hepatitis d

Summary

Summary: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.

Top Publications

  1. Zuberi B, Quraishy M, Afsar S, Kazi L, Memon A, Qadeer R, et al. Frequency and comparative analysis of hapatitis D in petients seeking treatment for hepatitis B. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:581-4 pubmed
    ..001), anti-HBc IgM (P = 0.02) and HBV DNA (P<0.001). HDV infection was common in patients with HBV in this cohort of patients. All patients of HBV should be screened for HDV before treatment decision for the former is taken. ..
  2. Sakugawa H, Nakasone H, Nakayoshi T, Kawakami Y, Miyazato S, Kinjo F, et al. Hepatitis delta virus genotype IIb predominates in an endemic area, Okinawa, Japan. J Med Virol. 1999;58:366-72 pubmed
    ..g., United States, Archangelos, Turkey, Albania, Peru). HDV genotype II in the Miyako Islands is therefore unique, and HDV infection may have been introduced at a relatively early time in this area. ..
  3. Niro G, Rosina F, Rizzetto M. Treatment of hepatitis D. J Viral Hepat. 2005;12:2-9 pubmed
    ..The response to alpha-interferon (IFN), which still represents the only therapy for chronic hepatitis D, varies widely and occurs at different times from the beginning of treatment...
  4. Heidrich B, Deterding K, Tillmann H, Raupach R, Manns M, Wedemeyer H. Virological and clinical characteristics of delta hepatitis in Central Europe. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:883-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) or delta hepatitis has mainly been studied in Asian and Mediterranean cohorts, but data on virological and clinical characteristics of HDV-infected Central and Northern European patients are limited...
  5. Yurdaydin C, Bozkaya H, Karaaslan H, Onder F, Erkan O, Yalcin K, et al. A pilot study of 2 years of interferon treatment in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:812-6 pubmed
    High dose interferon treatment for 1 year is the only established treatment for chronic hepatitis D, but it is associated with a high relapse rate after treatment discontinuation...
  6. Kao J, Chen P, Lai M, Chen D. Hepatitis D virus genotypes in intravenous drug users in taiwan: decreasing prevalence and lack of correlation with hepatitis B virus genotypes. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3047-9 pubmed
    Of 368 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected intravenous drug users, 144 (39%) were positive for antibody to hepatitis D virus (anti-HDV)...
  7. Gomes Gouvêa M, Soares M, Bensabath G, de Carvalho Mello I, Brito E, Souza O, et al. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus genotypes in outbreaks of fulminant hepatitis (Labrea black fever) in the western Brazilian Amazon region. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2638-43 pubmed publisher
  8. Kurbanov F, Tanaka Y, Elkady A, Oyunsuren T, Mizokami M. Tracing hepatitis C and Delta viruses to estimate their contribution in HCC rates in Mongolia. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:667-74 pubmed
    ..Used approach is useful in evaluation of current and prospective disease burden. ..
  9. Bakhshipour A, Mashhadi M, Mohammadi M, Nezam S. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis delta virus in chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Zahedan. Acta Med Iran. 2013;51:260-4 pubmed
    ..3% and 65.9% in carriers, patients with chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis, respectively. HDV infection is still an important public health problem in Zahedan and appears a major cause of progression of liver disease induced by HBV. ..

More Information

Publications76

  1. Tsatsralt Od B, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, Inoue J, Ulaankhuu D, Okamoto H. High prevalence of hepatitis B, C and delta virus infections among blood donors in Mongolia. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2513-28 pubmed
  2. Romeo R, Del Ninno E, Rumi M, Russo A, Sangiovanni A, de Franchis R, et al. A 28-year study of the course of hepatitis Delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Persistent HDV replication leads to cirrhosis and HCC at annual rates of 4% and 2.8%, respectively, and is the only predictor of liver-related mortality. ..
  3. Tsatsralt Od B, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, Endo K, Inoue J, Okamoto H. High prevalence of dual or triple infection of hepatitis B, C, and delta viruses among patients with chronic liver disease in Mongolia. J Med Virol. 2005;77:491-9 pubmed
    ..The 106 HCV RNA-positive samples were typed as genotype 1b (92.5%), 2a (0.9%), or 1b plus 2a (6.6%); mixed infection of two distinct HCV genotypes was found exclusively in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  4. Shadur B, Maclachlan J, Cowie B. Hepatitis D virus in Victoria 2000-2009. Intern Med J. 2013;43:1081-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) coinfection can adversely affect prognosis and complicate management of chronic hepatitis B...
  5. Taylor J. Replication of human hepatitis delta virus: recent developments. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:185-90 pubmed
    ..This mini-review focuses on advances gained over the last 2-3 years, together with an evaluation of HDV questions that are either unsolved or not yet solved satisfactorily. ..
  6. Børresen M, Olsen O, Ladefoged K, McMahon B, Hjuler T, Panum I, et al. Hepatitis D outbreak among children in a hepatitis B hyper-endemic settlement in Greenland. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe an outbreak of hepatitis D (HDV) infection among children in a hepatitis B hyper-endemic settlement of 133 inhabitants on the west coast ..
  7. Rivas P, Herrero M, Poveda E, Madejon A, Trevino A, Gutiérrez M, et al. Hepatitis B, C, and D and HIV infections among immigrants from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Immigrants constitute a major source of HIV and hepatitis viruses in Spain; therefore, it is important that control measures are intensified...
  8. Rizzetto M. Hepatitis D: thirty years after. J Hepatol. 2009;50:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    The key to the discovery of the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) was the description in Turin, Italy in the mid-1970s of the delta antigen and antibody in carriers of the hepatitis B surface antigen...
  9. Quintero A, Uzcategui N, Loureiro C, Villegas L, Illarramendi X, Guevara M, et al. Hepatitis delta virus genotypes I and III circulate associated with hepatitis B virus genotype F In Venezuela. J Med Virol. 2001;64:356-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the circulation of HDV genotype I among Amerindians, probably introduced through European immigrations, and that this HDV genotype is able to replicate in association with HBV genotype F...
  10. Viana S, Parana R, Moreira R, Compri A, Macedo V. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in the western Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:808-14 pubmed
    Severe cases of hepatitis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis D virus (HDV) are often seen in the Brazilian Amazon, but there is a paucity of epidemiologic studies on viral hepatitis in this area...
  11. Philipp T, Durazzo M, Trautwein C, Alex B, Straub P, Lamb J, et al. Recognition of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferases by LKM-3 antibodies in chronic hepatitis D. Lancet. 1994;344:578-81 pubmed
    Patients with chronic hepatitis D often have liver-kidney microsomal antibodies type 3 (LKM-3). These antibodies react with several microsomal antigens that have a molecular weight of 55 KDa and an isoelectric point of about 8...
  12. Gaeta G, Precone D, Cozzi Lepri A, Cicconi P, D Arminio Monforte A. Multiple viral infections. J Hepatol. 2006;44:S108-13 pubmed
    ..Studies are needed to assess treatment strategies...
  13. Farci P, Niro G. Clinical features of hepatitis D. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:228-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D is caused by infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), a defective RNA virus that requires the obligatory helper function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its in vivo transmission...
  14. Braga W, da Costa Castilho M, dos Santos I, Moura M, Segurado A. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006;39:519-22 pubmed
    ..Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of human immunodeficiency ..
  15. Rizzetto M, Ciancio A. Epidemiology of hepatitis D. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:211-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D occurs worldwide. The major victims of the hepatitis D virus (HDV) are individuals carrying the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); around 5% of the HBsAg carriers in the world are infected also by HDV...
  16. Zuberi B, Afsar S, Quraishy M. Triple hepatitis: frequency and treatment outcome of co/super-infection of hepatitis C and D among patients of hepatitis B. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:404-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the frequency of hepatitis C and D in patients of chronic hepatitis B and the treatment response of hepatitis B in such patients...
  17. Mumtaz K, Hamid S, Adil S, Afaq A, Islam M, Abid S, et al. Epidemiology and clinical pattern of hepatitis delta virus infection in Pakistan. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;20:1503-7 pubmed
    ..The global epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is changing. This study was performed to determine the epidemiology and clinical impact of hepatitis delta in Pakistan...
  18. Makino S, Chang M, Shieh C, Kamahora T, Vannier D, Govindarajan S, et al. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta (delta) virus RNA. Nature. 1987;329:343-6 pubmed
    ..Five open reading frames (ORFs) of more than 100 amino acids in both genomic and anti-genomic sense were found. The largest ORF in antigenomic sense, which can code for 214 amino acids, may correspond to the HDAg...
  19. Mohammad Alizadeh A, Ranjbar M, Tehrani A, Keramat F, Mamani M, Rezazadeh M, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis D virus and its risk factors in the west of Iran. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:519-23 pubmed publisher
    Despite the decreasing trend in hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection worldwide, the importance of this disease cannot be underestimated...
  20. Degertekin H, Yalcin K, Yakut M. The prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection in acute and chronic liver diseases in Turkey: an analysis of clinical studies. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2006;17:25-34 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to review the studies on hepatitis D virus-related liver diseases and to evaluate the national and regional outcomes in order to identify the hepatitis D virus infection in Turkey.
  21. Roshandel G, Semnani S, Abdolahi N, Besharat S, Keshtkar A, Joshaqani H, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive subjects in Golestan province, northeast Iran. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2008;41:227-30 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for its replication and expression...
  22. Ji J, Sundquist K, Sundquist J. A population-based study of hepatitis D virus as potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:790-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is dependent on the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission and replication because of its inability to produce its own coat...
  23. Caturelli E, Castellano L, Fusilli S, Palmentieri B, Niro G, Del Vecchio Blanco C, et al. Coarse nodular US pattern in hepatic cirrhosis: risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiology. 2003;226:691-7 pubmed
    ..terms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV); HBV with hepatitis D virus (HDV), formerly known as hepatitis delta virus; hepatitis C virus (HCV); and alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC) or ..
  24. Sagnelli E, Coppola N, Scolastico C, Filippini P, Santantonio T, Stroffolini T, et al. Virologic and clinical expressions of reciprocal inhibitory effect of hepatitis B, C, and delta viruses in patients with chronic hepatitis. Hepatology. 2000;32:1106-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, in multiple hepatitis we observed a reciprocal inhibition of the viral genomes and a more severe liver disease. In Case group b-C, serum HBV DNA was frequent and the clinical presentation was severe...
  25. Lu S, Chen T, Lee C, Wang J, Tung H, Wu J. Molecular epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis D virus in a unique triple hepatitis viruses (B, C, D) endemic community in Taiwan. J Med Virol. 2003;70:74-80 pubmed
    The molecular epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in a unique HBV, HCV, and HDV triple virus endemic community in southern Taiwan were investigated...
  26. Wedemeyer H. Hepatitis D revival. Liver Int. 2011;31 Suppl 1:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatitis delta is caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV) which requires presence of HBsAg for complete replication and transmission...
  27. Theamboonlers A, Hansurabhanon T, Verachai V, Chongsrisawat V, Poovorawan Y. Hepatitis D virus infection in Thailand: HDV genotyping by RT-PCR, RFLP and direct sequencing. Infection. 2002;30:140-4 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a degenerate RNA virus or virusoid that requires the surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBV), i.e. hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in order to become infectious...
  28. Moatter T, Abbas Z, Shabir S, Jafri W. Clinical presentation and genotype of hepatitis delta in Karachi. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:2604-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the clinical presentation and genotypes of delta hepatitis in local population...
  29. Taylor J. Virology of hepatitis D virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:195-200 pubmed publisher
    Although much of the current understanding of the replication of hepatitis D virus (HDV) has been gained from ex vivo rather than in vivo studies, many seemingly unique aspects have been discovered...
  30. Olivero A, Smedile A. Hepatitis delta virus diagnosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of an international reference HDV-RNA standard remains an unmet diagnostic need...
  31. Hsieh T, Liu C, Chen D, Chen P. Natural course and treatment of hepatitis D virus infection. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:869-81 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a subviral satellite with hepatitis B virus (HBV) as its natural helper virus. After entry into hepatocytes, it utilizes host cellular enzymes to replicate by a double-rolling-circle mechanism...
  32. Alvarado Mora M, Locarnini S, Rizzetto M, Pinho J. An update on HDV: virology, pathogenesis and treatment. Antivir Ther. 2013;18:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Current treatments include pegylated interferon-? and liver transplantation; the latter of which can be curative. Further studies are needed to develop better treatment strategies for this challenging disease. ..
  33. Abbas Z, Jafri W, Raza S. Hepatitis D: Scenario in the Asia-Pacific region. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:554-62 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is present worldwide and affects all age groups. Around 18 million people are estimated to be infected with HDV. An important trend in HDV infection is global decline...
  34. Xiridou M, Borkent Raven B, Hulshof J, Wallinga J. How hepatitis D virus can hinder the control of hepatitis B virus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5247 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection...
  35. Duarte M, Cardona N, Poblete F, González K, García M, Pacheco M, et al. A comparative epidemiological study of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in Yanomami and Piaroa Amerindians of Amazonas State, Venezuela. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:924-33 pubmed publisher
    To report the prevalences of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) infections in remote and more accessible Yanomami and Piaroa Venezuelan Amazonian Amerindian populations; to estimate incidence per susceptible.
  36. Alvarado Mora M, Romano C, Gomes Gouvêa M, Gutierrez M, Carrilho F, Pinho J. Dynamics of hepatitis D (delta) virus genotype 3 in the Amazon region of South America. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1462-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences found among HDV/3 and the other HDV genotypes concerning its diversity raises the hypothesis of a different origin and/or a different transmission route...
  37. Popescu G, Otelea D, Gavriliu L, Neaga E, Popescu C, Paraschiv S, et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis D in patients infected with hepatitis B virus in bucharest: a cross-sectional study. J Med Virol. 2013;85:769-74 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological analyses indicate a decreasing level of hepatitis D (HDV) infections in most developed countries during the last 15 years...
  38. Gholamreza R, Shahryar S, Abbasali K, Hamidreza J, Abdolvahab M, Khodaberdi K, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and its co-infection with hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus in Iranian adult population. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61:263-8 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent public health problems worldwide (especially in developing countries)...
  39. Husa P, Linhartova A, Nemecek V, Husova L. Hepatitis D. Acta Virol. 2005;49:219-25 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a small, RNA-containing virus that requires the concomitant presence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in an obligate manner for its survival and pathogenicity. HDV infection is very uncommon in Czech Republic...
  40. Gheorghe L, Iacob S, Simionov I, Vadan R, Gheorghe C, Iacob R, et al. Natural history of compensated viral B and D cirrhosis. Rom J Gastroenterol. 2005;14:329-35 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to define the natural long-term course of HDV compensated cirrhosis...
  41. Braga W, Castilho M, Borges F, Leão J, Martinho A, Rodrigues I, et al. Hepatitis D virus infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon - far from a vanishing disease. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:691-5 pubmed
    A decline in hepatitis D virus (HDV) occurrence was described in Europe and Asia. We estimated HDV prevalence in the Brazilian Amazon following hepatitis B vaccination.
  42. Wedemeyer H, Manns M. Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of hepatitis D: update and challenges ahead. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;7:31-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D is caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and is considered to be the most severe form of viral hepatitis in humans...
  43. Fonseca J. [Hepatitis D]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2002;35:181-90 pubmed
    The hepatitis D virus (HDV), also called delta virus, is a small circular RNA virus...
  44. Kodani M, Martin A, Mixson Hayden T, Drobeniuc J, Gish R, Kamili S. One-step real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of hepatitis D virus RNA. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:531-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus which requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) for its assembly...
  45. Sun Z, Zheng W, Zhang B, Lu L, Mao X, Shi R, et al. Detection of hepatitis D virus by cDNA microarray method. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004;3:423-7 pubmed
    ..In acute and chronic infections, hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection often leads to a more severe disease...
  46. Chakraborty P, Kailash U, Jain A, Goyal R, Gupta R, Das B, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis D virus in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:254-7 pubmed
    Several reports indicated a declining trend in the occurrence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in some geographical areas...
  47. Wu J. Functional and clinical significance of hepatitis D virus genotype II infection. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;307:173-86 pubmed
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is one of the important etiologies of fulminant hepatitis and may aggravate the clinical course of chronic HBV infection to cirrhosis and liver failure. HDV was classified into three genotypes...
  48. Nguyen V, McLaws M, Dore G. Highly endemic hepatitis B infection in rural Vietnam. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:2093-100 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine HBV and HDV prevalence, and identify risk factors for HBV infection...
  49. Deterding K, Pothakamuri S, Schlaphoff V, Hadem J, Metzler F, Bahr M, et al. Clearance of chronic HCV infection during acute delta hepatitis. Infection. 2009;37:159-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HCV can be cleared by bystander mechanisms during acute infections with other pathogens which may be considered in the development of immunotherapies for hepatitis C...
  50. Kucirka L, Farzadegan H, Feld J, Mehta S, Winters M, Glenn J, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and viral dynamics of hepatitis delta among injection drug users. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal increase in HDV prevalence among those with chronic HBV infection is troubling; understanding this change should be a priority to prevent the burden from increasing. ..
  51. Lutgehetmann M, Mancke L, Volz T, Helbig M, Allweiss L, Bornscheuer T, et al. Humanized chimeric uPA mouse model for the study of hepatitis B and D virus interactions and preclinical drug evaluation. Hepatology. 2012;55:685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the HBV entry inhibitor Myrcludex-B, efficiently hindered the establishment of HDV infection in vivo...
  52. Degertekin H, Yalcin K, Yakut M, Yurdaydin C. Seropositivity for delta hepatitis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis in Turkey: a meta-analysis. Liver Int. 2008;28:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent reports suggest a decline of delta hepatitis (DH) in the West as well as in the Far East...
  53. Sheldon J, Ramos B, Toro C, Rios P, Martínez Alarcón J, Bottecchia M, et al. Does treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reduce hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication in HIV-HBV-HDV-coinfected patients?. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:97-102 pubmed
    ..Treatment is currently limited to interferon therapy. The role of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues active against HBV has not been well examined in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH)...
  54. Sebastiani G, Tempesta D, Alberti A. Hepatic iron overload is common in chronic hepatitis B and is more severe in patients coinfected with hepatitis D virus. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:e170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As HBV/HDV liver disease is generally more rapidly progressive than that caused by HBV monoinfection, we speculate that iron overload may be one of the factors contributing to the severity of liver disease...
  55. Somi M, Farhang S, Miri S, Pouri A, Mjidi G, Alavian S. The frequency of hepatitis D virus in patients with hepatitis B in Iran: an increasing rate?. Trop Doct. 2009;39:154-6 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of the hepatitis D virus (HDV), the risk factors and its association with the severity of liver disease...
  56. Al Traif I, Ali A, Dafalla M, Al Tamimi W, Qassem L. Prevalence of hepatitis delta antibody among HBsAG carriers in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2004;24:343-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the exact prevalence of delta antibody in HBsAg positive carriers in Saudi Arabia...
  57. Farci P. Delta hepatitis: an update. J Hepatol. 2003;39 Suppl 1:S212-9 pubmed
  58. Novick D, Farci P, Croxson T, Taylor M, Schneebaum C, Lai M, et al. Hepatitis D virus and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in parenteral drug abusers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive. J Infect Dis. 1988;158:795-803 pubmed
    We studied unselected, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive parenteral drug abusers for antibody to hepatitis D virus (anti-HD) and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  59. Kim H, Kim S, Park H, Shin W, Kim K, Lee J, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of hepatitis D virus co-infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Korea. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1172-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection can cause severe acute and chronic liver disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
  60. Hughes S, Wedemeyer H, Harrison P. Hepatitis delta virus. Lancet. 2011;378:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The hepatitis D virion is composed of a coat of HBV envelope proteins surrounding the nucleocapsid, which consists of a single-..
  61. Taylor J. Hepatitis delta virus. Virology. 2006;344:71-6 pubmed
    ..It starts with a brief overview of HDV and its replication, notes some of the major unresolved questions, and directs the interested reader to more detailed reviews...
  62. Rizzetto M. Hepatitis D: clinical features and therapy. Dig Dis. 2010;28:139-43 pubmed publisher
    Surveys in the 1980s showed that the hepatitis D virus (HDV) is endemic worldwide, though with prevalences and patterns of infection varying in different areas...
  63. Brichler S, Le Gal F, Butt A, Chevret S, Gordien E. Commercial real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays can underestimate or fail to quantify hepatitis delta virus viremia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:734-40 pubmed publisher
  64. Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, Gotanda Y, Tsuda F, Komatsu F, Kawabata T, et al. High prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and E viruses and viremia of hepatitis B, C, and D viruses among apparently healthy populations in Mongolia. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:392-8 pubmed
    ..A nationwide epidemiological survey of hepatitis viruses should be conducted in an effort to prevent de novo infection with hepatitis viruses in Mongolia...
  65. William Tong C, Asher R, Toby M, Ngui S, Tettmar K, Ijaz S, et al. A re-assessment of the epidemiology and patient characteristics of hepatitis D virus infection in inner city London. J Infect. 2013;66:521-7 pubmed publisher
    To re-assess the prevalence and patient characteristics of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection among hepatitis B patients in inner city London.
  66. Lusida M, Surayah -, Sakugawa H, Nagano Fujii M, Soetjipto -, Mulyanto -, et al. Genotype and subtype analyses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and possible co-infection of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis D virus (HDV) in blood donors, patients with chronic liver disease and patients on hemodialysis in Surabaya, Indonesia. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:969-75 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, HBsAg titers were lower in HBV carriers with HCV co-infection than in those without HCV co-infection. We also found that prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection was < 0.5% among HBV carriers in Surabaya.
  67. Gaeta G, Stroffolini T, Chiaramonte M, Ascione T, Stornaiuolo G, Lobello S, et al. Chronic hepatitis D: a vanishing Disease? An Italian multicenter study. Hepatology. 2000;32:824-7 pubmed
    ..The results anticipate the almost complete control of HDV infection in the near future...