hepatitis e

Summary

Summary: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.

Top Publications

  1. Steyer A, Naglič T, Mocilnik T, Poljsak Prijatelj M, Poljak M. Hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and surface waters in Slovenia: prevalence and molecular characterization of a novel genotype 3 lineage. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1732-7 pubmed publisher
    A novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 lineage was identified in Slovenian pig herds. Stool samples from six Slovenian pig farms were collected and tested for the presence of HEV RNA. Of 85 individual samples 15 (20...
  2. Dalton H, Bendall R, Rashid M, Ellis V, Ali R, Ramnarace R, et al. Host risk factors and autochthonous hepatitis E infection. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23:1200-5 pubmed publisher
    In developed countries autochthonous hepatitis E infection is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 or 4 and mainly affects middle aged/elderly men. Host factors might explain why older men develop clinically overt disease...
  3. Kenney S, Pudupakam R, Huang Y, Pierson F, LeRoith T, Meng X. The PSAP motif within the ORF3 protein of an avian strain of the hepatitis E virus is not critical for viral infectivity in vivo but plays a role in virus release. J Virol. 2012;86:5637-46 pubmed publisher
    The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a multifunctional protein important for virus replication...
  4. Echevarria J, Gonzalez J, Lewis Ximenez L, Dos Santos D, Munne M, Pinto M, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection in Latin America: a review. J Med Virol. 2013;85:1037-45 pubmed publisher
    Data reported during recent years reveal the complex picture of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Latin America...
  5. Teshale E, Howard C, Grytdal S, Handzel T, Barry V, Kamili S, et al. Hepatitis E epidemic, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:126-9 pubmed publisher
    In October 2007, an epidemic of hepatitis E was suspected in Kitgum District of northern Uganda where no previous epidemics had been documented. This outbreak has progressed to become one of the largest hepatitis E outbreaks in the world...
  6. Li W, Shu X, Pu Y, Bi J, Yang G, Yin G. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in Yunnan Province, China. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1989-95 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs and the general population in the Yunnan province, China, were evaluated...
  7. Delarocque Astagneau E, Abravanel F, Moshen A, Le Fouler L, Gad R, El Daly M, et al. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of symptomatic acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:982-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of acute hepatitis E in Greater Cairo...
  8. Zhang H, Chen D, Wu Y, He Q, Chen H, Liu Z. Both swine and human cells are capable to support the replication of swine hepatitis E virus type 4 in vitro. Virus Res. 2011;158:289-93 pubmed publisher
    Using swine anal swab or liver as inocula, cell-culture systems were developed for swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine cells (IBRS-2) and human cells (A549)...
  9. Sellier P, Mazeron M, Tesse S, Badsi E, Evans J, Magnier J, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels. Virol J. 2011;8:171 pubmed publisher
    ..The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tang X, Yang C, Gu Y, Song C, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al. Structural basis for the neutralization and genotype specificity of hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10266-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis in humans, predominantly by contamination of food and water, and is characterized by jaundice and flu-like aches and pains...
  2. Fogeda M, Avellon A, Echevarria J. Prevalence of specific antibody to hepatitis E virus in the general population of the community of Madrid, Spain. J Med Virol. 2012;84:71-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an infectious agent causing hepatitis among humans...
  3. Motte A, Roquelaure B, Galambrun C, Bernard F, Zandotti C, Colson P. Hepatitis E in three immunocompromized children in southeastern France. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:162-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an emerging autochthonous disease in developed countries where links with a viral porcine reservoir have been evidenced...
  4. Agrawal V, Goel A, Rawat A, Naik S, Aggarwal R. Histological and immunohistochemical features in fatal acute fulminant hepatitis E. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012;55:22-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E is being increasingly recognized as an emerging infection in developed countries. Data on histological findings and nature of inflammatory cell infiltrate in liver in this disease are quite sparse...
  5. Borkakoti J, Hazam R, Mohammad A, Kumar A, Kar P. Does high viral load of hepatitis E virus influence the severity and prognosis of acute liver failure during pregnancy?. J Med Virol. 2013;85:620-6 pubmed publisher
    The incidence and mortality in pregnant women with acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) is high. Data on the viral load of HEV during pregnancy are limited...
  6. Mokhtari C, Marchadier E, Haïm Boukobza S, Jeblaoui A, Tesse S, Savary J, et al. Comparison of real-time RT-PCR assays for hepatitis E virus RNA detection. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:36-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute viral hepatitis in developed countries...
  7. Wilhelm B, Rajic A, Greig J, Waddell L, Trottier G, Houde A, et al. A systematic review/meta-analysis of primary research investigating swine, pork or pork products as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1127-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of our study were to identify and categorize primary research investigating swine/pork as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) using the relatively new technique of scoping study, and to investigate the potential association ..
  8. Gurley E, Halder A, Streatfield P, Sazzad H, Huda T, Hossain M, et al. Estimating the burden of maternal and neonatal deaths associated with jaundice in Bangladesh: possible role of hepatitis E infection. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:2248-54 pubmed publisher
    We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh.
  9. Jang J, Jung Y, Kim J, Lee S, Kim J, Hwang S, et al. Coexistence of IgM antihepatitis A virus and IgM antihepatitis E virus in acute viral hepatitis: a prospective, multicentre study in Korea. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:e408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis of hepatitis E using IgM anti-HEV should be made with caution.
  10. Abravanel F, Sandres Saune K, Lhomme S, Dubois M, Mansuy J, Izopet J. Genotype 3 diversity and quantification of hepatitis E virus RNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:897-902 pubmed publisher
    Genotype 3 hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) are distributed across the world and are now considered to be an emerging public health concern in industrialized countries...
  11. Cheng X, Wen Y, Zhu M, Zhan S, Zheng J, Dong C, et al. Serological and molecular study of hepatitis E virus among illegal blood donors. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:986-90 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the seroprevalence and molecular characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the illegal blood donors (IBDs) of central China in the early 1990s...
  12. Aggarwal R. Diagnosis of hepatitis E. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10:24-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries...
  13. Das R, Rathod S, Alagarasu K, Arankalle V, Tripathy A. Altered expressions of peripheral CD11c, CD80, CD83 markers and associations of HLA class II allele and haplotypes in self-limiting Hepatitis E infection. Hum Immunol. 2013;74:277-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major cause of self limiting viral hepatitis, is associated with a robust humoral, moderate CD4 T cell and CTL response...
  14. Nakamura S, Tsuchiya H, Okahara N, Nakagawa T, Ohara N, Yamamoto H, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in indoor-captive cynomolgus monkey colony. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:279-83 pubmed
    A serological survey of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody was conducted using 202 adult captive cynomolgus monkeys, who did not show any clinical signs of acute hepatitis...
  15. Houcine N, Jacques R, Salma F, Anne Gaëlle D, Amin S, Mohsen H, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in rural and urban populations, Tunisia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E119-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the leading agents of acute hepatitis...
  16. Geng J, Wang M, Wang L, Wang J, Yang Z, Cheng Y, et al. Genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of human hepatitis E virus in Nanjing, China. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:965-70 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the potential risk factors for sporadic hepatitis E...
  17. Hakze van der Honing R, Van Coillie E, Antonis A, van der Poel W. First isolation of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 in Europe through swine surveillance in the Netherlands and Belgium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22673 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 are a cause of human hepatitis and swine are considered the main reservoir...
  18. Bouquet J, Cheval J, Rogée S, Pavio N, Eloit M. Identical consensus sequence and conserved genomic polymorphism of hepatitis E virus during controlled interspecies transmission. J Virol. 2012;86:6238-45 pubmed publisher
    High-throughput sequencing of bile and feces from two pigs experimentally infected with human hepatitis E virus (HEV) of genotype 3f revealed the same full-length consensus sequence as in the human sample...
  19. Devhare P, Chatterjee S, Arankalle V, Lole K. Analysis of antiviral response in human epithelial cells infected with hepatitis E virus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63793 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis in developing nations and occurs in sporadic and epidemic forms. The disease may become severe with high mortality (20%) among pregnant women...
  20. Ijaz S, Said B, Boxall E, Smit E, Morgan D, Tedder R. Indigenous hepatitis E in England and wales from 2003 to 2012: evidence of an emerging novel phylotype of viruses. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1212-8 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced surveillance and molecular characterisation studies of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in England and Wales have been undertaken since 2003...
  21. Kamar N, Weclawiak H, Guilbeau Frugier C, Legrand Abravanel F, Cointault O, Ribes D, et al. Hepatitis E virus and the kidney in solid-organ transplant patients. Transplantation. 2012;93:617-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease in industrialized countries. Few data regarding genotype 3 HEV extrahepatic manifestations exist.
  22. Moal V, Gerolami R, Colson P. First human case of co-infection with two different subtypes of hepatitis E virus. Intervirology. 2012;55:484-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the main etiologic agent of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries, is now recognized as an emerging agent of autochthonous disease and chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients ..
  23. Labrique A, Sikder S, Krain L, West K, Christian P, Rashid M, et al. Hepatitis E, a vaccine-preventable cause of maternal deaths. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1401-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of illness and of death in the developing world and disproportionate cause of deaths among pregnant women...
  24. di Bartolo I, Diez Valcarce M, Vasickova P, Kralik P, Hernandez M, Angeloni G, et al. Hepatitis E virus in pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1282-9 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain during 2010...
  25. Mansuy J, Bendall R, Legrand Abravanel F, Saune K, Miedouge M, Ellis V, et al. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2309-12 pubmed publisher
    Using a validated sensitive assay, we found hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG in 52.5% of voluntary blood donors in southwestern France. This finding suggests HEV is highly endemic to this region...
  26. Haïm Boukobza S, Férey M, Vétillard A, Jeblaoui A, Pélissier E, Pelletier G, et al. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E in a misleading context of autoimmunity and drug-induced toxicity. J Hepatol. 2012;57:1374-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E is currently diagnosed after all other causes of hepatitis have been excluded. Moreover, HEV testing is not performed to prevent blood transmission in developed countries...
  27. Eldin S, Seddik I, Daef E, Shata M, Raafat M, Abdel Baky L, et al. Risk factors and immune response to hepatitis E viral infection among acute hepatitis patients in Assiut, Egypt. Egypt J Immunol. 2010;17:73-86 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Egypt...
  28. Drexler J, Seelen A, Corman V, Fumie Tateno A, Cottontail V, Melim Zerbinati R, et al. Bats worldwide carry hepatitis E virus-related viruses that form a putative novel genus within the family Hepeviridae. J Virol. 2012;86:9134-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in tropical and temperate climates. Tropical genotypes 1 and 2 are associated with food-borne and waterborne transmission...
  29. Shata M, Daef E, Zaki M, Abdelwahab S, Marzuuk N, Sobhy M, et al. Protective role of humoral immune responses during an outbreak of hepatitis E in Egypt. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:613-8 pubmed publisher
    Although the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is approximately 80% in adult Egyptians living in rural areas, symptomatic HEV-caused acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is sporadic and relatively uncommon...
  30. Dalton H, Hunter J, Bendall R. Hepatitis E. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:471-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E has been regarded as a disease of the developing world, where it causes large waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases of hepatitis. Recent research has shown this received wisdom to be mistaken...
  31. Chiu D, Chan M, Yeung A, Ngai K, Chan P. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in Hong Kong, 2008-2009. J Med Virol. 2013;85:459-61 pubmed publisher
    The public health impact of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection varies across the world. An HEV vaccine has been recently approved for clinical use in China...
  32. Davern T, Chalasani N, Fontana R, Hayashi P, Protiva P, Kleiner D, et al. Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1665-72.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been proposed as another cause of suspected drug-induced liver disease...
  33. Rose N, Lunazzi A, Dorenlor V, Merbah T, Eono F, Eloit M, et al. High prevalence of Hepatitis E virus in French domestic pigs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:419-27 pubmed publisher
    The importance of the domestic pig reservoir for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was assessed by estimating the seroprevalence and prevalence of HEV contaminated livers in French slaughter-aged pigs...
  34. Bajpai M, Gupta E. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E: is screening warranted?. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:353-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging infectious threat to blood safety. In recent years, there have been a number of publications delineating this threat by providing evidence of the transmissibility of this virus through transfusions...
  35. Dremsek P, Wenzel J, Johne R, Ziller M, Hofmann J, Groschup M, et al. Seroprevalence study in forestry workers from eastern Germany using novel genotype 3- and rat hepatitis E virus-specific immunoglobulin G ELISAs. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012;201:189-200 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of an acute self-limiting hepatitis in humans. In industrialized countries, autochthonous cases are linked to zoonotic transmission from domestic pigs, wild boar and red deer...
  36. Gupta P, Jagya N, Pabhu S, Durgapal H, Acharya S, Panda S. Immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:e177-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen and the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis all over the world...
  37. Halac U, Beland K, Lapierre P, Patey N, Ward P, Brassard J, et al. Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis E infection in a child post-bone marrow transplant. J Pediatr. 2012;160:871-4.e1 pubmed publisher
    Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs in immunosuppressed adults...
  38. Te H, Drobeniuc J, Kamili S, Dong C, Hart J, Sharapov U. Hepatitis E virus infection in a liver transplant recipient in the United States: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:810-3 pubmed publisher
    Chronic infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has recently been recognized in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals.
  39. Gupta E, Pandey P, Pandey S, Sharma M, Sarin S. Role of hepatitis E virus antigen in confirming active viral replication in patients with acute viral hepatitis E infection. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:374-7 pubmed publisher
    Demonstration of active viral replication is important in serologically confirmed cases of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection to assess prognosis...
  40. Chaussade H, Rigaud E, Allix A, Carpentier A, Touze A, Delzescaux D, et al. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence and risk factors for individuals in working contact with animals. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:504-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Tahk H, Lee M, Lee K, Cheon D, Choi C. Development of duplex RT-PCR-ELISA for the simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods. 2011;175:137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (duplex RT-PCR-ELISA) for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Duplex RT-PCR-ELISA could detect and differentiate HAV and HEV with specific probes...
  42. El Sayed Zaki M, Othman W. Role of hepatitis E infection in acute on chronic liver failure in Egyptian patients. Liver Int. 2011;31:1001-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The vast majority of patients who are referred to a specialist hepatological centre suffer from acute deterioration of their chronic liver disease. Yet, this entity of acute on chronic liver failure remains poorly defined...
  43. Geng J, Wang L, Wang X, Fu H, Bu Q, Liu P, et al. Potential risk of zoonotic transmission from young swine to human: seroepidemiological and genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus in human and various animals in Beijing, China. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:e583-90 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of infection and genotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among different species of animals, people whose works are related to pigs and the general population in the suburb of ..
  44. Munshi S, Taneja S, Bhavesh N, Shastri J, Aggarwal R, Jameel S. Metabonomic analysis of hepatitis E patients shows deregulated metabolic cycles and abnormalities in amino acid metabolism. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:e591-602 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E, which is endemic to resource-poor regions of the world, is largely an acute and self-limiting disease, but some patients have an increased susceptibility to develop fulminant hepatitis...
  45. Anty R, Ollier L, Peron J, Nicand E, Cannavo I, Bongain A, et al. First case report of an acute genotype 3 hepatitis E infected pregnant woman living in South-Eastern France. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:76-8 pubmed publisher
    In European countries, epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is not well known...
  46. Berto A, Backer J, Mesquita J, Nascimento M, Banks M, Martelli F, et al. Prevalence and transmission of hepatitis E virus in domestic swine populations in different European countries. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:190 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 and 4 can cause liver disease in human and has its main reservoir in pigs...
  47. Cheung M, Maguire J, Carey I, Wendon J, Agarwal K.  Review of the neurological manifestations of hepatitis E infection. Ann Hepatol. 2012;11:618-22 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis E (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging disease in developed countries...
  48. Bouquet J, Cherel P, Pavio N. Genetic characterization and codon usage bias of full-length Hepatitis E virus sequences shed new lights on genotypic distribution, host restriction and genome evolution. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1842-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is present in different species and ecological niches. It has been divided into 4 major mammalian genotypes...
  49. Moal V, Textoris J, Ben Amara A, Mehraj V, Berland Y, Colson P, et al. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection is specifically associated with an interferon-related transcriptional program. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:125-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a new causative agent of chronic hepatitis in solid organ transplant recipients...
  50. Kamar N, Izopet J, Tripon S, Bismuth M, Hillaire S, Dumortier J, et al. Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis E virus infection in transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1111-20 pubmed publisher
    There is no established therapy for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection...
  51. Khudyakov Y, Kamili S. Serological diagnostics of hepatitis E virus infection. Virus Res. 2011;161:84-92 pubmed publisher
    Development of accurate diagnostic assays for the detection of serological markers of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains challenging...
  52. Dong C, Zafrullah M, Mixson Hayden T, Dai X, Liang J, Meng J, et al. Suppression of interferon-? signaling by hepatitis E virus. Hepatology. 2012;55:1324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, on IFN signaling have not been investigated primarily because ..
  53. Vollmer T, Diekmann J, Johne R, Eberhardt M, Knabbe C, Dreier J. Novel approach for detection of hepatitis E virus infection in German blood donors. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2708-13 pubmed publisher
    The risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by contaminated blood products remains unknown...
  54. Osterman A, Vizoso Pinto M, Jung J, Jaeger G, Eberle J, Nitschko H, et al. A novel indirect immunofluorescence test for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies for diagnosis of Hepatitis E Virus infections. J Virol Methods. 2013;191:48-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) causes epidemic infections in regions of poor hygiene in the developing world...
  55. Christou L, Kosmidou M. Hepatitis E virus in the Western world--a pork-related zoonosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:600-4 pubmed publisher
  56. Carpentier A, Chaussade H, Rigaud E, Rodriguez J, Berthault C, Boue F, et al. High hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in forestry workers and in wild boars in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2888-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecally and orally transmitted human pathogen of worldwide distribution. In industrial countries, HEV is observed in an increasing number of autochthonous cases and is considered to be an emerging pathogen...
  57. Rossi Tamisier M, Moal V, Gerolami R, Colson P. Discrepancy between anti-hepatitis E virus immunoglobulin G prevalence assessed by two assays in kidney and liver transplant recipients. J Clin Virol. 2013;56:62-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging clinical threat in Europe among kidney and liver-transplant recipients. The incidence and prevalence of HEV infection in this special population are poorly known...
  58. Majumdar M, Ratho R, Chawla Y, Singh M. Evaluation of antigenicity and cell mediated immunity of hepatitis E virus patients: using non radioactive MTT assay. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2013;31:64-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of hepatitis in developing nations. Disease spans from asymptomatic infection to acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and acute liver failure (ALF). Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is less studied...
  59. Jacobs C, Chiluba C, Phiri C, Lisulo M, Chomba M, Hill P, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection in an urban population in Zambia: strong association with HIV and environmental enteropathy. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:652-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes major epidemics of infectious hepatitis, with high mortality rates in pregnant women...
  60. La Rosa G, Muscillo M, Vennarucci V, Garbuglia A, La Scala P, Capobianchi M. Hepatitis E virus in Italy: molecular analysis of travel-related and autochthonous cases. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1617-26 pubmed publisher
    Human hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen in industrialized countries. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the body of knowledge available on the molecular epidemiology of acute hepatitis E in Italy...
  61. Sanford B, Dryman B, Huang Y, Feagins A, LeRoith T, Meng X. Prior infection of pigs with a genotype 3 swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) protects against subsequent challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 human HEV. Virus Res. 2011;159:17-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. At least four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV have been reported: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic...
  62. Bouquet J, Tesse S, Lunazzi A, Eloit M, Rose N, Nicand E, et al. Close similarity between sequences of hepatitis E virus recovered from humans and swine, France, 2008-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2018-25 pubmed publisher
    Frequent zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been suspected, but data supporting the animal origin of autochthonous cases are still sparse...
  63. Garson J, Ferns R, Grant P, Ijaz S, Nastouli E, Szypulska R, et al. Minor groove binder modification of widely used TaqMan probe for hepatitis E virus reduces risk of false negative real-time PCR results. J Virol Methods. 2012;186:157-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in many parts of the developing world...
  64. Nakano T, Takahashi K, Arai M, Okano H, Kato H, Ayada M, et al. Identification of European-type hepatitis E virus subtype 3e isolates in Japanese wild boars: molecular tracing of HEV from swine to wild boars. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;18:287-98 pubmed publisher
    Nucleotide sequences of hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates infecting wild boars in Mie prefecture, which is located in the central region of Japan and is far from the most prevalent regions of HEV infection in Japan, were determined and ..
  65. Mateos Lindemann M, Díez Aguilar M, Galdamez A, Galan J, Moreno A, Pérez Gracia M. Patients infected with HIV are at high-risk for hepatitis E virus infection in Spain. J Med Virol. 2014;86:71-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus is responsible for sporadic cases of acute, self-limited viral hepatitis not only in endemic but also in industrialized countries...
  66. Keane F, Gompels M, Bendall R, Drayton R, Jennings L, Black J, et al. Hepatitis E virus coinfection in patients with HIV infection. HIV Med. 2012;13:83-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging infection in developed countries and is thought to be a porcine zoonosis. HEV can cause chronic infection and cirrhosis in the immunosuppressed, including patients with HIV infection...
  67. Rein D, Stevens G, Theaker J, Wittenborn J, Wiersma S. The global burden of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005. Hepatology. 2012;55:988-97 pubmed publisher
    We estimated the global burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2 in 2005...
  68. Shukla P, Nguyen H, Faulk K, Mather K, Torian U, Engle R, et al. Adaptation of a genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to efficient growth in cell culture depends on an inserted human gene segment acquired by recombination. J Virol. 2012;86:5697-707 pubmed publisher
    An infectious cDNA clone of a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus adapted to growth in HepG2/C3A human hepatoma cells was constructed...
  69. Smith D, Vanek J, Ramalingam S, Johannessen I, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Evolution of the hepatitis E virus hypervariable region. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2408-18 pubmed publisher
    The presence of a hypervariable (HVR) region within the genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains unexplained. Previous studies have described the HVR as a proline-rich spacer between flanking functional domains of the ORF1 polyprotein...
  70. Lack J, Volk K, Van Den Bussche R. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in wild rats, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1268-73 pubmed publisher
    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp...
  71. Izopet J, Dubois M, Bertagnoli S, Lhomme S, Marchandeau S, Boucher S, et al. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1274-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans...
  72. Meng X. Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2013;33:41-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E is an important disease in many developing countries of Asia and Africa with large explosive outbreaks and is also endemic with sporadic or cluster cases of hepatitis in many industrialized countries...
  73. Tripathy A, Das R, Rathod S, Gurav Y, Arankalle V. Peripheral T regulatory cells and cytokines in hepatitis E infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:179-84 pubmed publisher
    This study addresses the involvement of regulatory T cells in hepatitis E (HE) infection. The study population comprised 77 acute viral HE patients, 52 recovered individuals (overall, 129 individuals with HE) and 53 healthy controls...
  74. Suneetha P, Pischke S, Schlaphoff V, Grabowski J, Fytili P, Gronert A, et al. Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific T-cell responses are associated with control of HEV infection. Hepatology. 2012;55:695-708 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is usually self-limited but may lead to acute hepatitis and rarely to fulminant hepatic failure...
  75. Harrison A, Scobie L, Crossan C, Parry R, Johnston P, Stratton J, et al. Hepatitis E seroprevalence in recipients of renal transplants or haemodialysis in southwest England: a case-control study. J Med Virol. 2013;85:266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the haemodialysis patients had evidence of chronic infection. The reason haemodialysis patients have a high seroprevalence remains uncertain and merits further study...
  76. Garbuglia A, Scognamiglio P, Petrosillo N, Mastroianni C, Sordillo P, Gentile D, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype 4 outbreak, Italy, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:110-4 pubmed publisher
    During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, Italy were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China...
  77. Wang S, Dong C, Dai X, Cheng X, Liang J, Dong M, et al. Hepatitis E virus isolated from rabbits is genetically heterogeneous but with very similar antigenicity to human HEV. J Med Virol. 2013;85:627-35 pubmed publisher
    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) in China may represent a novel HEV genotype, although no consensus has been reached...
  78. Passos A, Heringer T, Medina Pestana J, Ferraz M, Granato C. First report and molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus infection in renal transplant recipients in Brazil. J Med Virol. 2013;85:615-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant recipients. Serological evidence for HEV infection has been discovered in various population groups in Brazil, and a single acute case has been confirmed...
  79. Yang D, Jiang M, Jin M, Qiu Z, Cui W, Shen Z, et al. Full-length sequence analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates: showing potential determinants of virus genotype and identity. Virus Genes. 2013;47:414-21 pubmed publisher
    The complete genome sequence of a genotype 4 strain of hepatitis E virus (CH-YT-HEV02) from a patient (in Yantai, China) has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CH-YT-HEV02 belongs to genotype 4, subtype 4a...
  80. El Sayed Zaki M, El Aal A, Badawy A, El Deeb D, El Kheir N. Clinicolaboratory study of mother-to-neonate transmission of hepatitis E virus in Egypt. Am J Clin Pathol. 2013;140:721-6 pubmed publisher
    To study the presence of hepatitis E viremia in neonates with congenital infections.
  81. Schlosser B, Stein A, Neuhaus R, Pahl S, Ramez B, Kruger D, et al. Liver transplant from a donor with occult HEV infection induced chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in the recipient. J Hepatol. 2012;56:500-2 pubmed publisher
    Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a self-limiting symptomatic or asymptomatic disease...
  82. Dell Amico M, Cavallo A, Gonzales J, Bonelli S, Valda Y, Pieri A, et al. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in humans and Swine, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1488-90 pubmed publisher
    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6...
  83. Cacciola I, Messineo F, Cacopardo B, Di Marco V, Galli C, Squadrito G, et al. Hepatitis E virus infection as a cause of acute hepatitis in Southern Italy. Dig Liver Dis. 2011;43:996-1000 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis in developing countries, whereas it is not considered a major health problem in Western World.
  84. Nelson K, Kmush B, Labrique A. The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infections in developed countries and among immunocompromised patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:1133-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of acute hepatitis in humans worldwide, both as epidemic and sporadic disease...
  85. Tripathy A, Das R, Rathod S, Arankalle V. Cytokine profiles, CTL response and T cell frequencies in the peripheral blood of acute patients and individuals recovered from hepatitis E infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31822 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E is a major public health problem in the developing countries. Pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is poorly understood.
  86. Li T, Ochiai S, Ishiko H, Wakita T, Miyamura T, Takeda N. A retrospective study on imported hepatitis E in Japan. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012;10:80-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a causative agent of human hepatitis E, is transmitted through an oral-fecal route, often by contaminated drinking water...
  87. Wedemeyer H, Pischke S, Manns M. Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatitis e virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:1388-1397.e1 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E has been considered to be a travel-associated, acute, self-limiting liver disease that causes fulminant hepatic failure in specific high-risk groups only...
  88. Scobie L, Dalton H. Hepatitis E: source and route of infection, clinical manifestations and new developments. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20:1-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E was previously thought to be a disease of developing countries causing significant morbidity and mortality in young adults, particularly among pregnant women and patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease...
  89. Cheng X, Wang S, Dai X, Shi C, Wen Y, Zhu M, et al. Rabbit as a novel animal model for hepatitis E virus infection and vaccine evaluation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51616 pubmed publisher
    The identification of hepatitis E virus (HEV) from rabbits motivated us to assess the possibility of using rabbits as a non-human primate animal model for HEV infection and vaccine evaluation.
  90. Sclair S, Schiff E. An update on the hepatitis E virus. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2013;15:304 pubmed publisher
    There have been recent key advances in the understanding of hepatitis E virus infection...
  91. Yugo D, Meng X. Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4507-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes...
  92. Geng Y, Zhao C, Fan J, Harrison T, Zhang H, Lian H, et al. Genotype analysis of hepatitis E virus from sporadic hepatitis E cases in northern China. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;20:413-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis E is an important public health problem in many countries. However, there is no definite conclusion about the zoonotic reservoir, transmission patterns and risk factors of hepatitis E in the human population...