ephemeral fever

Summary

Summary: An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE). It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.

Top Publications

  1. Yeruham I, van Ham M, Bar D, Yadin H, Tiomkin D. Economic aspects of the 1999 outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever in dairy cattle herds in the Jordan Valley in Israel. Vet Rec. 2003;153:180-2 pubmed
  2. Finlaison D, Read A, Kirkland P. An epizootic of bovine ephemeral fever in New South Wales in 2008 associated with long-distance dispersal of vectors. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:301-6 pubmed publisher
    To report the rapid transmission of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus from north-western New South Wales south to the Victorian border in January 2008 and to present data that suggests an uncommon meteorological event caused this rapid ..
  3. Yeruham I, Braverman Y, Yadin H, van Ham M, Chai D, Tiomkin D, et al. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever in Israel. Vet Rec. 2002;151:117-21 pubmed
    In two epidemics of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in Israel, one in 1990 and one in 1999, the virus was probably carried by vectors transported by air currents across the Rift Valley and through the Red Sea trough...
  4. Cybinski D, Walker P, Byrne K, Zakrzewski H. Mapping of antigenic sites on the bovine ephemeral fever virus glycoprotein using monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 9):2065-72 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the G, M2 and N proteins of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) and 29 were selected for further study...
  5. Trinidad L, Blasdell K, Joubert D, Davis S, Melville L, Kirkland P, et al. Evolution of bovine ephemeral fever virus in the Australian episystem. J Virol. 2014;88:1525-35 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes a debilitating disease of cattle in Africa, Asia, and Australia; however, its global geodynamics are poorly understood...
  6. Walker P, Wang Y, Cowley J, McWilliam S, Prehaud C. Structural and antigenic analysis of the nucleoprotein of bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus. J Gen Virol. 1994;75 ( Pt 8):1889-99 pubmed publisher
    The nucleotide sequence of the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) genome has been determined from the 3' terminus to the end of the nucleoprotein (N) gene...
  7. Daniels P, Sendow I, Soleha E, Sukarsih -, Hunt N, Bahri S. Australian-Indonesian collaboration in veterinary arbovirology--a review. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:151-74 pubmed
    ..The first recognized arboviral disease of animals in Indonesia was bovine ephemeral fever. Serology indicates that the virus is widespread, as are related rhabdoviruses...
  8. Zheng F, Lin G, Qiu C, Zhou J, Cao X, Gong X. Serological detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus using an indirect ELISA based on antigenic site G1 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Vet J. 2010;185:211-5 pubmed publisher
    An indirect ELISA for the serological detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) infection in cattle is described in which a glycosylated protein of approximately 25 kDa (including the G1 antigenic site of the virus glycoprotein) ..
  9. Young P, Spradbrow P. Clinical response of cattle to experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus. Vet Rec. 1990;126:86-8 pubmed
    As part of a study of the pathology and pathogenesis of bovine ephemeral fever virus infection 44 cattle were infected by the intravenous injection of virulent virus...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Bai W, Jiang C, Davis S. Preliminary observations on the epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever in China. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1991;23:22-6 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a viral disease of cattle and water buffalo recognised for the first time in China in 1955...
  2. Walker P, Byrne K, Cybinski D, Doolan D, Wang Y. Proteins of bovine ephemeral fever virus. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 1):67-74 pubmed
    The proteins of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) were examined in purified virions and in infected BHK-21 cells. Five structural proteins were named L (180K), G (81K), N (52K), M1 (43K) and M2 (29K)...
  3. Uren M, St George T, Murphy G. Studies on the pathogenesis of bovine ephemeral fever in experimental cattle. III. Virological and biochemical data. Vet Microbiol. 1992;30:297-307 pubmed
    In an attempt to define the nature of the response of cattle to ephemeral fever infection, a number of indicators of inflammation were monitored during clinical disease...
  4. Zheng F, Lin G, Zhou J, Wang G, Cao X, Gong X, et al. A reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus in the blood of infected cattle. J Virol Methods. 2011;171:306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) was developed and evaluated in this study...
  5. Anderson E, Rowe L. The prevalence of antibody to the viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, rift valley fever, ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to Leptospira sp in free-ranging wildlife in Zimbabwe. Epidemiol Infect. 1998;121:441-9 pubmed
    ..viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), bovine herpes virus typel (BHV1), rift valley fever (RVF), bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and bluetongue (BT) and to Leptospira sp. was determined in wildlife populations in Zimbabwe...
  6. Farag M, al Sukayran A, Mazloum K, al Bukomy A. Epizootics of bovine ephemeral fever on dairy farms in Saudi Arabia. Rev Sci Tech. 1998;17:713-22 pubmed
    In 1990 and 1996, field veterinarians suspected the clinical occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever among dairy and conventional cattle in different regions of Saudi Arabia...
  7. Stram Y, Kuznetzova L, Levin A, Yadin H, Rubinstein Giuni M. A real-time RT-quantative(q)PCR for the detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2005;130:1-6 pubmed
    ..By using this system it was shown that as few as 10-100 copies of a viral genome could be detected...
  8. Yeruham I, Gur Y, Braverman Y. Retrospective epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever in 1991 affecting dairy cattle herds on the Mediterranean coastal plain. Vet J. 2007;173:190-3 pubmed
    From August to October 1991 bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) occurred sporadically in two localities in Israel. The morbidity and mortality rates reached 2.6% and 0.1%, respectively...
  9. Liao Y, Inaba Y, Li N, Chain C, Lee S, Liou P. Epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever virus infection in Taiwan. Microbiol Res. 1998;153:289-95 pubmed
    ..We have tried to advise farmers that they must vaccinate their cattle annually to prevent BEF outbreak in the future...
  10. Abu Elzein E, Gameel A, al Afaleq A, al Gundi O, al Bashier A, Zeedan A, et al. Observations on the recent epizootic of bovine ephemeral fever in Saudi Arabia. Rev Sci Tech. 1999;18:672-80 pubmed
    Observations of the epizootic of bovine ephemeral fever which occurred in Saudi Arabia during 1996 are presented...
  11. Joubert D, Blasdell K, Audsley M, Trinidad L, Monaghan P, Dave K, et al. Bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus ?1 protein has viroporin-like properties and binds importin ?1 and importin 7. J Virol. 2014;88:1591-603 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that is classified as the type species of the genus Ephemerovirus...
  12. Bai W, Tian F, Wang C, Jiang C, Zhang Z. Preliminary studies of the complement fixation test to confirm the diagnosis of bovine ephemeral fever. Aust J Biol Sci. 1987;40:137-41 pubmed
    A strain of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus isolated in China in 1976 was adapted to growth in tissue cultures...
  13. Kato T, Aizawa M, Takayoshi K, Kokuba T, Yanase T, Shirafuji H, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of the G gene sequence of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated in Japan, Taiwan and Australia. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:217-23 pubmed publisher
    The G gene encoding the neutralization antigen of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) was characterized in order to define the virus's molecular epidemiology in Japan and the genetic relationships among the Japanese, Taiwanese and ..
  14. Kirkland P. Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2002;18:501-14, viii-ix pubmed
    Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever viruses are exotic to the American continent. Both viruses are spread by insect vectors, and each causes disease of varying severity in food-producing animals...
  15. Yeruham I, Sharir B, Yadin H, Tiomkin D, Chai D. Bovine ephemeral fever in beef cattle herds in the Jordan Valley, Israel. Vet Rec. 2003;152:86-8 pubmed
  16. Yeruham I, Yadin H, Abramovitch I, Shama Z. Bovine ephemeral fever in a dairy cattle herd in the Jordan Valley. Vet Rec. 2005;156:284-6 pubmed
  17. Wang F, Hsu A, Huang K. Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:462-7 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a vector-borne disease of cattle, spanning tropical and subtropical zones of Asia, Australia, and Africa, caused by Ephemerovirus of the Rhabdoviridae...
  18. Nandi S, Negi B. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;22:81-91 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species...
  19. Walker P. Bovine ephemeral fever in Australia and the world. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;292:57-80 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a disabling viral disease of cattle and water buffaloes...
  20. Hertig C, Pye A, Hyatt A, Davis S, McWilliam S, Heine H, et al. Vaccinia virus-expressed bovine ephemeral fever virus G but not G(NS) glycoprotein induces neutralizing antibodies and protects against experimental infection. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 4):631-40 pubmed
    Two related glycoproteins (G and G(NS)) encoded in the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) genome were expressed from recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV)...
  21. Lim S, Kweon C, Tark D, Kim S, Yang D. Sero-survey on Aino, Akabane, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Japanese encephalitis virus of cattle and swine in Korea. J Vet Sci. 2007;8:45-9 pubmed
    Vector-borne arboviruses produce mild to severe symptoms in domestic animals. Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), Akabane, Aino, and Chuzan virus have been primarily attributed to reproductive disorders or febrile diseases in cattle, and ..
  22. Uren M, St George T, Kirkland P, Stranger R, Murray M. Epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever in Australia 1981-1985. Aust J Biol Sci. 1987;40:125-36 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever is an important viral disease of cattle in Australia. The disease occurred each year, principally in summer and autumn, between 1981 and 1985...
  23. Uren M, St George T, Zakrzewski H. The effect of anti-inflammatory agents on the clinical expression of bovine ephemeral fever. Vet Microbiol. 1989;19:99-111 pubmed
    ..drugs on the development and persistence of clinical signs in cattle experimentally infected with bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus was investigated by their administration, either before or after the commencement of fever...
  24. Aziz Boaron O, Klausner Z, Hasoksuz M, Shenkar J, Gafni O, Gelman B, et al. Circulation of bovine ephemeral fever in the Middle East--strong evidence for transmission by winds and animal transport. Vet Microbiol. 2012;158:300-7 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an economically important arbovirus of cattle. The main routes of its transmission between countries and continents are not completely elucidated...
  25. Vanselow B, Walthall J, Abetz I. Field trials of ephemeral fever vaccines. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:117-30 pubmed
    Various bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) vaccines were tested between 1982 and 1984 in 24 Queensland herds; neutralising antibody responses were monitored and six of the herds were closely observed following natural challenge with ephemeral ..
  26. Zheng F, Qiu C. Phylogenetic relationships of the glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated from mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, Turkey, Israel and Australia. Virol J. 2012;9:268 pubmed publisher
    The glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) strains derived from mainland China have not been compared with those of the isolates from other countries or areas...
  27. Uren M, Walker P, Zakrzewski H, St George T, Byrne K. Effective vaccination of cattle using the virion G protein of bovine ephemeral fever virus as an antigen. Vaccine. 1994;12:845-50 pubmed
    In a series of experiments, the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) induced immunity against challenge with virulent virus...
  28. Uren M. Bovine ephemeral fever. Aust Vet J. 1989;66:233-6 pubmed
    b>Ephemeral fever remains a viral disease of considerable importance to many countries including Australia. The virus has been only partly characterised and still awaits final classification...
  29. Davies F, Ochieng P, Walker A. The occurrence of ephemeral fever in Kenya, 1968-1988. Vet Microbiol. 1990;22:129-36 pubmed
    b>Ephemeral fever occurs in Kenya in epidemics which have been associated with periods of unusually heavy and prolonged rainfall. The epidemics persist for 2-3 years and involve most of the country...
  30. Zakrzewski H, Cybinski D, Walker P. A blocking ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies to bovine ephemeral fever virus. J Immunol Methods. 1992;151:289-97 pubmed
    A blocking ELISA (B/ELISA) for detecting antibodies to bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) in cattle is described...
  31. Hsieh Y, Chen S, Chou C, Ting L, Itakura C, Wang F. Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan (2001-2002). J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:411-6 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), a vector-borne disease of cattle, is caused by the Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. In the past 40 years, Taiwan has had seven BEF epizootics, and we have previously reported the first five...
  32. Blasdell K, Adams M, Davis S, WALSH S, Aziz Boaron O, Klement E, et al. A reverse-transcription PCR method for detecting all known ephemeroviruses in clinical samples. J Virol Methods. 2013;191:128-35 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an economically important vector-borne pathogen of cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Australia, Asia, Africa and the Middle East...
  33. Ting L, Lee M, Lin Y, Cheng M, Lee F. Invasion of exotic bovine ephemeral fever virus into Taiwan in 2013-2014. Vet Microbiol. 2016;182:15-7 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus is a member of the family Rhabdoviridae and bovine ephemeral fever has frequently affected cattle population in Taiwan since 1967...
  34. Hayama Y, Moriguchi S, Yanase T, Suzuki M, Niwa T, Ikemiyagi K, et al. Epidemiological analysis of bovine ephemeral fever in 2012-2013 in the subtropical islands of Japan. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:47 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a febrile disease of cattle that is transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges...
  35. Abu Elzein E, al Afaleq A, Housawi F, Al Basheir A. A study on bovine ephemeral fever involving sentinel herds and serosurveillance in Saudi Arabia. Rev Sci Tech. 2006;25:1147-51 pubmed
    A nationwide study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to determine if bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) was present in cattle between 1993 and 1995...
  36. Barigye R, Davis S, Hunt R, Hunt N, Walsh S, Elliott N, et al. Viral neurotropism, peripheral neuropathy and other morphological abnormalities in bovine ephemeral fever virus-infected downer cattle. Aust Vet J. 2016;94:362-70 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the neurotropism of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) and described histomorphological abnormalities of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that may causally contribute to paresis or paralysis in BEF...
  37. Erster O, Stram R, Menasherow S, Rubistein Giuni M, Sharir B, Kchinich E, et al. High-resolution melting (HRM) for genotyping bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV). Virus Res. 2017;229:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The new algorithm may therefore be useful for development of improved genotyping studies for other viruses and possibly other microorganisms. ..
  38. He C, Liu Y, Wang H, Hou P, He H, Ding N. New genetic mechanism, origin and population dynamic of bovine ephemeral fever virus. Vet Microbiol. 2016;182:50-6 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is a typical species of the genusEphemerovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. Today, prevailing BEFV can be divided into three phylogeographic lineages, East Asia, Mideast, and Australia...
  39. Kato T, Yanase T, Suzuki M, Katagiri Y, Ikemiyagi K, Takayoshi K, et al. Monitoring for bovine arboviruses in the most southwestern islands in Japan between 1994 and 2014. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:125 pubmed publisher
    ..Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses have repeatedly caused epizootic abnormal births and febrile illness in the cattle ..
  40. Chung Y, Shen H, Cheng L, Liu S, Chu C. Effectiveness of a BHV-1/BEFV bivalent vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection in cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2016;109:161-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes acute febrile respiratory disease, with pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary edema as the ..
  41. Davies F, Kilelu E, Linthicum K, Pegram R. Patterns of Rift Valley fever activity in Zambia. Epidemiol Infect. 1992;108:185-91 pubmed
  42. Abayli H, Tonbak S, Azkur A, Bulut H. Complete genome analysis of highly pathogenic bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated in Turkey in 2012. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3233-3238 pubmed publisher
    Relatively high prevalence and mortality rates of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) have been reported in recent epidemics in some countries, including Turkey, when compared with previous outbreaks...
  43. Gao S, Du J, Tian Z, Niu Q, Zheng F, Huang D, et al. Complete genome sequence of a bovine ephemeral fever virus JT02L strain in mainland China. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3555-3558 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) JT02L, which has been used in our laboratory, in mainland China, for more than a decade...
  44. Barigye R, Melville L, Davis S, Walsh S, Hunt N, Hunt R. Kinetics of selected plasma cytokines during innate-adaptive immune response transition in adult cattle infected with the bovine ephemeral fever virus. Vet Microbiol. 2016;186:111-6 pubmed publisher
    While virus neutralizing antibodies are known to be variably protective against bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) infections, the cytokine events that mediate the nascent adaptive immune response have not been defined in cattle...
  45. Johal J, Gresty K, Kongsuwan K, Walker P. Antigenic characterization of bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus G and GNS glycoproteins expressed from recombinant baculoviruses. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1657-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly protective characteristics of the native BEFV G protein suggest that the secreted, baculovirus-expressed product may be a useful vaccine antigen...
  46. Eto N, Yamada K, Koga A, Shirahata S, Murakami H. Establishment and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against bovine ephemeral fever virus. Agric Biol Chem. 1991;55:167-72 pubmed
    We established fourteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to bovine ephemeral fever virus YHL strain, and characterized six representatives including three IgG1s (YG3/4, YG5/8, and YG6/7) and three IgMs (YM4/9, YM2/6, and YM6/8)...
  47. Tarrats R, Ordonez G, Rios C, Sotelo J. Varicella, ephemeral breastfeeding and eczema as risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Mexicans. Acta Neurol Scand. 2002;105:88-94 pubmed
    ..We made a thorough search of antecedents on MS patients that could be potential risk factors...
  48. Young P, Spradbrow P. Demonstration of vascular permeability changes in cattle infected with bovine ephemeral fever virus. J Comp Pathol. 1990;102:55-62 pubmed
    Five cattle infected with bovine ephemeral fever virus were necropsied on the day after onset of clinical disease, when clinical signs of lameness were most severe...
  49. Fenwick D, Daniel R. Evaluation of the effect of ketoprofen on experimentally induced ephemeral fever in dairy heifers. Aust Vet J. 1996;74:37-41 pubmed
    To evaluate ketoprofen for the therapy of ephemeral fever.
  50. Ogawa T, Ishibashi K, Imamura K, Kurashige S, Inoue T. Epidemiologic analysis of spatial clustering of bovine ephemeral fever outbreaks. II. Principal component analysis. J Vet Med Sci. 1994;56:223-6 pubmed
    ..analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze a correlation matrix of three variables on epidemic data of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) outbreaks. These original data were summarized from the official outbreak report of Fukuoka Prefecture...
  51. Ogawa T, Ishibashi K, Imamura K, Kurashige S, Hatakeyama H. Epidemiologic analyses of spatial clustering of bovine ephemeral fever outbreaks. I. Application of the negative binomial distribution. J Vet Med Sci. 1993;55:177-9 pubmed
    ..The incidence per farm of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) outbreaks in the 22 areas of Fukuoka Prefecture in 1988 was well explained by the negative binomial ..
  52. Theodoridis A, Nevill E, Els H, Boshoff S. Viruses isolated from Culicoides midges in South Africa during unsuccessful attempts to isolate bovine ephemeral fever virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1979;46:191-8 pubmed
    Five viruses, unrelated to bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), were isolated from Culicoides biting-midges collected during the summer months of the years 1968-69 and 1969-70 near a cattle herd in which cases of BEF occurred and at an ..
  53. Ji W, Wang Y, Lin F, Liao M, Shih W, Liu H. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mTOR but not Akt enhance replication of bovine ephemeral fever virus. Vet J. 2011;187:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) increases Akt phosphorylation...
  54. Hirashima Y, Nojiri M, Ohtsuka Y, Kato T, Shirafuji H, Kurazono M, et al. Resurgence of bovine ephemeral fever in mainland Japan in 2015 after a 23-year absence. J Vet Med Sci. 2017;79:904-911 pubmed publisher
    In September and October 2015, suspected cases of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) were reported in the mainland region of Kagoshima Prefecture and on Tanegashima Island...
  55. Nagano H, Hayashi K, Kubo M, Miura Y. An outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever in Nagasaki Prefecture in 1988. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi. 1990;52:307-14 pubmed
    In October, 1988, bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) occurred in Nagasaki Prefecture and throughout Kyushu island, with the exception Miyazaki Prefecture. The first outbreak occurred in Hirado-shi on October 17...
  56. Odiawo G. The relationship between selenium deficiency and the development of pulmonary and subcutaneous emphysema in bovine ephemeral fever virus-infected cattle. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1989;56:123-5 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) was diagnosed on several commercial farms around Harare, Zimbabwe. The affected animals showed signs of fever (40-41.5 degrees C), depression, ruminal stasis, lameness and recumbency...
  57. Shirakawa H, Ishibashi K, Ogawa T. A comparison of the epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever in South Korea and south-western Japan. Aust Vet J. 1994;71:50-2 pubmed
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) outbreaks were investigated in South Korea and Japan from 1953 to 1991, retrospectively. The epidemics occurred contemporaneously several times; particularly, those of 1988 and 1991...
  58. Dirie M, Abdurahman O. Observations on little known diseases of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Horn of Africa. Rev Sci Tech. 2003;22:1043-9 pubmed
    ..The authors also provide examples of ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices that could be useful for the development of animal health and production in Africa...
  59. Zheng F, Lin G, Qiu C. [Expression, purification and antigenic characterization of the Epitope-G1 gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus in Escherichia coli]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007;47:498-502 pubmed
    The epitope-G1 gene, cloned from the pMD-G plasmid including G protein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), was subcloned into expression vector pGEX-4T-1 to construct pGEX-G1 recombinant plasmid successfully...
  60. Zheng F, Chen Q, Li Z, Gong X, Wang J, Yin H. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2016;104:146-51 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China...
  61. St George T, Murphy G, Burren B, Uren M. Studies on the pathogenesis of bovine ephemeral fever. IV: A comparison with the inflammatory events in milk fever of cattle. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:131-42 pubmed
    The study of ephemeral fever in cattle has defined a range of haematological and biochemical changes in blood which are characteristic of an inflammatory response...
  62. Zaghawa A, Housawi F, Al Naeem A, Al Nakhly H, Kamr A, TORIBIO R. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016;48:487-92 pubmed publisher
    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo...
  63. Barigye R, Melville L, Davis S, Walsh S, Hunt N, Hunt R, et al. Kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10, and virus neutralising antibodies during acute ephemeral fever virus infections in Brahman cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015;168:159-63 pubmed publisher
    While fever and inflammation are hallmark features of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), the cytokine networks that underlie the acute phase of the disease have not been empirically defined in cattle...
  64. Tonbak S, Berber E, Yoruk M, Azkur A, Pestil Z, Bulut H. A large-scale outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever in Turkey, 2012. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1511-4 pubmed
    Regional cases of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) were documented previously in Turkey. Previous cases were confirmed in South-East Turkey with low cow mortality...