morbillivirus infections


Summary: Infections with viruses of the genus MORBILLIVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Infections mainly cause acute disease in their hosts, although in some cases infection is persistent and leads to degenerative conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Di Guardo G, Marruchella G, Agrimi U, Kennedy S. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2005;52:88-93 pubmed
    ..In fact, it is also unknown whether and how these chemicals contribute towards modulating the pathogenic and pathogenetic activity primarily displayed by sea mammal morbilliviruses...
  2. Tatsuo H, Yanagi Y. The morbillivirus receptor SLAM (CD150). Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:135-42 pubmed
    ..The destruction and/or impairment of infected SLAM-positive cells may be a mechanism for the immunosuppression induced by morbilliviruses, but other mechanisms may be also involved...
  3. Reidarson T, McBain J, House C, King D, Stott J, Krafft A, et al. Morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the Pacific Ocean. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:771-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that DMV, or a closely related morbillivirus, is present in the Pacific Ocean and infection of common dolphins may not be associated with morbillivirus disease...
  4. Raga J, Banyard A, Domingo M, Corteyn M, Van Bressem M, Fernandez M, et al. Dolphin morbillivirus epizootic resurgence, Mediterranean Sea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:471-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990...
  5. Bellière E, Esperón F, Sanchez Vizcaino J. Genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 Mediterranean outbreaks. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1913-20 pubmed publisher
  6. Castrillon J, Gomez Campos E, Aguilar A, Berdie L, Borrell A. PCB and DDT levels do not appear to have enhanced the mortality of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the 2007 Mediterranean epizootic. Chemosphere. 2010;81:459-63 pubmed publisher
  7. Grant R, Banyard A, Barrett T, Saliki J, Romero C. Real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses. J Virol Methods. 2009;156:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The rtRT-PCR assays have advantages over conventional assays in that they are rapid, easier to scale up, and are less prone to cross-contamination and have improved the limit of detection and specificity...
  8. Fernandez A, Esperón F, Herráez P, de Los Monteros A, Clavel C, Bernabé A, et al. Morbillivirus and pilot whale deaths, Mediterranean Sea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:792-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus...
  9. Aguilar A, Borrell A. Abnormally high polychlorinated biphenyl levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) affected by the 1990-1992 Mediterranean epizootic. Sci Total Environ. 1994;154:237-47 pubmed

More Information


  1. Osterhaus A, de Swart R, Vos H, Ross P, Kenter M, Barrett T. Morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus. Vet Microbiol. 1995;44:219-27 pubmed
    ..Finally experimental evidence that environmental pollution may have contributed to the severity and extent of these infections in recent years is presented...
  2. Di Guardo G, Agrimi U, Morelli L, Cardeti G, Terracciano G, Kennedy S. Post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of Italy between 1990 and 1993. Vet Rec. 1995;136:439-42 pubmed
    ..Anticanine distemper virus antibodies were detected in the serum of the adult minke whale found stranded on the coast of Tuscany in 1993. However, no viruses were isolated from the tissues of any of the 25 cetaceans...
  3. Barrett T. Morbillivirus infections, with special emphasis on morbilliviruses of carnivores. Vet Microbiol. 1999;69:3-13 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcription, coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing, has been used to characterise the morbilliviruses and has given insights into the evolution of this virus genus...
  4. Taubenberger J, Tsai M, Atkin T, Fanning T, Krafft A, Moeller R, et al. Molecular genetic evidence of a novel morbillivirus in a long-finned pilot whale (Globicephalus melas). Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:42-5 pubmed
    ..Novel sequences most closely related to, but distinct from, those of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses suggest that this virus may represent a third member of the cetacean morbillivirus group...
  5. Duignan P, House C, Geraci J, Duffy N, Rima B, Walsh M, et al. Morbillivirus infection in cetaceans of the western Atlantic. Vet Microbiol. 1995;44:241-9 pubmed
    ..Clinical morbillivirus infection may potentially impact already threatened species such as the harbour porpoise and precipitate mass strandings of socially cohesive odontocetes...
  6. Jauniaux T, Charlier G, Desmecht M, Haelters J, Jacques T, Losson B, et al. Pathological findings in two fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) with evidence of morbillivirus infection. J Comp Pathol. 2000;123:198-201 pubmed
    ..To the authors> knowledge, this is the first firm report of morbillivirus infection in baleen whales...
  7. Yang W, Pang V, Jeng C, Chou L, Chueh L. Morbilliviral infection in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) from Taiwanese waters. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:69-76 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of morbilliviral infection with genetic evidence in a pygmy sperm whale from the Western Pacific Ocean around Taiwan...
  8. Anderson J, McKay J. The detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes. Epidemiol Infect. 1994;112:225-31 pubmed
  9. di Guardo G, Mazzariol S, Fernandez A. Biologically threatened dolphins and whales. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:2833-4 pubmed publisher
  10. di Guardo G, Cocumelli C, Scholl F, Di Francesco C, Speranza R, Pennelli M, et al. Morbilliviral encephalitis in a striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba calf from Italy. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;95:247-51 pubmed publisher
  11. Van Bressem M, Waerebeek K, Jepson P, Raga J, Duignan P, Nielsen O, et al. An insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81:287-304 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that DMV is not endemic within these populations, that they are losing their humoral immunity against the virus and that they may be vulnerable to new epidemics...
  12. Bellière E, Esperón F, Fernandez A, Arbelo M, Munoz M, Sanchez Vizcaino J. Phylogenetic analysis of a new Cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the Canary Islands. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the existing classification of CeMV into three principal genetic clusters...
  13. Barrett T, Blixenkrone Møller M, Di Guardo G, Domingo M, Duignan P, Hall A, et al. Morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion. Vet Microbiol. 1995;44:261-5 pubmed
    A workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals...
  14. Haas L, Barrett T. Rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1996;43:411-20 pubmed
    ..In this review some comparative aspects of morbillivirus infections, particularly with respect to rinderpest and canine distemper viruses, are presented...
  15. Stone B, Blyde D, Saliki J, Blas Machado U, Bingham J, Hyatt A, et al. Fatal cetacean morbillivirus infection in an Australian offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Aust Vet J. 2011;89:452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of stranded live or dead cetaceans in Australian waters, particularly if animals display neurological signs. ..
  16. Saliki J, Lehenbauer T. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1877-81 pubmed
  17. Cosby S, Duprex W, Hamill L, Ludlow M, McQuaid S. Approaches in the understanding of morbillivirus neurovirulence. J Neurovirol. 2002;8 Suppl 2:85-90 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, for RPV and PPRV, virus entry may be restricted due either to absence of viral receptors or failure of virus to replicate or spread in the CNS. ..
  18. de Swart R, Harder T, Ross P, Vos H, Osterhaus A. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals. Infect Agents Dis. 1995;4:125-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, the possible contributory role of environmental contaminant-related immunosuppression in the severity and extent of the different disease outbreaks is discussed. ..
  19. Nielsen O, Stewart R, Measures L, Duignan P, House C. A morbillivirus antibody survey of Atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:508-17 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Gulf of St. Lawrence, St. Lawrence estuary, and Arctic cetaceans either have not been exposed to DMV or an antigenically related morbillivirus, or are not susceptible to infection...
  20. Nanda Y, Chatterjee A, Purohit A, Diallo A, Innui K, Sharma R, et al. The isolation of peste des petits ruminants virus from northern India. Vet Microbiol. 1996;51:207-16 pubmed
    ..The virulence profile of one isolate in cattle sheep and goats was established. Infected animals developed specific antibody responses and excreted specific antigen in their lachrymal secretions. ..
  21. Birkun A, Kuiken T, Krivokhizhin S, Haines D, Osterhaus A, van de Bildt M, et al. Epizootic of morbilliviral disease in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis ponticus) from the Black sea. Vet Rec. 1999;144:85-92 pubmed
  22. von Messling V, Svitek N, Cattaneo R. Receptor (SLAM [CD150]) recognition and the V protein sustain swift lymphocyte-based invasion of mucosal tissue and lymphatic organs by a morbillivirus. J Virol. 2006;80:6084-92 pubmed
    ..They also reveal how two viral proteins affect pathogenesis: V sustains the swift lymphocyte-based invasion of mucosal tissue and lymphatic organs, whereas C sustains subsequent infection phases. ..
  23. Mazzariol S, Marcer F, Mignone W, Serracca L, Goria M, Marsili L, et al. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:20 pubmed publisher
  24. Casalone C, Mazzariol S, Pautasso A, di Guardo G, Di Nocera F, Lucifora G, et al. Cetacean strandings in Italy: an unusual mortality event along the Tyrrhenian Sea coast in 2013. Dis Aquat Organ. 2014;109:81-6 pubmed publisher
  25. O Sullivan J, Allworth A, Paterson D, Snow T, Boots R, Gleeson L, et al. Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. Lancet. 1997;349:93-5 pubmed
    ..The results of serology, PCR, electronmicroscopy, and immunohistochemistry strongly suggest that EMV was the cause of this patient's encephalitis, and that exposure to the virus occurred 3 months before the fatal illness. ..
  26. Roeder P, Abraham G, Kenfe G, Barrett T. Peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopian goats. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1994;26:69-73 pubmed
    ..Both morbidity and mortality rates were high in goats but sheep were not affected. ..
  27. Bellière E, Esperón F, Arbelo M, Muñoz M, Fernandez A, Sanchez Vizcaino J. Presence of herpesvirus in striped dolphins stranded during the cetacean morbillivirus epizootic along the Mediterranean Spanish coast in 2007. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..No HV lesions were found in any of the coinfected dolphins, which may indicate that HV did not contribute to the mortality in the CeMV outbreak. This is the first report of HV infection in any cetacean from the Mediterranean Sea...
  28. Domingo M, Vilafranca M, Visa J, Prats N, Trudgett A, Visser I. Evidence for chronic morbillivirus infection in the Mediterranean striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Vet Microbiol. 1995;44:229-39 pubmed
  29. Bencsik A, Malcus C, Akaoka H, Giraudon P, Belin M, Bernard A. Selective induction of cytokines in mouse brain infected with canine distemper virus: structural, cellular and temporal expression. J Neuroimmunol. 1996;65:1-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that a substantial number of neurons express TNF-alpha and IL-6. These findings provide new insights into the possible participation of cytokines in the neurological disorders triggered by CDV infection. ..
  30. Boyd A. Laboratory testing in patients with morbilliform viral eruptions. Dermatol Clin. 1994;12:69-82 pubmed
    ..Clinical suspicions may be pursued more fully now, sometimes even in an office setting. ..
  31. Duignan P, Nielsen O, House C, Kovacs K, Duffy N, Early G, et al. Epizootiology of morbillivirus infection in harp, hooded, and ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic and western Atlantic. J Wildl Dis. 1997;33:7-19 pubmed
    ..However, the prevalence of infection was highest where ringed seals are sympatric with harp seals in the eastern Canadian Arctic. ..
  32. Lipscomb T, Schulman F, Moffett D, Kennedy S. Morbilliviral disease in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the 1987-1988 epizootic. J Wildl Dis. 1994;30:567-71 pubmed
    ..Based on histopathologic and immunocytochemical findings, we diagnosed morbillivirus-induced disease. This is the first report of disease caused by morbillivirus in bottlenose dolphins and in any cetacean species outside Europe. ..
  33. Sharp C, Nambulli S, Acciardo A, Rennick L, Drexler J, Rima B, et al. Chronic Infection of Domestic Cats with Feline Morbillivirus, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:760-2 pubmed publisher
  34. O Hara T, House C, House J, Suydam R, George J. Viral serologic survey of bowhead whales in Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:39-46 pubmed
    ..All 36 whale sera were negative for antibody to VESV-A48, B51, C52, D53, E54, G55, H54, I55, and K54; Tillamook calicivirus, and dolphin morbillivirus; and SMSV-1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 13 by the S-K method. ..
  35. Park E, Suzuki M, Kimura M, Mizutani H, Saito R, Kubota N, et al. Epidemiological and pathological study of feline morbillivirus infection in domestic cats in Japan. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:228 pubmed
    ..However, we could not obtain histopathological evidence of a relationship between FmoPV infection and TIN. ..
  36. Pohlmeyer G, Pohlenz J, Wohlsein P. Intestinal lesions in experimental phocine distemper: light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. J Comp Pathol. 1993;109:57-69 pubmed
    ..lymphoid and epithelial cells and suggest an important role of the intestinal tract in phocine distemper and, by analogy, in other morbillivirus infections as a regular site of virus replication, virus shedding and immunosuppression.
  37. Pounder R. The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol. 1994;29 Suppl 7:11-5 pubmed
    ..Viral particles have been identified within the vascular endothelium, with the appearance of paramyxoviridae. In situ hybridization and other studies suggest that these particles are measles virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  38. van de Bildt M, Martina B, Vedder E, Androukaki E, Kotomatas S, Komnenou A, et al. Identification of morbilliviruses of probable cetacean origin in carcases of Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus). Vet Rec. 2000;146:691-4 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that morbilliviruses of aquatic mammals may cross barriers between species of different orders. ..
  39. Shimizu Y, Ohishi K, Suzuki R, Tajima Y, Yamada T, Kakizoe Y, et al. Amino acid sequence variations of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule and mortality caused by morbillivirus infection in cetaceans. Microbiol Immunol. 2013;57:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows a new approach based on receptor structure for assessing potential vulnerability to viral infection. This method may be useful for assessing the risk of morbillivirus infection in wildlife. ..
  40. Hyatt A, Selleck P. Ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus. Virus Res. 1996;43:1-15 pubmed
  41. Lipscomb T, Mense M, Habecker P, Taubenberger J, Schoelkopf R. Morbilliviral dermatitis in seals. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:724-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of morbilliviral dermatitis in marine mammals. ..
  42. Baumgartner W, Alldinger S, Beineke A, Gröters S, Herden C, Kaim U, et al. [Canine distemper virus--an agent looking for new hosts]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003;110:137-42 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined whether a morbillivirus from other marine mammals or terrestrial carnivores caused the infection in this unprotected seal populations. ..
  43. Osterhaus A. Catastrophes after crossing species barriers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:791-3 pubmed
    ..Extensive diagnostic and surveillance networks, as well as novel vaccine- and antiviral development strategies should provide us with the safeguards to limit its impact. ..
  44. Munson L, Calzada N, Kennedy S, Sorensen T. Luteinized ovarian cysts in Mediterranean striped dolphins. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:656-60 pubmed
    ..These cysts may impede population recovery from the epidemic if similar cysts occurred on surviving dolphins. ..
  45. Osterhaus A, van de Bildt M, Vedder L, Martina B, Niesters H, Vos J, et al. Monk seal mortality: virus or toxin?. Vaccine. 1998;16:979-81 pubmed
    ..Therefore it is concluded that vaccination with a safe and effective non-replicating vaccine should be considered as a management tool in the conservation of Mediterranean monk seals. ..
  46. de Swart R, Ross P, Vos J, Osterhaus A. Impaired immunity in harbour seals [Phoca vitulina] fed environmentally contaminated herring. Vet Q. 1996;18 Suppl 3:S127-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of immunosuppression in mammals following chronic exposure to environmental contaminants at ambient environmental levels. ..
  47. Vaughan K, Del Crew J, Hermanson G, Wloch M, Riffenburgh R, Smith C, et al. A DNA vaccine against dolphin morbillivirus is immunogenic in bottlenose dolphins. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;120:260-6 pubmed
    ..Vaccine-specific immune responses were documented in all four vaccinated animals. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pathogen-specific immunogenicity to a DNA vaccine in an aquatic mammal species...
  48. Saliki J, House J, Mebus C, Dubovi E. Comparison of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in goat tissues and secretions. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:1349-53 pubmed
    ..9% versus 65.2%; P < 0.05). The S-ELISA is a suitable alternative to virus isolation...
  49. Diaz Delgado J, Sierra E, Vela A, Arbelo M, Zucca D, Groch K, et al. Coinfection by Streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus in a short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;124:247-252 pubmed publisher
    ..phocae has potential pathogenic capacity in common dolphins. The pathogenesis is proposed to have involved cutaneous penetration after a skin trauma, leading to initial cutaneous disease and eventual systemic infection...
  50. Saliki J, Cooper E, Gustavson J. Emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic approaches. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;969:51-9 pubmed
    ..For antibody detection, a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used on sera from several species, thus avoiding the need for multiple anti-species enzyme conjugates...
  51. Muller G, Wunschmann A, Baumgartner W, Birkun A, Komakhidze A, Stanev T, et al. Immunohistological and serological investigations of morbillivirus infection in Black Sea harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Vet Microbiol. 2002;87:183-90 pubmed
  52. Borrell A, Aguilar A, Corsolini S, Focardi S. Evaluation of toxicity and sex-related variation of PCB levels in Mediterranean striped dolphins affected by an epizootic. Chemosphere. 1996;32:2359-69 pubmed
    ..1994). Di-ortho congener 170 and non-ortho congener 126 were the major contributors to TEQ (33% and 30% respectively)...
  53. Worrall E, Litamoi J, Seck B, Ayelet G. Xerovac: an ultra rapid method for the dehydration and preservation of live attenuated Rinderpest and Peste des Petits ruminants vaccines. Vaccine. 2000;19:834-9 pubmed
    ..It presents a further step away from dependence on mandatory low temperature refrigerated storage and could lead to greater confidence in vaccine stability, potency and efficacy...
  54. Banyard A, Tiwari A, Barrett T. Morbillivirus infection in pilot whales: strict protein requirement drives genetic conservation. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1853-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, very few studies have looked at characterizing outbreaks of morbillivirus infections in whale species at the molecular level...
  55. Jones L, Tenorio E, Gorham J, Yilma T. Protective vaccination of ferrets against canine distemper with recombinant pox virus vaccines expressing the H or F genes of rinderpest virus. Am J Vet Res. 1997;58:590-3 pubmed
    ..To investigate the ability of rinderpest virus (RPV) antigens, expressed in pox virus vectors, to protect against canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in ferrets...
  56. Arikawa K, Wachi A, Imura Y, Sutummaporn K, Kai C, Park E, et al. Development of an ELISA for serological detection of feline morbillivirus infection. Arch Virol. 2017;162:2421-2425 pubmed publisher
    ..This ELISA is useful for epidemiological and immunological studies, as well as for diagnosis of FeMV infection. ..
  57. Hooper P, Ketterer P, Hyatt A, Russell G. Lesions of experimental equine morbillivirus pneumonia in horses. Vet Pathol. 1997;34:312-22 pubmed
    ..The presence of the syncytia in the small blood vessels in the lungs and other organs was interpreted as an important characteristic of the disease and consistent with a reaction to a morbillivirus...
  58. Van Bressem M, Van Waerebeek K, Fleming M, Barrett T. Serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the Southeast Pacific. Vet Microbiol. 1998;59:89-98 pubmed
    ..No convincing morbillivirus-specific antibody positive reactions were detected in the sera from either the Burmeister's porpoises or the inshore bottlenose dolphins...
  59. Fukuhara H, Chen S, Takeda S, Maenaka K. [Entry mechanism of morbillivirus family]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2013;133:549-59 pubmed
    ..These provide insight on the mechanism of morbillivirus entry event and furthermore drug developments...
  60. Baron J, Baron M. Creation of a completely helper cell-dependent recombinant morbillivirus. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique could be used to create virus-like particles for use as a vaccine or as antigen in immunological or serological assays...
  61. Murray K, Selleck P, Hooper P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, et al. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science. 1995;268:94-7 pubmed
    ..The virus induced syncytia that developed in the endothelium of blood vessels, particularly the lungs...
  62. De Guise S, Levin M. Cetacean-reconstituted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice respond to vaccination with canine distemper vaccine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;97:177-86 pubmed
    b>Morbillivirus infections have been responsible for mass mortalities in several species of marine mammals...
  63. Jauniaux T, Boseret G, Desmecht M, Haelters J, Manteca C, Tavernier J, et al. Morbillivirus in common seals stranded on the coasts of Belgium and northern France during summer 1998. Vet Rec. 2001;148:587-91 pubmed
    ..The lesions observed were consistent with those in animals infected by a morbillivirus, and demonstrated that distemper has recently recurred in North Sea seals...
  64. Ohishi K, Ando A, Suzuki R, Takishita K, Kawato M, Katsumata E, et al. Host-virus specificity of morbilliviruses predicted by structural modeling of the marine mammal SLAM, a receptor. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:227-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This set of residues appears to determine host-virus specificity and may be useful for risk estimation for morbilliviruses...
  65. Blixenkrone Møller M. Biological properties of phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus. APMIS Suppl. 1993;36:1-51 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the N, P, M, F, and H genes of PDV were aligned with corresponding sequences of other established members of the genus Morbillivirus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  66. Van Elk C, van de Bildt M, Jauniaux T, Hiemstra S, van Run P, Foster G, et al. Is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)?. Vet Pathol. 2014;51:1174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins. ..
  67. Furuya T, Sassa Y, Omatsu T, Nagai M, Fukushima R, Shibutani M, et al. Existence of feline morbillivirus infection in Japanese cat populations. Arch Virol. 2014;159:371-3 pubmed publisher
  68. Lipscomb T, Kennedy S, Moffett D, Ford B. Morbilliviral disease in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico. J Wildl Dis. 1994;30:572-6 pubmed
    ..Based on pathologic and immunocytochemical findings, the dolphin had morbillivirus-induced disease. This is the first report of morbilliviral disease in a marine mammal from the Gulf of Mexico...
  69. Olsson M, Karlsson B, Ahnland E. Diseases and environmental contaminants in seals from the Baltic and the Swedish west coast. Sci Total Environ. 1994;154:217-27 pubmed
  70. Sips G, Chesik D, Glazenburg L, Wilschut J, De Keyser J, Wilczak N. Involvement of morbilliviruses in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. Rev Med Virol. 2007;17:223-44 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on morbillivirus-induced neuropathologies with emphasis on aetiopathogenesis of CNS demyelination. The possible involvement of a morbillivirus in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis is discussed...
  71. Uchida K, Muranaka M, Horii Y, Murakami N, Yamaguchi R, Tateyama S. Non-purulent meningoencephalomyelitis of a Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). The first evidence of morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 1999;61:159-62 pubmed
    ..The present paper is a first report of spontaneously occurred morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan...
  72. Ohashi K, Miyazaki N, Tanabe S, Nakata H, Miura R, Fujita K, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of distemper virus infection in the Caspian Sea and in Lake Baikal. Vet Microbiol. 2001;82:203-10 pubmed
    ..Virus neutralizing tests and ELISA clearly suggested that distemper virus epidemic was caused in Caspian seals before the spring of 1997 and that CDV infection continued to occur in Lake Baikal in recent years...
  73. LeBoit P. What don't we know, and when did we know that we didn't know it?. Am J Dermatopathol. 2006;28:89-90 pubmed
  74. Williamson M, Hooper P, Selleck P, Gleeson L, Daniels P, Westbury H, et al. Transmission studies of Hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats. Aust Vet J. 1998;76:813-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the infectivity and transmissibility of Hendra virus (HeV)...
  75. Szekanecz Z, Szekanecz E, Morvai K, Racz T, Szegedi G, Sziklai I. [Current aspects of the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of otosclerosis: possibilities of drug therapy]. Orv Hetil. 1999;140:2435-40 pubmed
    ..As surgery is sometimes contraindicated or unsuccessful, drug therapy including the use of anti-osteoporotic on non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be administered, especially in the early phase of the disease...
  76. Selvey L, Wells R, McCormack J, Ansford A, Murray K, Rogers R, et al. Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus. Med J Aust. 1995;162:642-5 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of an outbreak of a viral infection affecting humans and horses...
  77. Ismail T, Yamanaka M, Saliki J, el Kholy A, Mebus C, Yilma T. Cloning and expression of the nucleoprotein of peste des petits ruminants virus in baculovirus for use in serological diagnosis. Virology. 1995;208:776-8 pubmed
    ..The recombinant protein was used successfully as a coating antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serological diagnosis of PPRV...
  78. Rubio Guerri C, Melero M, Esperón F, Bellière E, Arbelo M, Crespo J, et al. Unusual striped dolphin mass mortality episode related to cetacean morbillivirus in the Spanish Mediterranean sea. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:106 pubmed publisher
    ..Between March and April 2011, the number of strandings on the Valencian Community coast (E Spain) increased...
  79. Bolt G, Blixenkrone Møller M. Nucleic acid hybridization analyses confirm the presence of a hitherto unknown morbillivirus in Mediterranean dolphins. Vet Microbiol. 1994;41:363-72 pubmed
    ..The results of the comparison demonstrated that the dolphin morbillivirus is genetically different from CDV, PDV and MV. No indication of a close relationship between the dolphin isolate and either CDV, PDV or MV was found...
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    ..These results suggest that siRNA against this region should be further explored as a therapeutic strategy for morbillivirus infections.
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    ..Even though our data could not fully explain the viral-induced obesity, they may be helpful in understanding the molecular events associated with obesity and in investigating therapeutic alternatives...