paramyxoviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.

Top Publications

  1. Caracciolo S, Minini C, Colombrita D, Rossi D, Miglietti N, Vettore E, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection in young children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract disease: virologic and clinical features. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further evidence of the importance of hMPV as a pathogen associated with ARI in young children. Involvement of hMPV/RSV coinfection in cases of pneumonia is suspected. ..
  2. Li J, Ren L, Guo L, Xiang Z, Paranhos Baccala G, Vernet G, et al. Evolutionary dynamics analysis of human metapneumovirus subtype A2: genetic evidence for its dominant epidemic. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34544 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings provide important molecular insights into hMPV epidemics and viral variation, and explain the occurrence of an atypical epidemic of hMPV_A2, particularly hMPV_A2b. ..
  3. Williams J, Edwards K, Weinberg G, Griffin M, Hall C, Zhu Y, et al. Population-based incidence of human metapneumovirus infection among hospitalized children. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HPMV infection was most prominent from March through May. HMPV was detected in 3.8% of children hospitalized with ARI or fever, with a population incidence similar to that of influenza virus and parainfluenza virus 3. ..
  4. Matsuzaki Y, Takashita E, Okamoto M, Mizuta K, Itagaki T, Katsushima F, et al. Evaluation of a new rapid antigen test using immunochromatography for detection of human metapneumovirus in comparison with real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2981-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall sensitivity and specificity were 82.3% and 93.8%, respectively, suggesting that this test is useful for pediatricians to diagnose hMPV infection in a clinical setting. ..
  5. Wang Y, Chen Z, Yan Y, Guo H, Chu C, Liu J, et al. Seasonal distribution and epidemiological characteristics of human metapneumovirus infections in pediatric inpatients in Southeast China. Arch Virol. 2013;158:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..hMPV infection occurred throughout the year with peaks during late winter and early spring. Climatic factors, especially monthly average temperature, may affect the prevalence of hMPV in Suzhou. ..
  6. Hamelin M, Couture C, Sackett M, Kiener P, Suzich J, Ulbrandt N, et al. The prophylactic administration of a monoclonal antibody against human metapneumovirus attenuates viral disease and airways hyperresponsiveness in mice. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:39-46 pubmed
    ..Prophylactic administration of mAb 338 attenuates acute and late consequences of hMPV disease in this mouse model. ..
  7. Legrand L, Vabret A, Dina J, Petitjean Lecherbonnier J, Stéphanie G, Cuvillon D, et al. Epidemiological and phylogenic study of human metapneumovirus infections during three consecutive outbreaks in Normandy, France. J Med Virol. 2011;83:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This study determined the prevalence of hMPV in Normandy, its clinical impact and permitted the analysis of the molecular evolution during the successive outbreaks. ..
  8. Kim S, Sung H, Im H, Hong S, Kim M. Molecular epidemiological investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in a pediatric hemato-oncology patient population. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Three isolates from the outbreak had sequences identical to those of samples in the A2 cluster. There was also a separate nosocomial case represented by the B2 cluster. ..
  9. Ludewick H, Aerts L, Hamelin M, Boivin G. Long-term impairment of Streptococcus pneumoniae lung clearance is observed after initial infection with influenza A virus but not human metapneumovirus in mice. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1662-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, hMPV does not cause long-term impairment of pneumococcus lung clearance, in contrast to influenza A virus. ..

More Information

Publications90

  1. Hamelin M, Couture C, Sackett M, Boivin G. Enhanced lung disease and Th2 response following human metapneumovirus infection in mice immunized with the inactivated virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3391-400 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate the risks associated with immunization using inactivated hMPV in this animal model and that this aberrant response should be considered in the development of hMPV vaccines. ..
  2. Kim C, Choi J, Callaway Z, Kim H, Chung J, Koh Y, et al. Clinical and epidemiological comparison of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in seoul, Korea, 2003-2008. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:342-7 pubmed publisher
  3. Agrawal A, Roy T, Ghosh S, Chawla Sarkar M. Genetic variability of attachment (G) and Fusion (F) protein genes of human metapneumovirus strains circulating during 2006-2009 in Kolkata, Eastern India. Virol J. 2011;8:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent...
  4. Brodzinski H, Ruddy R. Review of new and newly discovered respiratory tract viruses in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:352-60; quiz 361-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This review serves to focus on some of the recent literature on these agents and the clinical impact they have on pediatric lung infection...
  5. Herfst S, Fouchier R. Vaccination approaches to combat human metapneumovirus lower respiratory tract infections. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:49-52 pubmed
    ..Here we give an overview of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a variety of live attenuated, virus vectored, inactivated virus and subunit vaccines that have been tested in animal models. ..
  6. Baños Lara M, Ghosh A, Guerrero Plata A. Critical role of MDA5 in the interferon response induced by human metapneumovirus infection in dendritic cells and in vivo. J Virol. 2013;87:1242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are relevant for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of hMPV infection. ..
  7. Darniot M, Pitoiset C, Petrella T, Aho S, Pothier P, Manoha C. Age-associated aggravation of clinical disease after primary metapneumovirus infection of BALB/c mice. J Virol. 2009;83:3323-32 pubmed publisher
  8. Raza K, Ismailjee S, Crespo M, Studer S, Sanghavi S, Paterson D, et al. Successful outcome of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient treated with intravenous ribavirin. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:862-4 pubmed
    ..hMPV was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction, and treated with intravenous ribavirin with a successful outcome. ..
  9. Govindarajan D, Kim S, Samal S. Contribution of the attachment G glycoprotein to pathogenicity and immunogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C. Avian Dis. 2010;54:59-66 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the G glycoprotein is an important determinant for the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV. ..
  10. Matsuzaki Y, Itagaki T, Ikeda T, Aoki Y, Abiko C, Mizuta K. Human metapneumovirus infection among family members. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the control of school-based outbreaks is important for preventing hMPV infection in infants. ..
  11. Matsuzaki Y, Itagaki T, Abiko C, Aoki Y, Suto A, Mizuta K. Clinical impact of human metapneumovirus genotypes and genotype-specific seroprevalence in Yamagata, Japan. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1084-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Ryder A, Tollefson S, Podsiad A, Johnson J, Williams J. Soluble recombinant human metapneumovirus G protein is immunogenic but not protective. Vaccine. 2010;28:4145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the analogous non-fusion glycoproteins of other human paramyxoviruses, HMPV G does not appear to be a protective antigen. This represents an unusual feature of HMPV. ..
  13. Schomacker H, Schaap Nutt A, Collins P, Schmidt A. Pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness caused by human parainfluenza viruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies using ex vivo human airway epithelium have focused on virus tropism, cellular pathology and the epithelial inflammatory response, elucidating how events early in infection shape the adaptive immune response and disease outcome. ..
  14. de Graaf M, Osterhaus A, Fouchier R, Holmes E. Evolutionary dynamics of human and avian metapneumoviruses. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative genetic diversity observed in the four HMPV lineages was low, most likely reflecting continual population bottlenecks, with only limited evidence for positive selection. ..
  15. Falsey A, Hennessey P, Formica M, Criddle M, Biear J, Walsh E. Humoral immunity to human metapneumovirus infection in adults. Vaccine. 2010;28:1477-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum antibody may play a role in protection from hMPV infection supporting the development of an hMPV vaccine that stimulates humoral immunity. ..
  16. Yu Q, Estevez C, Song M, Kapczynski D, Zsak L. Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene. Virus Res. 2010;147:182-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Chang A, Masante C, Buchholz U, Dutch R. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) binding and infection are mediated by interactions between the HMPV fusion protein and heparan sulfate. J Virol. 2012;86:3230-43 pubmed publisher
  18. Guerrero Plata A, Kolli D, Hong C, Casola A, Garofalo R. Subversion of pulmonary dendritic cell function by paramyxovirus infections. J Immunol. 2009;182:3072-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long-term immune function of pulmonary DC. ..
  19. Hoffmann J, Rabezanahary H, Randriamarotia M, Ratsimbasoa A, Najjar J, Vernet G, et al. Viral and atypical bacterial etiology of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in a rural tropical area of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43666 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs...
  20. Abbas M, Marschang R, Schmidt V, Kasper A, Papp T. A unique novel reptilian paramyxovirus, four atadenovirus types and a reovirus identified in a concurrent infection of a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) collection in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of concurrent infection with several different viruses and subsequent consequences for animal health should be kept in mind when testing reptile samples for viruses...
  21. Reina J, Ferres F, Alcoceba E, Mena A, de Gopegui E, Figuerola J. Comparison of different cell lines and incubation times in the isolation by the shell vial culture of human metapneumovirus from pediatric respiratory samples. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:46-9 pubmed
    ..The use of shell vials with commercial LLC-MK2 cells could be a method for isolating hMPV from respiratory samples in the pediatric population...
  22. Wen X, Krause J, Leser G, Cox R, Lamb R, Williams J, et al. Structure of the human metapneumovirus fusion protein with neutralizing antibody identifies a pneumovirus antigenic site. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:461-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a potently neutralizing anti-human metapneumovirus antibody (DS7) binds a structurally invariant domain of F, revealing a new epitope that could be targeted in vaccine development...
  23. Pavlin J, Hickey A, Ulbrandt N, Chan Y, Endy T, Boukhvalova M, et al. Human metapneumovirus reinfection among children in Thailand determined by ELISA using purified soluble fusion protein. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:836-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a newly discovered paramyxovirus that causes acute respiratory illness. Despite apparent near-universal exposure during early childhood, immunity is transient...
  24. Velayudhan B, Yu Q, Estevez C, Nagaraja K, Halvorson D. Glycoprotein gene truncation in avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolates from the United States. Virus Genes. 2008;37:266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, serial passage of aMPV-C in cell cultures and natural passage in turkeys in the field led to truncation of the G gene, which may be a mechanism of virus evolution for survival in a new host or environment...
  25. Louie J, Schnurr D, Pan C, Kiang D, Carter C, Tougaw S, et al. A summer outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in a long-term-care facility. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:705-8 pubmed
    ..Five of 14 respiratory specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction assay for hMPV; sequencing identified genotype A. In institutionalized elderly persons, hMPV may be an important cause of respiratory outbreaks year-round...
  26. De Swart R, van den Hoogen B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, van Amerongen G, Yüksel S, et al. Immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated human metapneumovirus induces hypersensitivity to hMPV infection. Vaccine. 2007;25:8518-28 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that formalin-inactivated hMPV vaccines have the same propensity to predispose for immune-mediated disease as inactivated RSV and MV vaccines...
  27. Baker K, Todd S, Marsh G, Fernandez Loras A, Suu Ire R, Wood J, et al. Co-circulation of diverse paramyxoviruses in an urban African fruit bat population. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the high rate of bat-human contact at the study site calls for the zoonotic potential of the detected viruses to be investigated further...
  28. Widmer K, Zhu Y, Williams J, Griffin M, Edwards K, Talbot H. Rates of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and influenza virus in older adults. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a prospective study to determine the disease burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in older adults in comparison with influenza virus...
  29. Papenburg J, Hamelin M, Ouhoummane N, Carbonneau J, Ouakki M, Raymond F, et al. Comparison of risk factors for human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus disease severity in young children. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, risk factors for severe hMPV disease remain unknown. We comparatively assessed environmental, host, and viral determinants for severe hMPV and RSV infections...
  30. Rafiefard F, Yun Z, Orvell C. Epidemiologic characteristics and seasonal distribution of human metapneumovirus infections in five epidemic seasons in Stockholm, Sweden, 2002-2006. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Large hMPV virus epidemics were anticyclical to large RSV epidemics. It is concluded that the epidemiology of hMPV differs markedly from other common respiratory viruses...
  31. Erickson J, Gilchuk P, Hastings A, Tollefson S, Johnson M, Downing M, et al. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2967-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses...
  32. Chung J, Han T, Kim S, Hwang E. Genotype variability of human metapneumovirus, South Korea. J Med Virol. 2008;80:902-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All hMPV subtypes except A1 co-circulated in Korean population. Although alternating predominance of hMPV subtypes from year to year could not be found, the changing predominance of sublineage A2a and A2b was demonstrated...
  33. Safdar A. Immune modulatory activity of ribavirin for serious human metapneumovirus disease: early i.v. therapy may improve outcomes in immunosuppressed SCT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008;41:707-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Xiao N, Xie Z, Zhang B, Yuan X, Song J, Gao H, et al. Prevalence and clinical and molecular characterization of human metapneumovirus in children with acute respiratory infection in China. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:131-4 pubmed
    ..Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a newly discovered paramyxovirus, has been associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). However, the prevalence and molecular characteristics of HMPV in China are still unclear...
  35. Egli A, Bucher C, Dumoulin A, Stern M, Buser A, Bubendorf L, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Infection. 2012;40:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical course in eight HSCT recipients suffering from hMPV infection...
  36. Cha R, Khatri M, Sharma J. B-cell infiltration in the respiratory mucosa of turkeys exposed to subtype C avian metapneumovirus. Avian Dis. 2007;51:764-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest, for the first time, the possible involvement of local mucosal immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of aMPV in turkeys...
  37. Kamble R, Bollard C, Demmler G, LaSala P, Carrum G. Human metapneumovirus infection in a hematopoietic transplant recipient. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:699-700 pubmed
  38. Hamelin M, Gagnon C, Prince G, Kiener P, Suzich J, Ulbrandt N, et al. Prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of a monoclonal antibody against the fusion protein of human metapneumovirus in a mouse model. Antiviral Res. 2010;88:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both prophylactic and, to a lesser extent, therapeutic administration of MAb 338 improved acute and late consequences of HMPV infection in a relevant mouse model...
  39. van Asten L, van den Wijngaard C, van Pelt W, van de Kassteele J, Meijer A, van der Hoek W, et al. Mortality attributable to 9 common infections: significant effect of influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza B, norovirus, and parainfluenza in elderly persons. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:628-39 pubmed publisher
  40. Chacon J, Mizuma M, Vejarano M, Toquin D, Eterradossi N, Patnayak D, et al. Avian metapneumovirus subtypes circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated chicken and turkey farms. Avian Dis. 2011;55:82-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the cocirculation of subtypes A and B in Brazilian commercial farms...
  41. Falsey A. Human metapneumovirus infection in adults. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:S80-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the true spectrum of adult hMPV remains to be defined, it is clear that hMPV can result in severe illness the frail elderly and adults with underlying diseases...
  42. Lüsebrink J, Wiese C, Thiel A, Tillmann R, Ditt V, Muller A, et al. High seroprevalence of neutralizing capacity against human metapneumovirus in all age groups studied in Bonn, Germany. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:481-4 pubmed publisher
  43. Deffrasnes C, Hamelin M, Prince G, Boivin G. Identification and evaluation of a highly effective fusion inhibitor for human metapneumovirus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:279-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, hMPV, compared to other paramyxoviruses and to the human immunodeficiency virus, seems to be more susceptible to HRA- than HRB-derived peptides...
  44. Thammawat S, Sadlon T, Hallsworth P, Gordon D. Role of cellular glycosaminoglycans and charged regions of viral G protein in human metapneumovirus infection. J Virol. 2008;82:11767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, taken together with the inhibition of hMPV infection by soluble G protein, indicate an important role for G protein and cellular GAGs in hMPV infection...
  45. Endo R, Ebihara T, Ishiguro N, Teramoto S, Ariga T, Sakata C, et al. Detection of four genetic subgroup-specific antibodies to human metapneumovirus attachment (G) protein in human serum. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay may be useful for the study of immune responses of humans to different hMPV strains, especially for clarifying the risk of reinfection with hMPV...
  46. Sung R, Chan P, Choi K, Yeung A, Li A, Tang J, et al. Comparative study of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for diagnosis of acute viral respiratory infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3073-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall sensitivity of viral detection with NPA specimens was higher than that obtained with NS specimens...
  47. Kamboj M, Gerbin M, Huang C, Brennan C, Stiles J, Balashov S, et al. Clinical characterization of human metapneumovirus infection among patients with cancer. J Infect. 2008;57:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..hMPV infection in a large population of patients with underlying cancer and varying degrees of immunosuppression has not been reported. We sought to characterize hMPV infection in patients with cancer...
  48. Okamoto M, Sugawara K, Takashita E, Muraki Y, Hongo S, Mizuta K, et al. Development and evaluation of a whole virus-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of human metapneumovirus antibodies in human sera. J Virol Methods. 2010;164:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This whole virus-based ELISA will be useful for the diagnosis of hMPV infection in clinical laboratories and is also useful for the large-scale investigations, such as seroprevalence among residents of a particular region...
  49. Apostoli P, Zicari S, Lo Presti A, Ciccozzi M, Ciotti M, Caruso A, et al. Human metapneumovirus-associated hospital admissions over five consecutive epidemic seasons: evidence for alternating circulation of different genotypes. J Med Virol. 2012;84:511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This local study provides further evidence that hMPV infection should be considered as a reason for hospital admission for acute respiratory disease in children...
  50. Schildgen V, van den Hoogen B, Fouchier R, Tripp R, Alvarez R, Manoha C, et al. Human Metapneumovirus: lessons learned over the first decade. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:734-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes our current knowledge on HMPV, HMPV disease pathogenesis, and disease intervention strategies and identifies a number of areas with key questions to be addressed in the future...
  51. Shahda S, Carlos W, Kiel P, Khan B, Hage C. The human metapneumovirus: a case series and review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ribavirin (oral and aerosolized) with IVIG is potentially an effective treatment option for those with severe disease...
  52. Hsieh Y, Chin H, Chiu N, Huang F. Hospitalized pediatric parainfluenza virus infections in a medical center. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to determine the clinical presentation of PIV infections in hospitalized children and to identify particular clinical indications that may effectively distinguish between different PIV serotypes...
  53. Qiao D, Janke B, Elankumaran S. Molecular characterization of glycoprotein genes and phylogenetic analysis of two swine paramyxoviruses isolated from United States. Virus Genes. 2009;39:53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses based on both F protein and HN protein suggested the classification of these viruses into the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, genus Respirovirus, and genotype A of BPIV3...
  54. Lu G, Gonzalez R, Guo L, Wu C, Wu J, Vernet G, et al. Large-scale seroprevalence analysis of human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections in Beijing, China. Virol J. 2011;8:62 pubmed publisher
    ..As a control, we used the human serum antibody against the N protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), the most important viral agent responsible for ARIs in children...
  55. Le Nouen C, Munir S, Losq S, Winter C, McCarty T, Stephany D, et al. Infection and maturation of monocyte-derived human dendritic cells by human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and human parainfluenza virus type 3. Virology. 2009;385:169-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Maturation by these viruses was anti-apoptotic. Inefficient infection of IDC and sub-optimal maturation might result in reduced immune responses, but these effects would be common to all three viruses rather than specific to HRSV...
  56. Li I, To K, Tang B, Chan K, Hui C, Cheng V, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection in an immunocompetent adult presenting as mononucleosis-like illness. J Infect. 2008;56:389-92 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a >/=4-fold rise in IgG against hMPV. This is the first case report illustrating the natural clinical course of hMPV-related MLI...
  57. Heikkinen T, Osterback R, Peltola V, Jartti T, Vainionpaa R. Human metapneumovirus infections in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute otitis media developed in 61% of hMPV-infected children <3 years of age. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of hMPV in the community is greatest in children <2 years of age...
  58. Johnstone J, Majumdar S, Fox J, Marrie T. Human metapneumovirus pneumonia in adults: results of a prospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:571-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight (4%) of 193 patients had hMPV RNA present, all detected during influenza season. hMPV is an important cause of pneumonia in adults...
  59. Hermos C, Vargas S, McAdam A. Human metapneumovirus. Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:131-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, long-term outcome, immunity and reinfection of hMPV...
  60. Debiaggi M, Canducci F, Ceresola E, Clementi M. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children. Virol J. 2012;9:247 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood...
  61. El Feghaly R, McGann L, Bonville C, Branigan P, Suryadevera M, Rosenberg H, et al. Local production of inflammatory mediators during childhood parainfluenza virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:e26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, elevated concentrations of CXCL8 in nasal wash samples are associated with more severe forms of PIV disease. ..
  62. Edwards K, Zhu Y, Griffin M, Weinberg G, Hall C, Szilagyi P, et al. Burden of human metapneumovirus infection in young children. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The inpatient and outpatient burden of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection among young children has not been well established...
  63. Deffrasnes C, Cavanagh M, Goyette N, Cui K, Ge Q, Seth S, et al. Inhibition of human metapneumovirus replication by small interfering RNA. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:821-32 pubmed
    ..Despite its major effects related to bronchiolitis, pneumonia and its potential role in recurrent wheezing episodes, there is still no commercial treatment or vaccine available against this paramyxovirus...
  64. Drexler J, Corman V, Müller M, Maganga G, Vallo P, Binger T, et al. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses. Nat Commun. 2012;3:796 pubmed publisher
    ..Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data...
  65. Sastre P, Ruiz T, Schildgen O, Schildgen V, Vela C, Rueda P. Seroprevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in healthy population analyzed by recombinant fusion protein-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Virol J. 2012;9:130 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to gain some detailed knowledge on the humoral immune response to both viruses in different populations of individuals...
  66. Liao R, Appelgate D, Pelz R. An outbreak of severe respiratory tract infection due to human metapneumovirus in a long-term care facility for the elderly in Oregon. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:171-3 pubmed publisher
  67. Qiao D, Janke B, Elankumaran S. Complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two swine parainfluenzavirus 3 isolates from pigs in the United States. J Virol. 2010;84:686-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These two viruses were mildly pathogenic to conventionally reared pigs, and results from a limited enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based serosurvey of swine farms in Minnesota and Iowa in 2007 and 2008 were negative...
  68. Ali S, Williams J, Chen Q, Faouri S, Faori S, Shehabi A, et al. Human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children in Amman, Jordan. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Longer surveillance studies are needed to better understand the seasonal epidemiology of HMPV and to assess if co-infection with HMPV and RSV leads to more severe illness...
  69. Zhang J, Dou Y, Wu J, She W, Luo L, Zhao Y, et al. Effects of N-linked glycosylation of the fusion protein on replication of human metapneumovirus in vitro and in mouse lungs. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1666-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies targeting N-linked glycosylation may be helpful for developing attenuated live vaccines or antiviral drugs for hMPV...
  70. Tu C, Chen L, Lee Y, Ko C, Chen C, Yang H, et al. An outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized psychiatric adult patients in Taiwan. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report this outbreak in a mental hospital to alert the medical profession that this unusual infection of hMPV can occur as an outbreak in an adult setting and is an occupational hazard for healthcare personnel...
  71. Bruno R, Marsico S, Minini C, Apostoli P, Fiorentini S, Caruso A. Human metapneumovirus infection in a cohort of young asymptomatic subjects. New Microbiol. 2009;32:297-301 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis has shown that circulating viruses belonged to different HMPV sublineages. Our findings indicate that asymptomatic carriage of HMPV might be a neglected source of viral transmission in the community...
  72. Lau S, Woo P, Wong B, Wong A, Tsoi H, Wang M, et al. Identification and complete genome analysis of three novel paramyxoviruses, Tuhoko virus 1, 2 and 3, in fruit bats from China. Virology. 2010;404:106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of phosphoprotein gene mRNA products confirmed mRNA editing. Antibodies to the viruses were detected in 48-60% of Leschenault's rousettes...
  73. Aberle J, Aberle S, Redlberger Fritz M, Sandhofer M, Popow Kraupp T. Human metapneumovirus subgroup changes and seasonality during epidemics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:1016-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the subgroups of HMPV that caused annual outbreaks and its seasonal occurrence during a 21-year period...
  74. Pabbaraju K, Wong S, McMillan T, Lee B, Fox J. Diagnosis and epidemiological studies of human metapneumovirus using real-time PCR. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:186-92 pubmed
    ..Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is prevalent in children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals, but available epidemiological data is limited...
  75. Souza J, Watanabe A, Carraro E, Granato C, Bellei N. Severe metapneumovirus infections among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients admitted to hospital with respiratory infection. J Med Virol. 2013;85:530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the significance of hMPV in immunocompetent adult patients with severe infections and further investigations are recommended for understanding the impact of this virus...
  76. Aberle S, Aberle J, Sandhofer M, Pracher E, Popow Kraupp T. Biennial spring activity of human metapneumovirus in Austria. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:1065-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain insight into the seasonality and epidemiologic characteristics of HMPV infection, this study determined the frequency of HMPV infections in hospitalized infants during a 7-year period...
  77. Wang H, Huang S, Wang S, Tsai H, Kiang D, Wang S, et al. Co-circulating genetically divergent A2 human metapneumovirus strains among children in southern Taiwan. Arch Virol. 2008;153:2207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicated that genetically divergent strains of hMPV which caused respiratory disease and hospitalization were circulating among children in Taiwan...
  78. Gaunt E, Jansen R, Poovorawan Y, Templeton K, Toms G, Simmonds P. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17427 pubmed publisher
    ..For both viruses, different sites were identified as positively selected between genetic groups...
  79. Gaunt E, McWilliam Leitch E, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Incidence, molecular epidemiology and clinical presentations of human metapneumovirus; assessment of its importance as a diagnostic screening target. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered human paramyxovirus associated with a spectrum of respiratory symptoms from the common cold to pneumonia and bronchiolitis...
  80. Canducci F, Debiaggi M, Sampaolo M, Marinozzi M, Berrè S, Terulla C, et al. Two-year prospective study of single infections and co-infections by respiratory syncytial virus and viruses identified recently in infants with acute respiratory disease. J Med Virol. 2008;80:716-23 pubmed publisher
  81. Pees M, Schmidt V, Marschang R, Heckers K, Krautwald Junghanns M. Prevalence of viral infections in captive collections of boid snakes in Germany. Vet Rec. 2010;166:422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant correlation was found between the origin of the snake and the presence of PMV, and between the presence of remarkable microbiological findings and husbandry conditions...