respiratory syncytial virus infections


Summary: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.

Top Publications

  1. Stockman L, Curns A, Anderson L, Fischer Langley G. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among infants and young children in the United States, 1997-2006. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV hospitalization rates remained steady during 1997 to 2006 and were a substantial burden in the United States, especially among infants and young children. A safe and effective RSV vaccine is needed. ..
  2. Zachariah P, Ruttenber M, Simoes E. Down syndrome and hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 2012;160:827-31.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the risk estimates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in children with Down syndrome (DS) and the clinical features and severity of RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in hospitalized children...
  3. Blanken M, Rovers M, Molenaar J, Winkler Seinstra P, Meijer A, Kimpen J, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The monoclonal antibody palivizumab has shown efficacy in preventing severe RSV infection in high-risk infants...
  4. Lee N, Lui G, Wong K, Li T, Tse E, Chan J, et al. High morbidity and mortality in adults hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding of complications and outcomes of adults hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is necessary...
  5. Anderson L, Dormitzer P, Nokes D, Rappuoli R, Roca A, Graham B. Strategic priorities for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 2:B209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Addressing these challenges and needs should improve the efficiency and speed of achieving a safe and effective, licensed RSV vaccine. ..
  6. Loebbermann J, Durant L, Thornton H, Johansson C, Openshaw P. Defective immunoregulation in RSV vaccine-augmented viral lung disease restored by selective chemoattraction of regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism of vaccine-induced disease augmentation and indicate that selective chemoattraction of Tregs into diseased sites may offer a novel approach to the modulation of tissue-specific inflammation...
  7. Fischer Langley G, McCracken J, Arvelo W, Estevez A, Villarruel G, Prill M, et al. The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of young children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus infections in Guatemala (2007-2010). Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We report population-based incidence rates and describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children <5 years old hospitalized with RSV infections in Guatemala...
  8. Openshaw P, Chiu C. Protective and dysregulated T cell immunity in RSV infection. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:468-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further insights into the role of T cells (including Th17) are needed to enable the rational design of safe, effective vaccines and novel treatments. ..
  9. Bystrom J, Al Adhoubi N, Al Bogami M, Jawad A, Mageed R. Th17 lymphocytes in respiratory syncytial virus infection. Viruses. 2013;5:777-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors that determine the shift in the balance between beneficial and adverse Th17 mediated effects during RSV infection remains to be determined...

More Information


  1. Tregoning J, Wang B, McDonald J, Yamaguchi Y, Harker J, Goritzka M, et al. Neonatal antibody responses are attenuated by interferon-? produced by NK and T cells during RSV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5576-81 pubmed publisher
  2. Borchers A, Chang C, Gershwin M, Gershwin L. Respiratory syncytial virus--a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45:331-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly, more research is required to define the relationships between RSV bronchiolitis, other viral induced inflammatory responses, and asthma. ..
  3. Hall C, Weinberg G, Blumkin A, Edwards K, Staat M, Schultz A, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 24 months of age. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, estimates of the RSV hospitalization burden have varied, and precision has been limited by the use of age strata grouped in blocks of 6 to ? 12 months...
  4. Rowlinson E, Dueger E, Taylor T, Mansour A, Van Beneden C, Abukela M, et al. Incidence and clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus infections in a population-based surveillance site in the Nile Delta Region. J Infect Dis. 2013;208 Suppl 3:S189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the proportion of RSV infections from population-based surveillance with data from a healthcare utilization survey to produce estimates of RSV incidence in Damanhour district, Egypt...
  5. Ohno A, Suzuki A, Lupisan S, Galang H, Sombrero L, Aniceto R, et al. Genetic characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus detected in hospitalized children in the Philippines from 2008 to 2012. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. However, molecular characteristic of HRSV is still unknown in the Philippines...
  6. Resch B, Michel Behnke I. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and children with congenital heart disease: update on the evidence of prevention with palivizumab. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2013;28:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..For respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most important pathogens, immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab has successfully been introduced. The question is which patients will benefit most from this costly preventive treatment...
  7. Klem T, Gulliksen S, Lie K, Løken T, Østerås O, Stokstad M. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: infection dynamics within and between herds. Vet Rec. 2013;173:476 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that an effective strategy to lower the prevalence and the impact of BRSV could be to employ close surveillance and place a high biosecurity focus on the negative herds. ..
  8. Shah D, Ghantoji S, Shah J, El Taoum K, Jiang Y, Popat U, et al. Impact of aerosolized ribavirin on mortality in 280 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with respiratory syncytial virus infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1872-80 pubmed publisher
  9. Saa L, Perea A, Jara D, Arenas A, García Bocanegra I, Borge C, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:1423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies. ..
  10. Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Ren L, Xiao Y, Chen L, Zhang J, et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus in Chinese adults with acute respiratory tract infection. J Med Virol. 2013;85:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to provide data on the prevalence and clinical manifestations of RSV subgroups among Chinese adults with fever and acute illness, over five successive epidemic seasons. ..
  11. Jones B, Sealy R, Rudraraju R, Traina Dorge V, Finneyfrock B, Cook A, et al. Sendai virus-based RSV vaccine protects African green monkeys from RSV infection. Vaccine. 2012;30:959-68 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no clinically relevant adverse events associated with vaccination either before or after challenge. These data encourage advanced testing of the SeVRSV vaccine candidate in clinical trials for protection against RSV. ..
  12. Ohuma E, Okiro E, Ochola R, Sande C, Cane P, Medley G, et al. The natural history of respiratory syncytial virus in a birth cohort: the influence of age and previous infection on reinfection and disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..A birth cohort of 635 children in Kilifi, Kenya, was monitored for respiratory syncytial virus infections from January 31, 2002, to April 22, 2005...
  13. Villenave R, O Donoghue D, Thavagnanam S, Touzelet O, Skibinski G, Heaney L, et al. Differential cytopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus prototypic and clinical isolates in primary pediatric bronchial epithelial cells. Virol J. 2011;8:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the choice of RSV strain may have important implications for future RSV pathogenesis studies. ..
  14. Luongo C, Winter C, Collins P, Buchholz U. Increased genetic and phenotypic stability of a promising live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate by reverse genetics. J Virol. 2012;86:10792-804 pubmed publisher
  15. O CONNELL K, Boo T, Keady D, Niriain U, O Donovan D, Commane M, et al. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Hosp Infect. 2011;77:338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management. ..
  16. Hanley L, McGivern D, Teng M, Djang R, Collins P, Fearns R. Roles of the respiratory syncytial virus trailer region: effects of mutations on genome production and stress granule formation. Virology. 2010;406:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a sequence at the 5' terminal end of the trailer region allows RSV to subvert stress granule formation. ..
  17. Olivier A, Gallup J, Van Geelen A, Ackermann M. Exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor prior to human respiratory syncytial virus a2 infection reduces pulmonary pathology in neonatal lambs and alters epithelial innate immune responses. Exp Lung Res. 2011;37:131-43 pubmed publisher
  18. Shadman K, Wald E. A review of palivizumab and emerging therapies for respiratory syncytial virus. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011;11:1455-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there are potential drugs and vaccines in development to prevent or reduce the effects of RSV infection, palivizumab remains the only licensed product to reduce the severity of disease in high-risk pediatric patients. ..
  19. Luongo C, Winter C, Collins P, Buchholz U. Respiratory syncytial virus modified by deletions of the NS2 gene and amino acid S1313 of the L polymerase protein is a temperature-sensitive, live-attenuated vaccine candidate that is phenotypically stable at physiological temperature. J Virol. 2013;87:1985-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of attenuation and genetic stability identify ?NS2/?1313/1314L as a promising candidate for evaluation in pediatric phase I studies. ..
  20. BUCASAS K, Mian A, Demmler Harrison G, Caviness A, Piedra P, Franco L, et al. Global gene expression profiling in infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus broncholitis demonstrates systemic activation of interferon signaling networks. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:e68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant downregulation of transcripts corresponding to antigen presentation. ..
  21. Boonyasuppayakorn S, Kowitdamrong E, Bhattarakosol P. Molecular and demographic analysis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in patients admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand, 2007. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2010;4:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This preliminary RSV study showed prevalence of subgroups, types of infection, and common genotypes in an epidemic, uncorrelated to demography or clinical severity. ..
  22. Dapat I, Shobugawa Y, Sano Y, Saito R, Sasaki A, Suzuki Y, et al. New genotypes within respiratory syncytial virus group B genotype BA in Niigata, Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These new genotypes were not associated with large outbreaks in the community. ..
  23. Bera M, Lu B, Martin T, Cui S, Rhein L, Gerard C, et al. Th17 cytokines are critical for respiratory syncytial virus-associated airway hyperreponsiveness through regulation by complement C3a and tachykinins. J Immunol. 2011;187:4245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of either receptor affords protection from AHR, identifying two potential therapeutic targets. ..
  24. Manzoni P, Paes B, Resch B, Mejias A, Ramilo O, Carbonell Estrany X, et al. High risk for RSV bronchiolitis in late preterms and selected infants affected by rare disorders: a dilemma of specific prevention. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88 Suppl 2:S34-41 pubmed publisher
  25. Bonavia A, Franti M, Pusateri Keaney E, Kuhen K, Seepersaud M, Radetich B, et al. Identification of broad-spectrum antiviral compounds and assessment of the druggability of their target for efficacy against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6739-44 pubmed publisher
  26. Cautivo K, Bueno S, Cortes C, Wozniak A, Riedel C, Kalergis A. Efficient lung recruitment of respiratory syncytial virus-specific Th1 cells induced by recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin promotes virus clearance and protects from infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:7633-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the notion that an effective induction of Th1 T cell immunity against RSV during childhood could counteract the unbalanced Th2-like immune response triggered by the natural RSV infection. ..
  27. Triantafilou K, Kar S, Vakakis E, Kotecha S, Triantafilou M. Human respiratory syncytial virus viroporin SH: a viral recognition pathway used by the host to signal inflammasome activation. Thorax. 2013;68:66-75 pubmed publisher
  28. Smith G, Raghunandan R, Wu Y, Liu Y, Massare M, Nathan M, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50852 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate. ..
  29. Erickson J, Gilchuk P, Hastings A, Tollefson S, Johnson M, Downing M, et al. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2967-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses...
  30. Zhu Q, McAuliffe J, Patel N, Palmer Hill F, Yang C, Liang B, et al. Analysis of respiratory syncytial virus preclinical and clinical variants resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies palivizumab and/or motavizumab. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistant RSV variants were detected in a small subset (? 5%) of RSV breakthrough cases. The fitness of these variants was impaired, compared to wild-type RSV. ..
  31. Salomão Junior J, Gardinassi L, Simas P, Bittar C, Souza F, Rahal P, et al. Human respiratory syncytial virus in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory infection. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2011;87:219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The circulation of the virus varied in the two years studied. Our results suggest the need for laboratory diagnosis of HRSV in the clinical practice. ..
  32. Radu G, Caidi H, Miao C, Tripp R, Anderson L, Haynes L. Prophylactic treatment with a G glycoprotein monoclonal antibody reduces pulmonary inflammation in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-challenged naive and formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice. J Virol. 2010;84:9632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that antibodies with similar reactivities might prevent enhanced disease and improve the safety of nonlive virus vaccines. ..
  33. Lee D, Harker J, Tregoning J, Atabani S, Johansson C, Schwarze J, et al. CD25+ natural regulatory T cells are critical in limiting innate and adaptive immunity and resolving disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:8790-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights a critical role for natural regulatory T cells in regulating the adaptive and innate immune responses during the later stages of lung viral infections. ..
  34. Loebbermann J, Schnoeller C, Thornton H, Durant L, Sweeney N, Schuijs M, et al. IL-10 regulates viral lung immunopathology during acute respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32371 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar findings were made in mice treated with anti-IL-10R antibody and infected with RSV. Therefore, IL-10 inhibits disease and inflammation in mice infected with RSV, especially during recovery from infection. ..
  35. Moore H, de Klerk N, Keil A, Smith D, Blyth C, Richmond P, et al. Use of data linkage to investigate the aetiology of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalisations in children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012;48:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV continues to be an important pathogen in ALRI. As pathogens were identified across all diagnoses, relying on hospital diagnosis coding alone may not accurately estimate the burden of different categories of ALRI. ..
  36. Papenburg J, Boivin G. The distinguishing features of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:245-60 pubmed publisher
  37. van Bleek G, Osterhaus A, De Swart R. RSV 2010: Recent advances in research on respiratory syncytial virus and other pneumoviruses. Vaccine. 2011;29:7285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report presents highlights of the meeting, covering topics from basic virology, pathogenesis and immunology to clinical studies, therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
  38. Mori M, Kawashima H, Nakamura H, Nakagawa M, Kusuda S, Saji T, et al. Nationwide survey of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children who do not meet indications for palivizumab in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2011;17:254-63 pubmed publisher
  39. Thornburg N, Shepherd B, Crowe J. Transforming growth factor beta is a major regulator of human neonatal immune responses following respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:12895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that TGF-? acts as a major regulator of RSV DC-T-cell responses, which could contribute to immunopathology during infancy. ..
  40. Murata Y, Lightfoote P, Biear J, Falsey A, Walsh E. Humoral response to the central unglycosylated region of the respiratory syncytial virus attachment protein. Vaccine. 2010;28:6242-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have implications for RSV G-based serological diagnostics and vaccine development. ..
  41. Lee S, Stokes K, Currier M, Sakamoto K, Lukacs N, Celis E, et al. Vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells protect against respiratory syncytial virus strain A2-line19F-induced pathogenesis in BALB/c mice. J Virol. 2012;86:13016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that vaccine-elicited effector anti-RSV CD8(+) T cells protected mice against RSV infection and pathogenesis, and waning protection correlated with reduced CD8(+) T cell cytokine expression. ..
  42. Loh T, Lai F, Tan E, Thoon K, Tee N, Cutter J, et al. Correlations between clinical illness, respiratory virus infections and climate factors in a tropical paediatric population. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These correlations are compatible with current understanding of respiratory virus survival under certain climate conditions and may assist the prediction of disease burdens and hospital resource planning in such tropical environments. ..
  43. McGinnes L, Gravel K, Finberg R, Kurt Jones E, Massare M, Smith G, et al. Assembly and immunological properties of Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing the respiratory syncytial virus F and G proteins. J Virol. 2011;85:366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that these VLPs are effective RSV vaccines in mice, in contrast to other nonreplicating RSV vaccine candidates. ..
  44. Billam P, Bonaparte K, Liu J, Ruckwardt T, Chen M, Ryder A, et al. T Cell receptor clonotype influences epitope hierarchy in the CD8+ T cell response to respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Defining how epitope structure is interpreted to inform T cell function will improve the design of future gene-based vaccines...
  45. Figueras Aloy J, Carbonell Estrany X. [Recommendations for the use of palivizumab in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in late preterm infants (32(1) to 35(0) weeks of gestation)]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2010;73:98.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Palivizumab is also recommended when "1 major risk factor and the 2 minor risk factors" are present. Minor risk factors are: mother smoking during pregnancy and being a male...
  46. Sloan C, Moore M, Hartert T. Impact of pollution, climate, and sociodemographic factors on spatiotemporal dynamics of seasonal respiratory viruses. Clin Transl Sci. 2011;4:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..They also offer suggestions for targeted interventions to reduce the disease burden from seasonal viruses...
  47. Smith S, Dampier W, Tozeren A, Brown J, Magid Slav M. Identification of common biological pathways and drug targets across multiple respiratory viruses based on human host gene expression analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33174 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning...
  48. Westerly B, Peebles R. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in the adult asthmatic--mechanisms of host susceptibility and viral subversion. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2010;30:523-39, vi-vii pubmed publisher
    ..They also consider the role of early-life exposure to RSV and its contribution to asthma in adults. Lastly, they review the mechanisms by which RSV evades normal host immune responses and subverts these responses to its benefit...
  49. Rezaee F, Gibson L, Piktel D, Othumpangat S, Piedimonte G. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in human bone marrow stromal cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we have amplified viral RNA from naive primary BMSCs, suggesting that in vivo these cells provide RSV with an extrapulmonary target...
  50. Shafique M, Wilschut J, de Haan A. Induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against respiratory syncytial virus by inactivated virus supplemented with TLR9 and NOD2 ligands. Vaccine. 2012;30:597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that mucosal immunization with inactivated RSV antigen supplemented with TLR9/NOD2 ligands is a promising approach to induce effective RSV-specific immunity without priming for enhanced disease...
  51. Asada M, Yoshida M, Hatachi Y, Sasaki T, Yasuda H, Deng X, et al. l-carbocisteine inhibits respiratory syncytial virus infection in human tracheal epithelial cells. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;180:112-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that l-carbocisteine may inhibit RS virus infection by reducing the expression of ICAM-1. It may also modulate airway inflammation during RS virus infection...
  52. Wishaupt J, Russcher A, Smeets L, Versteegh F, Hartwig N. Clinical impact of RT-PCR for pediatric acute respiratory infections: a controlled clinical trial. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e1113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is a quick sensitive method for detecting respiratory pathogens. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of RT-PCR assays and measured the effect of rapid reporting on patient care...
  53. Escobar G, Ragins A, Li S, Prager L, Masaquel A, Kipnis P. Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks' gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the relationship between recurrent wheezing (RW) in the third year of life and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, prematurity, and neonatal oxygen exposure...
  54. Ampuero S, Luchsinger V, Tapia L, Palomino M, Larrañaga C. SP-A1, SP-A2 and SP-D gene polymorphisms in severe acute respiratory syncytial infection in Chilean infants. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..00000034) and moderate disease (p=0.000009). Differences were also found among severe and mild disease (p=0.026). Differences found with other authors, indicate the need for local studies to identify genetic biomarkers of severity...
  55. Agoti C, Mbisa J, Bett A, Medley G, Nokes D, Cane P. Intrapatient variation of the respiratory syncytial virus attachment protein gene. J Virol. 2010;84:10425-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular note, the deletion of the exact portion of the gene which had been duplicated in some isolates was observed in viral RNAs from two patients. ..
  56. Bao X, Indukuri H, Liu T, Liao S, Tian B, Brasier A, et al. IKK? modulates RSV-induced NF-?B-dependent gene transcription. Virology. 2010;408:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a novel mechanism by which IKK? regulates viral-induced cellular signaling...
  57. Lundin A, Bergstrom T, Bendrioua L, Kann N, Adamiak B, Trybala E. Two novel fusion inhibitors of human respiratory syncytial virus. Antiviral Res. 2010;88:317-24 pubmed publisher
  58. Bendelja K, Vojvoda V, Aberle N, Cepin Bogovic J, Gagro A, Mlinaric Galinovic G, et al. Decreased Toll-like receptor 8 expression and lower TNF-? synthesis in infants with acute RSV infection. Respir Res. 2010;11:143 pubmed publisher
    ..The reason could be inadequate multiple TLRs engagement, including TLR8 in recognition of single-stranded viral RNA and diminished synthesis of inflammatory mediators due to a lower expression...
  59. KAUVAR L, Harcourt J, Haynes L, Tripp R. Therapeutic targeting of respiratory syncytial virus G-protein. Immunotherapy. 2010;2:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This objective encompasses a dual mechanism: reduction in the ability of RSV G-protein to distort the host innate immune response, and direct complement-mediated antiviral activity...
  60. Ohlson A, Heuer C, Lockhart C, Tråvén M, Emanuelson U, Alenius S. Risk factors for seropositivity to bovine coronavirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in dairy herds. Vet Rec. 2010;167:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moran's I statistics and semi-variogram showed no evidence of spatial autocorrelation in the residuals, indicating that remaining unidentified factors are not spatially dependent in the areas under study...
  61. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S, Watkiss E. Pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, whether the response induced by RSV is protective or pathogenic depends on a combination of host factors, young age being one of the most important ones...
  62. Kamphuis T, Meijerhof T, Stegmann T, Lederhofer J, Wilschut J, de Haan A. Immunogenicity and protective capacity of a virosomal respiratory syncytial virus vaccine adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36812 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that RSV-MPLA virosomes represent a safe and efficacious vaccine candidate which warrants further evaluation...
  63. Eshaghi A, Duvvuri V, Lai R, Nadarajah J, Li A, Patel S, et al. Genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus A strains circulating in Ontario: a novel genotype with a 72 nucleotide G gene duplication. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32807 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work is needed to document and further understand the emergence, virulence, pathogenicity and transmissibility of this novel RSV-A genotype with a72 nucleotide G gene duplication...
  64. Ermers M, Janssen R, Onland Moret N, Hodemaekers H, Rovers M, Houben M, et al. IL10 family member genes IL19 and IL20 are associated with recurrent wheeze after respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Res. 2011;70:518-23 pubmed publisher
  65. Stokes K, Chi M, Sakamoto K, Newcomb D, Currier M, Huckabee M, et al. Differential pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus clinical isolates in BALB/c mice. J Virol. 2011;85:5782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that RSV clinical isolates induce variable pathogenesis in mice, and we established a mouse model of clinical isolate strain-dependent RSV pathogenesis that recapitulates key features of RSV disease...
  66. Zeng R, Zhang H, Hai Y, Cui Y, Wei L, Li N, et al. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. J Virol. 2012;86:4505-17 pubmed publisher
  67. Remot A, Roux X, Dubuquoy C, Fix J, Bouet S, Moudjou M, et al. Nucleoprotein nanostructures combined with adjuvants adapted to the neonatal immune context: a candidate mucosal RSV vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37722 pubmed publisher
  68. Fonceca A, Flanagan B, Trinick R, Smyth R, McNamara P. Primary airway epithelial cultures from children are highly permissive to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Thorax. 2012;67:42-8 pubmed publisher
  69. Zhang R, Jin Y, Xie Z, Liu N, Yan K, Gao H, et al. Human respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory tract infections in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Coinfection with other viruses does not affect disease severity. HRSV genotypes were not associated with different epidemiological characterizations or disease severity...
  70. Kaiko G, Phipps S, Angkasekwinai P, Dong C, Foster P. NK cell deficiency predisposes to viral-induced Th2-type allergic inflammation via epithelial-derived IL-25. J Immunol. 2010;185:4681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a novel pathway underlying viral-driven Th2 responses that may have functional relevance to viral-associated asthma...
  71. Swanson K, Settembre E, Shaw C, Dey A, Rappuoli R, Mandl C, et al. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens...
  72. Segovia J, Sabbah A, Mgbemena V, Tsai S, Chang T, Berton M, et al. TLR2/MyD88/NF-?B pathway, reactive oxygen species, potassium efflux activates NLRP3/ASC inflammasome during respiratory syncytial virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29695 pubmed publisher
  73. Wright M, Piedimonte G. Respiratory syncytial virus prevention and therapy: past, present, and future. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011;46:324-47 pubmed publisher
  74. Krilov L. Respiratory syncytial virus disease: update on treatment and prevention. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination against RSV is in development but not eminent...
  75. Magro M, Mas V, Chappell K, Vázquez M, Cano O, Luque D, et al. Neutralizing antibodies against the preactive form of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein offer unique possibilities for clinical intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These antibodies therefore offer unique possibilities for immune intervention against hRSV, and their production should be assessed in trials of hRSV vaccines...
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    ..Defining the influence of RSV on the function of selected DC subsets may improve the likelihood of achieving protective vaccine-induced immunity. ..
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    ..Concentrations of interferon-? in RSV and innate immunity cytokines in both infections inversely correlated with disease severity...
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    ..Thus, without TLR7-mediated responses, an altered immune environment ensued with a significant effect on airway epithelial cell remodeling and goblet cell hyper/metaplasia, leading to increased mucus production...
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    ..The control of this pathway in HNECs may be useful not only for prevention of replication and budding of RSV, but also in therapy for RSV-induced respiratory pathogenesis...
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    ..Despite decades of research with traditional or subunit vaccine approaches, there are no approved RSV vaccines. New approaches are therefore urgently needed to develop effective RSV vaccines...
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    ..These results suggest that infants with high RSV load on hospital admission are more likely to have both more severe bronchiolitis and a higher airway activation of antiviral immune response...
  84. Lanari M, Silvestri M, Rossi G. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14:216-25 pubmed
    ..In this article, we have reviewed the clinical and pharmacological aspects of immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibodies for preventing RSV infection in high-risk infants...
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    ..While it is recognised that a policy of using palivizumab for all children who meet the licensed indication does not meet conventional UK standards of cost-effectiveness, most clinicians feel that its use is justified in some children...
  86. Hägglund S, Hu K, Vargmar K, Poré L, Olofson A, Blodörn K, et al. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs-Immunity, protection and safety in young conventional calves. Vaccine. 2011;29:8719-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective immunological responses to BRSV proteins and the ability to overcome the inhibiting effect of MDA were dependent on ISCOM borne antigen presentation...
  87. Arnott A, Vong S, Mardy S, Chu S, Naughtin M, Sovann L, et al. A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Cambodia reveals the existence of a new HRSV group B genotype. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3504-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of HRSV group B strains belonged to the recently described BA genotype, with the exception of 10 strains classified as belonging to a novel HRSV group B genotype, SAB4, first reported here...
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    ..Thus, immune cell trafficking to secondary lymph nodes is necessary for appropriate cytokine responses to RSV as well as modulation of the local environment...
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    ..Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines...