epidemic and to provide a scientific basis for further control and prevention of rabies, Descriptive epidemiological methods and ..
  53. Madhusudana S, Subha S, Thankappan U, Ashwin Y. Evaluation of a direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals and humans. Virol Sin. 2012;27:299-302 pubmed publisher
    Presently the gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFA) which is very expensive and requires a high level of expertise...
  54. Kuzmin I, Shi M, Orciari L, Yager P, Velasco Villa A, Kuzmina N, et al. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002786 pubmed publisher
    In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species...
  55. Muleya W, Namangala B, Mweene A, Zulu L, Fandamu P, Banda D, et al. Molecular epidemiology and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of infection with rabies virus in Zambia. Virus Res. 2012;163:160-8 pubmed publisher
    The National Livestock Epidemiology and Information Center (NALEIC) in Zambia reported over 132 cases of canine rabies diagnosed by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) from 2004 to 2009...
  56. Scott T, Fischer M, Khaiseb S, Freuling C, Höper D, Hoffmann B, et al. Complete genome and molecular epidemiological data infer the maintenance of rabies among kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58739 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies in kudu is unique to Namibia and two major peaks in the epizootic have occurred since it was first noted in 1977...
  57. Bowen R, O Shea T, Shankar V, Neubaum M, Neubaum D, Rupprecht C. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:367-74 pubmed publisher
    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005...
  58. Davis R, Nadin Davis S, Moore M, Hanlon C. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of skunk-associated rabies viruses in North America with special emphasis on the central plains. Virus Res. 2013;174:27-36 pubmed publisher
    Across North America the skunk acts as a reservoir for several rabies virus variants...
  59. Thomas D, Delgado A, Louison B, Lefrancois T, Shaw J. Examining dog owners' beliefs regarding rabies vaccination during government-funded vaccine clinics in Grenada to improve vaccine coverage rates. Prev Vet Med. 2013;110:563-9 pubmed publisher
    Vaccination of domestic pets is an important component of rabies control and prevention in countries where the disease is maintained in a wildlife reservoir...
  60. Gautret P, Parola P. Rabies pretravel vaccination. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:500-6 pubmed publisher
    This review sought to describe the recent findings on the epidemiology of rabies exposure and rabies cases in travelers and to discuss possible cost-saving measures that could be used to increase pretravel vaccination coverage in travelers...
  61. Yung V, Favi M, Fernandez J. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2157-62 pubmed publisher
    In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008...
  62. Blanton J, Dyer J, McBrayer J, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2011. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;241:712-22 pubmed publisher
    During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010...
  63. Wu X, Smith T, Rupprecht C. From brain passage to cell adaptation: the road of human rabies vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:1597-608 pubmed publisher
    A major challenge for global rabies prevention and control is the lack of sufficient and affordable high quality vaccines...
  64. Pant G, Lavenir R, Wong F, Certoma A, Larrous F, Bhatta D, et al. Recent emergence and spread of an Arctic-related phylogenetic lineage of rabies virus in Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2560 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in many parts of the developing world, especially in Africa and Asia...
  65. Charlier J, Forbes A, Van Gucht S, Duchateau L, Goddeeris B, Vercruysse J. Serological evidence of Ostertagia ostertagi infection in dairy cows does not impact the efficacy of rabies vaccination during the housing period. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:1055-8 pubmed publisher
    ..nematode infection of cattle in temperate regions, and the magnitude and the kinetics of the antibody response to rabies vaccination was investigated in a commercial dairy herd of 46 cows...
  66. Streicker D, Recuenco S, Valderrama W, Gómez Benavides J, Vargas I, Pacheco V, et al. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:3384-92 pubmed
    Despite extensive culling of common vampire bats in Latin America, lethal human rabies outbreaks transmitted by this species are increasingly recognized, and livestock rabies occurs with striking frequency...
  67. Mills D, Lau C, Weinstein P. Animal bites and rabies exposure in Australian travellers. Med J Aust. 2011;195:673-5 pubmed
    To examine the circumstances of animal exposure in a case series of Australian travellers who required rabies postexposure prophylaxis, and to assess the appropriateness of current guidelines for rabies pre-exposure vaccination.
  68. Hicks D, Fooks A, Johnson N. Developments in rabies vaccines. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;169:199-204 pubmed publisher
    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease...
  69. Zhang J, Jin Z, Sun G, Sun X, Ruan S. Modeling seasonal rabies epidemics in China. Bull Math Biol. 2012;74:1226-51 pubmed publisher
    Human rabies, an infection of the nervous system, is a major public-health problem in China. In the last 60 years (1950-2010) there had been 124,255 reported human rabies cases, an average of 2,037 cases per year...
  70. Yang Y, Zhao P, Zhang T, Wang H, Liang H, Zhao L, et al. Small interfering RNAs targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene. Virus Res. 2012;169:169-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) infection continues to be a global threat to human and animal health, yet no curative therapy has been developed...
  71. Cai L, Tao X, Liu Y, Zhang H, Gao L, Hu S, et al. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of N gene of human derived rabies virus. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:431-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic evolution of rabies N gene.
  72. Favoretto S, de Mattos C, De Mattos C, Campos A, Sacramento D, Durigon E. The emergence of wildlife species as a source of human rabies infection in Brazil. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1552-61 pubmed publisher
    Forty-five human rabies virus isolates from a wide geographical area of Brazil were characterized using an anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibody panel and by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the nucleoprotein gene...
  73. Matsumoto T, Ahmed K, Karunanayake D, Wimalaratne O, Nanayakkara S, Perera D, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;18:160-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country...
  74. Tao X, Tang Q, Rayner S, Guo Z, Li H, Lang S, et al. Molecular phylodynamic analysis indicates lineage displacement occurred in Chinese rabies epidemics between 1949 to 2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2294 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies remains a serious problem in China with three epidemics since 1949 and the country in the midst of the third epidemic. Significantly, the control of each outbreak has been followed by a rapid reemergence of the disease...
  75. Brunker K, Hampson K, Horton D, Biek R. Integrating the landscape epidemiology and genetics of RNA viruses: rabies in domestic dogs as a model. Parasitology. 2012;139:1899-913 pubmed publisher
    ..Using dog rabies as a model we have identified how key questions regarding viral spread and persistence can be addressed using a ..
  76. Zinsstag J, Durr S, Penny M, Mindekem R, Roth F, Menendez Gonzalez S, et al. [Transmission dynamics and cost-effectiveness of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city]. Med Trop (Mars). 2011;71:596-604 pubmed
    Control of human rabies in developing countries depends on prevention in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-saving potential for the public health sector of intervention to control rabies in animal-host reservoirs...
  77. Schutsky K, Curtis D, Bongiorno E, Barkhouse D, Kean R, Dietzschold B, et al. Intramuscular inoculation of mice with the live-attenuated recombinant rabies virus TriGAS results in a transient infection of the draining lymph nodes and a robust, long-lasting protective immune response against rabies. J Virol. 2013;87:1834-41 pubmed publisher
    A single intramuscular application of the live but not UV-inactivated recombinant rabies virus (RABV) variant TriGAS in mice induces the robust and sustained production of RABV-neutralizing antibodies that correlate with long-term ..
  78. Zhu W, Liang G. Current status of canine rabies in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012;25:602-5 pubmed publisher
    The number of human rabies cases acquired from dog bites constitutes a high proportion of the total rabies cases in China, although the number of human rabies cases has gradually decreased in recent years...
  79. Mainguy J, Rees E, Canac Marquis P, Bélanger D, Fehlner Gardiner C, Séguin G, et al. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:979-90 pubmed publisher
    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV)...
  80. Nadin Davis S, Sheen M, Wandeler A. Recent emergence of the Arctic rabies virus lineage. Virus Res. 2012;163:352-62 pubmed publisher
    The rabies viruses that circulate in Arctic countries and in much of northern and central Asia are phylogenetically closely related and collectively referred to as the Arctic/Arctic-like (AL) lineage...
  81. Kasempimolporn S, Saengseesom W, Huadsakul S, Boonchang S, Sitprija V. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of Rabies virus in dog saliva samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:1197-201 pubmed publisher
    An immunochromatographic test strip for Rabies virus was evaluated with dog saliva samples. The test was initially validated against 237 dogs of known infection status, and then evaluated in the field with 1,290 live dogs...
  82. Matsumoto T, Ahmed K, Wimalaratne O, Nanayakkara S, Perera D, Karunanayake D, et al. Novel sylvatic rabies virus variant in endangered golden palm civet, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2346-9 pubmed publisher
    Information is scarce about sylvatic rabies virus in Asia and about rabies in palm civets. We report a novel sylvatic rabies virus variant detected in a golden palm civet in Sri Lanka...
  83. Olugasa B, Aiyedun J, Emikpe B. Prevalence of antibody against rabies among confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in a transit city of Nigeria. Vet Ital. 2011;47:453-60 pubmed
    The prevalence of anti-glycoprotein antibodies against rabies virus is studied in the sera of confined, free-roaming and stray dogs in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State, Nigeria...
  84. Jamil K, Ahmed K, Hossain M, Matsumoto T, Ali M, Hossain S, et al. Arctic-like rabies virus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:2021-4 pubmed publisher
    Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ?32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group...