distemper

Summary

Summary: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.

Top Publications

  1. Stanton J, Brown C, Poet S, Lipscomb T, Saliki J, Frasca S. Retrospective differentiation of canine distemper virus and phocine distemper virus in phocids. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:53-9 pubmed
    ..a novel seminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect and differentiate canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV). Four antibodies made against PDV were able to detect both viruses...
  2. Kajita M, Katayama H, Murata T, Kai C, Hori M, Ozaki H. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis through caspase-3 and -8 activation in vero cells. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:273-7 pubmed
    We investigated the signal-transduction pathway of canine distemper virus-Onderstepoort (CDV-Ond) vaccine strain-mediated apoptosis in Vero cells. Canine distemper virus-Onderstepoort at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0...
  3. Courtenay O, Quinnell R, Chalmers W. Contact rates between wild and domestic canids: no evidence of parvovirus or canine distemper virus in crab-eating foxes. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81:9-19 pubmed
    ..Foxes and dogs were serologically and clinically monitored for exposure to canine parvovirus (CPV-2) and canine distemper virus (CDV), pathogens known to have caused wildlife population declines elsewhere...
  4. Jozwik A, Frymus T. Comparison of the immunofluorescence assay with RT-PCR and nested PCR in the diagnosis of canine distemper. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29:347-59 pubmed
    Two pairs of primers were prepared, both localized within the sequences of the nucleoprotein gene (NP) of canine distemper virus (CDV). A number of experiments were done to optimize the conditions of RT-PCR and nested PCR methods...
  5. Pratakpiriya W, Seki F, Otsuki N, Sakai K, Fukuhara H, Katamoto H, et al. Nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for canine distemper virus and involved in neurovirulence. J Virol. 2012;86:10207-10 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo...
  6. Harkonen T, Dietz R, Reijnders P, Teilmann J, Harding K, Hall A, et al. The 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;68:115-30 pubmed
    We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002...
  7. McCarthy A, Shaw M, Goodman S. Pathogen evolution and disease emergence in carnivores. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:3165-74 pubmed
    ..Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that is prevalent in the world dog population and poses an important conservation ..
  8. Frolich K, Czupalla O, Haas L, Hentschke J, Dedek J, Fickel J. Epizootiological investigations of canine distemper virus in free-ranging carnivores from Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2000;74:283-92 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores. To assess whether wild carnivores may play a role in the epidemiology of CDV in domestic dogs in Germany, the seroprevalence of CDV was determined...
  9. Burtscher H, Url A. Evidence of canine distemper and suggestion of preceding parvovirus-myocarditis in a Eurasian badger (Meles meles). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:139-42 pubmed
    ..Meles meles) from the eastern part of Austria had macroscopic and microscopic lesions consistent with canine distemper virus infection, including nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, interstitial pneumonia with accumulation of ..

More Information

Publications99

  1. Kuiken T, Kennedy S, Barrett T, van de Bildt M, Borgsteede F, Brew S, et al. The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:321-38 pubmed
    ..The primary diagnosis in 11 of 13 seals was canine distemper, characterized by broncho-interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in lymphoid organs, and the ..
  2. Cho H, Park N. Detection of canine distemper virus in blood samples by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2005;52:410-3 pubmed
    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) genomic RNA...
  3. Demeter Z, Lakatos B, Palade E, Kozma T, Forgách P, Rusvai M. Genetic diversity of Hungarian canine distemper virus strains. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:258-69 pubmed
    ..based on acute clinical symptoms and poorly preserved field samples taken from animals that died due to canine distemper (CD), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  4. Goller K, Fyumagwa R, Nikolin V, East M, Kilewo M, Speck S, et al. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen...
  5. Headley S, Amude A, Alfieri A, Bracarense A, Alfieri A, Summers B. Molecular detection of Canine distemper virus and the immunohistochemical characterization of the neurologic lesions in naturally occurring old dog encephalitis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:588-97 pubmed
    ..Unlike conventional distemper encephalomyelitis, ODE is a poorly understood and extremely rare manifestation of Canine distemper virus (CDV) ..
  6. Rikula U, Nuotio L, Sihvonen L. Vaccine coverage, herd immunity and occurrence of canine distemper from 1990-1996 in Finland. Vaccine. 2007;25:7994-8 pubmed
    ..takes of available vaccines were used to calculate the vaccine coverage and herd immunity (HI) against canine distemper, endemic during 1990-1993 and epidemic in 1994-1995 in Finland...
  7. Wang X, Feng N, Ge J, Shuai L, Peng L, Gao Y, et al. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper. Vaccine. 2012;30:5067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the ..
  8. Guiserix M, Bahi Jaber N, Fouchet D, Sauvage F, Pontier D. The canine distemper epidemic in Serengeti: are lions victims of a new highly virulent canine distemper virus strain, or is pathogen circulation stochasticity to blame?. J R Soc Interface. 2007;4:1127-34 pubmed
    In the year 1994, the Serengeti lion population was decimated by a canine distemper disease outbreak...
  9. Woma T, van Vuuren M, Bosman A, Quan M, Oosthuizen M. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper viruses from South Africa: lineage Africa. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:126-32 pubmed publisher
  10. Endo Y, Uema M, Miura R, Tsukiyama Kohara K, Tsujimoto H, Yoneda K, et al. Prevalence of canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus in captive African lions (Panthera leo) in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1587-9 pubmed
    Sero-prevalences of canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were evaluated in 20 captive lions in two Japanese zoos. Anti-CDV antibody was detected in 13 of 20 lions...
  11. Miao Q, Baumgartner W, Failing K, Alldinger S. Phase-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;106:486-94 pubmed
    ..immunohistochemical profile of MMP and TIMP expression in plaque variants in dogs with spontaneous demyelinating distemper encephalitis, paraffin-embedded cerebella were studied employing the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method ..
  12. Martella V, Cirone F, Elia G, Lorusso E, Decaro N, Campolo M, et al. Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:301-9 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing lethal disease in dogs and other mammalians...
  13. Silin D, Lyubomska O, Ludlow M, Duprex W, Rima B. Development of a challenge-protective vaccine concept by modification of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of canine distemper virus. J Virol. 2007;81:13649-58 pubmed
    ..second hinge region of the viral L (large) protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) attenuates a wild-type canine distemper virus...
  14. Sobrino R, Arnal M, Luco D, Gortazar C. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain. Vet Microbiol. 2008;126:251-6 pubmed
    ..137 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (Canis lupus) in Spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and against canine parvovirus (CPV) by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 18...
  15. Lan N, Yamaguchi R, Kawabata A, Uchida K, Sugano S, Tateyama S. Comparison of molecular and growth properties for two different canine distemper virus clusters, Asia 1 and 2, in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:739-44 pubmed
    To compare the molecular and growth properties of two newly isolated canine distemper virus strains in the Asia 1 and 2 groups with clinico-pathological findings in dogs, nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence comparisons of genes ..
  16. Sakai K, Nagata N, Ami Y, Seki F, Suzaki Y, Iwata Yoshikawa N, et al. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008. J Virol. 2013;87:1105-14 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates...
  17. Damien B, Martina B, Losch S, Mossong J, Osterhaus A, Muller C. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:856-9 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible...
  18. Meli M, Simmler P, Cattori V, Martinez F, Vargas A, Palomares F, et al. Importance of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in free-ranging Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:132-7 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that is the etiological agent of one of the most important viral diseases affecting canids and an expanding range of other carnivores...
  19. Wang F, Yan X, Chai X, Zhang H, Zhao J, Wen Y, et al. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china. Virol J. 2011;8:85 pubmed publisher
    In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction ..
  20. Perpinan D, Ramis A, Tomas A, Carpintero E, Bargalló F. Outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Rec. 2008;163:246-50 pubmed
    In 2006 an outbreak of canine distemper affected 14 young domestic ferrets in Barcelona, Spain...
  21. Pardo I, Johnson G, Kleiboeker S. Phylogenetic characterization of canine distemper viruses detected in naturally infected dogs in North America. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5009-17 pubmed
    ..For five of the seven dogs, disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) infection was suspected based on clinical signs...
  22. Zhao J, Yan X, Chai X, Martella V, Luo G, Zhang H, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:34-42 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae...
  23. Cleaveland S, Appel M, Chalmers W, Chillingworth C, Kaare M, Dye C. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Vet Microbiol. 2000;72:217-27 pubmed
    Following an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Serengeti lions in 1994, the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of the disease was investigated by serological and demographic analyses...
  24. Moro L, de Sousa Martins A, de Moraes Alves C, de Araújo Santos F, dos Santos Nunes J, Carneiro R, et al. Apoptosis in canine distemper. Arch Virol. 2003;148:153-64 pubmed
    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections...
  25. Nielsen O, Smith G, Weingartl H, Lair S, Measures L. Use of a SLAM transfected Vero cell line to isolate and characterize marine mammal morbilliviruses using an experimental ferret model. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:600-11 pubmed
    Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were experimentally infected with phocine distemper virus (PDV), from the 1988 seal epizootic in Europe, in order to determine whether the stable transfected Vero cell line (Vero...
  26. Nagao Y, Nishio Y, Shiomoda H, Tamaru S, Shimojima M, Goto M, et al. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:699-705 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals...
  27. Meertens N, Stoffel M, Cherpillod P, Wittek R, Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A. Mechanism of reduction of virus release and cell-cell fusion in persistent canine distemper virus infection. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;106:303-10 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a mobillivirus related to measles virus causes a chronic progressive demyelinating disease, associated with persistence of the virus in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  28. Jessup D, Murray M, Casper D, Brownstein D, Kreuder Johnson C. Canine distemper vaccination is a safe and useful preventive procedure for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutra nereis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:705-10 pubmed
    ..to potentially lethal morbiliviruses were vaccinated with a commercial recombinant poxvirus vectored canine distemper (CD) vaccine. Serum-neutralizing (SN) antibody responses were followed for several years...
  29. Denzin N, Herwig V, van der Grinten E. Occurrence and geographical distribution of Canine Distemper Virus infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:214-8 pubmed publisher
    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects dogs and a variety of carnivore species...
  30. Hedrick P, Lee R, Buchanan C. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:909-13 pubmed
    ..pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper...
  31. Jensen T, van de Bildt M, Dietz H, Andersen T, Hammer A, Kuiken T, et al. Another phocine distemper outbreak in Europe. Science. 2002;297:209 pubmed
  32. Griot C, Vandevelde M, Schobesberger M, Zurbriggen A. Canine distemper, a re-emerging morbillivirus with complex neuropathogenic mechanisms. Anim Health Res Rev. 2003;4:1-10 pubmed
    ..Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a well-studied member of the genus Morbillivirus...
  33. Anderson D, von Messling V. Region between the canine distemper virus M and F genes modulates virulence by controlling fusion protein expression. J Virol. 2008;82:10510-8 pubmed publisher
    Morbilliviruses, including measles and canine distemper virus (CDV), are nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and animals...
  34. Markus S, Failing K, Baumgartner W. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lack of up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in early distemper CNS lesions. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;125:30-41 pubmed
    To investigate the pathogenesis of early lesions in canine distemper virus (CDV) leukoencephalomyelitis, the expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor ..
  35. Beineke A, Markus S, Borlak J, Thum T, Baumgartner W. Increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in non-demyelinating early cerebral lesions in nervous canine distemper. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:401-10 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of the central nervous system results in lesions of the gray and white matter...
  36. Santos N, Almendra C, Tavares L. Serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from Portugal. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:221-6 pubmed
    A serologic survey for Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from Portugal, collected from 1995 to ..
  37. Fischer C, Ikuta N, Canal C, Makiejczuk A, Allgayer M, Cardoso C, et al. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:39-45 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. Practical diagnosis of canine distemper based on clinical signs and laboratory tests are required to confirm CDV infection...
  38. Sekulin K, Hafner Marx A, Kolodziejek J, Janik D, Schmidt P, Nowotny N. Emergence of canine distemper in Bavarian wildlife associated with a specific amino acid exchange in the haemagglutinin protein. Vet J. 2011;187:399-401 pubmed publisher
    A widespread, severe outbreak of canine distemper encephalitis was observed in wildlife in Southern Bavaria in the spring and summer of 2008...
  39. Nouvellet P, Donnelly C, De Nardi M, Rhodes C, De Benedictis P, Citterio C, et al. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61588 pubmed publisher
    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV)...
  40. Craft M, Volz E, Packer C, Meyers L. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1777-85 pubmed publisher
    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV)...
  41. Banse H, McKenzie E, Nelson S, Hinchcliff K. Assessment of serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type II, and canine parvovirus in Alaskan sled dogs before and after a long-distance race. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:1669-73 pubmed publisher
    To determine serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type II (CAV-2), and canine parvovirus (CPV) in trained sled dogs prior to and after completion of a long-distance race.
  42. Di Francesco C, Di Francesco D, Di Martino B, Speranza R, Santori D, Boari A, et al. Detection by hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genetic characterization of wild type strains of Canine distemper virus in suspected infected dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was applied to detect nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Canine distemper virus (CDV) in samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological signs...
  43. Del Puerto H, Martins A, Moro L, Milsted A, Alves F, Braz G, et al. Caspase-3/-8/-9, Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the cerebellum, lymph nodes and leukocytes of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:151-61 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper is an immunosuppressive disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV). Pathogenesis mainly involves the central nervous system and immunosuppression...
  44. Amude A, Alfieri A, Alfieri A. Antemortem diagnosis of CDV infection by RT-PCR in distemper dogs with neurological deficits without the typical clinical presentation. Vet Res Commun. 2006;30:679-87 pubmed
    In dogs with neurological disturbances without myoclonus and extraneural signs, the clinical diagnosis of distemper is difficult perform...
  45. Calderon M, Remorini P, Periolo O, Iglesias M, Mattion N, La Torre J. Detection by RT-PCR and genetic characterization of canine distemper virus from vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs in Argentina. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:341-9 pubmed
    RT-PCR was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) RNA in clotted blood from Argentine domestic dogs. The NP gene was detected in 73 out of 99 blood samples analyzed...
  46. Stephensen C, Welter J, Thaker S, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection. J Virol. 1997;71:1506-13 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (CNS)...
  47. Almberg E, Cross P, Smith D. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:2058-74 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an acute, highly immunizing pathogen that should require high densities and large populations of hosts for long-term persistence, yet CDV persists among terrestrial carnivores with small, patchily ..
  48. Fischer L, Tronel J, Minke J, Barzu S, Baudu P, Audonnet J. Vaccination of puppies with a lipid-formulated plasmid vaccine protects against a severe canine distemper virus challenge. Vaccine. 2003;21:1099-102 pubmed
    We assessed whether the formulation of a DNA vaccine expressing the canine distemper virus (CDV) hemagglutinin (HA) and fusion (F) immunogens with the cationic lipid DMRIE-DOPE could induce serological responses and protection against a ..
  49. Machado G, Melo G, Souza M, Machado A, Migliolo D, Moraes O, et al. Zymographic patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the CSF and cerebellum of dogs with subacute distemper leukoencephalitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;154:68-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Distemper leukoencephalitis is a disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV) infection...
  50. Chvala S, Benetka V, Möstl K, Zeugswetter F, Spergser J, Weissenbock H. Simultaneous canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, and Mycoplasma cynos infection in a dog with pneumonia. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:508-12 pubmed
    The present case is the first description of a triple infection with canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2, and Mycoplasma cynos in a dog...
  51. Brunner J, Plattet P, Majcherczyk P, Zurbriggen A, Wittek R, Hirling H. Canine distemper virus infection of primary hippocampal cells induces increase in extracellular glutamate and neurodegeneration. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1184-95 pubmed
    The canine distemper virus (CDV) belongs to the Morbillivirus genus which includes important human pathogens like the closely related measles virus. CDV infection can reach the nervous system where it causes serious malfunctions...
  52. An D, Yoon S, Park J, No I, Park B. Phylogenetic characterization of canine distemper virus isolates from naturally infected dogs and a marten in Korea. Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:389-95 pubmed publisher
    We sequenced the hemagglutinin (H) genes from four canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from three dogs and a marten in Korea...
  53. van de Bildt M, Kuiken T, Visee A, Lema S, Fitzjohn T, Osterhaus A. Distemper outbreak and its effect on African wild dog conservation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:211-3 pubmed
    ..The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ..
  54. Puff C, Krudewig C, Imbschweiler I, Baumgartner W, Alldinger S. Influence of persistent canine distemper virus infection on expression of RECK, matrix-metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a canine macrophage/monocytic tumour cell line (DH82). Vet J. 2009;182:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the effect of persistent infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPS) in a canine macrophage/monocytic ..
  55. Appel M, Yates R, Foley G, Bernstein J, Santinelli S, Spelman L, et al. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994;6:277-88 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection occurred in captive leopards (Panthera pardus), tigers (Panthera tigris), lions (Panthera leo), and a jaguar (Panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992...
  56. Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A. Demyelination in canine distemper virus infection: a review. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:56-68 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe immunosuppression and neurological disease in dogs, associated with demyelination, and is a model for multiple sclerosis in man...
  57. Sawatsky B, Wong X, Hinkelmann S, Cattaneo R, von Messling V. Canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for immunosuppression. J Virol. 2012;86:3658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets...
  58. Zarnke R, Saliki J, Macmillan A, Brew S, Dawson C, Ver Hoef J, et al. Serologic survey for Brucella spp., phocid herpesvirus-1, phocid herpesvirus-2, and phocine distemper virus in harbor seals from Alaska, 1976-1999. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:290-300 pubmed
    ..phocid herpesvirus-1 (PhoHV-1), phocid herpesvirus-2 (PhHV-2), and phocine distemper virus (PDV). Antibody prevalence rates were 46% (46/100) for Brucella spp...
  59. Nielsen L, Arctander P, Jensen T, Dietz H, Hammer A, Banyard A, et al. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the attachment glycoprotein of phocine distemper viruses of the 2002 and 1988 epizootics. Virus Res. 2009;144:323-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the possible origin and spread of the dramatic re-emergent 2002 distemper epizootic observed among seals in Danish Waters, we have sequenced wild-type genes of the attachment (H) glycoproteins of viruses from both the 2002 ..
  60. Daoust P, McBurney S, Godson D, van de Bildt M, Osterhaus A. Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:611-24 pubmed
    ..The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals ..
  61. Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente M, Lorusso E, et al. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006;136:171-6 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus is the etiological agent of a severe disease in dogs and many other carnivores...
  62. Harkonen T, Harding K, Rasmussen T, Teilmann J, Dietz R. Age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in European harbour seals. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e887 pubmed
    ..The Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV) caused two mass mortalities in European harbour seals in 1988 and in 2002...
  63. Sakai K, Yoshikawa T, Seki F, Fukushi S, Tahara M, Nagata N, et al. Canine distemper virus associated with a lethal outbreak in monkeys can readily adapt to use human receptors. J Virol. 2013;87:7170-5 pubmed publisher
    A canine distemper virus (CDV) strain, CYN07-dV, associated with a lethal outbreak in monkeys, used human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule as a receptor only poorly but readily adapted to use it following a P541S substitution in ..
  64. Grone A, Engelhardt P, Zurbriggen A. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:574-8 pubmed
    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated...
  65. Tipold A, Moore P, Zurbriggen A, Burgener I, Barben G, Vandevelde M. Early T cell response in the central nervous system in canine distemper virus infection. Acta Neuropathol. 1999;97:45-56 pubmed
    The initial demyelinating lesions in canine distemper virus (CDV) infection develop during a period of severe immunosuppression in the absence of inflammation...
  66. Rijks J, van de Bildt M, Jensen T, Philippa J, Osterhaus A, Kuiken T. Phocine distemper outbreak, The Netherlands, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1945-8 pubmed
    During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast. Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location...
  67. Beineke A, Puff C, Seehusen F, Baumgartner W. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;127:1-18 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper is a worldwide occurring infectious disease of dogs, caused by a morbillivirus, closely related to measles and rinderpest virus. The natural host range comprises predominantly carnivores...
  68. Otsuki N, Sekizuka T, Seki F, Sakai K, Kubota T, Nakatsu Y, et al. Canine distemper virus with the intact C protein has the potential to replicate in human epithelial cells by using human nectin4 as a receptor. Virology. 2013;435:485-92 pubmed publisher
    Recent outbreaks in monkeys have proven that canine distemper virus (CDV) causes diseases in a wide range of mammals. CDV uses SLAM and nectin4 as receptors to replicate in susceptible animals...
  69. Philip Earle J, Melia M, Doherty N, Nielsen O, Cosby S. Phocine distemper virus in seals, east coast, United States, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated a virus from seal tissue and confirmed it as phocine distemper virus (PDV)...
  70. Bieringer M, Han J, Kendl S, Khosravi M, Plattet P, Schneider Schaulies J. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57488 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of measles virus (MV), is widespread and well known for its broad host range...
  71. Bonami F, Rudd P, von Messling V. Disease duration determines canine distemper virus neurovirulence. J Virol. 2007;81:12066-70 pubmed
    ..To evaluate its contribution to canine distemper virus neurovirulence, we exchanged the H proteins of the wild-type strains 5804P and A75 and assessed the ..
  72. Sultan S, Charoenvisal N, Lan N, Yamaguchi R, Maeda K, Kai K. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses. Virol J. 2009;6:157 pubmed publisher
    Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified...
  73. Zurbriggen A, Schmid I, Graber H, Vandevelde M. Oligodendroglial pathology in canine distemper. Acta Neuropathol. 1998;95:71-7 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a multifocal demyelinating disease in dogs. The mechanism of acute demyelination in distemper is still poorly understood...
  74. Lee M, Tsai K, Chen L, Chen C, Liu Y, Chang C, et al. The identification of frequent variations in the fusion protein of canine distemper virus. Vet J. 2010;183:184-90 pubmed publisher
    Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious disease with a worldwide distribution. Genetic diversity in genes encoding the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) virus envelope proteins have been implicated in the increasing incidence of CD...
  75. Munson L, Terio K, Kock R, Mlengeya T, Roelke M, Dubovi E, et al. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2545 pubmed publisher
    ..A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, ..
  76. Rzezutka A, Mizak B. Application of N-PCR for diagnosis of distemper in dogs and fur animals. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:95-103 pubmed
    The immunofluorescence test, routinely used for laboratory diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Poland, is not sufficiently sensitive and specific...
  77. D Intino G, Vaccari F, Sivilia S, Scagliarini A, Gandini G, Giardino L, et al. A molecular study of hippocampus in dogs with convulsion during canine distemper virus encephalitis. Brain Res. 2006;1098:186-95 pubmed
    ..504-523 rat EAAC1) in 6 dogs sacrificed immediately after seizure attack during encephalomyelitis due to canine distemper virus (CDV) (as assessed by clinical examination, RT-PCR and viral RNA detection either in blood or brain tissue ..
  78. Rudd P, Cattaneo R, von Messling V. Canine distemper virus uses both the anterograde and the hematogenous pathway for neuroinvasion. J Virol. 2006;80:9361-70 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a member of the Morbillivirus genus that also includes measles virus, frequently causes neurologic complications, but the routes and timing of CDV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly ..
  79. de Vries R, Ludlow M, Verburgh R, van Amerongen G, Yüksel S, Nguyen D, et al. Measles vaccination of nonhuman primates provides partial protection against infection with canine distemper virus. J Virol. 2014;88:4423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus (CDV)...
  80. Uema M, Ohashi K, Wakasa C, Kai C. Phylogenetic and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of hemagglutinin (H) protein of canine distemper virus isolates from domestic dogs in Japan. Virus Res. 2005;109:59-63 pubmed
    ..of 995 nucleotides within the hemagglutinin (H) gene open reading frame (ORF) of field isolates of 23 canine distemper virus (CDV) strains isolated from domestic dogs in Japan between 1982 and 1998...
  81. Masuda M, Sato H, Kamata H, Katsuo T, Takenaka A, Miura R, et al. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:157-65 pubmed
    We have established four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of canine distemper virus (CDV). A competitive binding assay has revealed that the MAbs are directed against two antigenic domains...
  82. Keller S, Gabriel M, Terio K, Dubovi E, Vanwormer E, Sweitzer R, et al. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009...
  83. Lonergan M, Hall A, Thompson H, Thompson P, Pomeroy P, Harwood J. Comparison of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper epizootics in British harbour seal Phoca vitulina populations. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;88:183-8 pubmed publisher
    In 1988 and 2002 dramatic and well-documented phocine distemper epizootics occurred in Europe...
  84. Wohlsein P, Muller G, Haas L, Siebert U, Harder T, Baumgartner W. Antigenic characterization of phocine distemper virus causing mass mortality in 2002 and its relationship to other morbilliviruses. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1559-64 pubmed
    The antigenic relationship between the phocine distemper virus (PDV) strain causing the epidemic in 2002 and the PDV strain of 1988, canine distemper virus from two dogs and one marten, and one measles virus strain was investigated in ..
  85. McCarthy A, Shaw M, Jepson P, Brasseur S, Reijnders P, Goodman S. Variation in European harbour seal immune response genes and susceptibility to phocine distemper virus (PDV). Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1616-23 pubmed publisher
    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused two mass mortalities of European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in recent decades...
  86. Stimmer L, Siebert U, Wohlsein P, Fontaine J, Baumgartner W, Beineke A. Viral protein expression and phenotyping of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system of phocine distemper virus-infected harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:23-33 pubmed publisher
    The central nervous system (CNS) represents an important target organ of the phocine distemper virus (PDV)...
  87. Alldinger S, Gröters S, Miao Q, Fonfara S, Kremmer E, Baumgartner W. Roles of an extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor and ECM processing enzymes in demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;113:151-2, 154-6 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the Paramyxoviridae family...
  88. Oni O, Wajjwalku W, Boodde O, Chumsing W. Canine distemper virus antibodies in the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus). Vet Rec. 2006;159:420-1 pubmed
  89. Schobesberger M, Summerfield A, Doherr M, Zurbriggen A, Griot C. Canine distemper virus-induced depletion of uninfected lymphocytes is associated with apoptosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;104:33-44 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a negative stranded RNA morbillivirus, causes a multisystemic disease in dogs, which is associated with a severe immune suppression...
  90. Seehusen F, Orlando E, Wewetzer K, Baumgartner W. Vimentin-positive astrocytes in canine distemper: a target for canine distemper virus especially in chronic demyelinating lesions?. Acta Neuropathol. 2007;114:597-608 pubmed
    In canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), caused by canine distemper virus (CDV), astrocytes represent the main virus target...