classical swine fever

Summary

Summary: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.

Top Publications

  1. Sánchez Cordón P, Romanini S, Salguero F, Ruiz Villamor E, Carrasco L, Gomez Villamandos J. A histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of the intestine in pigs inoculated with classical swine fever virus. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:254-62 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to report on the lesions occurring in the intestine during experimental classical swine fever (CSF) and to clarify the nature of infected cells and the distribution of viral antigen...
  2. Paton D, Greiser Wilke I. Classical swine fever--an update. Res Vet Sci. 2003;75:169-78 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is a serious and contagious viral disease of pigs and wild boar with a widespread worldwide distribution...
  3. Weesendorp E, Loeffen W, Stegeman A, de Vos C. Time-dependent infection probability of classical swine fever via excretions and secretions. Prev Vet Med. 2011;98:152-64 pubmed publisher
    Several routes contribute to the spread of classical swine fever (CSF) during outbreaks of this disease. However, for many infected herds in recent epidemics, no route of virus introduction could be indentified...
  4. Tang Q, Guo K, Kang K, Zhang Y, He L, Wang J. Classical swine fever virus NS2 protein promotes interleukin-8 expression and inhibits MG132-induced apoptosis. Virus Genes. 2011;42:355-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a hemorrhagic disease of pigs and is characterized by disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombocytopenia, and immunosuppression...
  5. Dong X, Wei K, Liu Z, Chen Y. Candidate peptide vaccine induced protection against classical swine fever virus. Vaccine. 2002;21:167-73 pubmed
    Former investigations demonstrated that the envelope glycoprotein E2 could protect pigs from classical swine fever virus (CSFV)...
  6. Li H, Yang H. Infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus suppresses the antibody response to classical swine fever virus vaccination. Vet Microbiol. 2003;95:295-301 pubmed
    ..reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on the antibody response to vaccination with classical swine fever (CSF) vaccine in piglets were investigated...
  7. Choi C, Hwang K, Chae C. Classical swine fever virus induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lymphocyte apoptosis. Arch Virol. 2004;149:875-89 pubmed
    ..of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and apoptosis was studied in lymph nodes from pigs infected with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Pigs were inoculated with CSFV and euthanized at 3, 5, 7, and 10 days postinoculation...
  8. Dong X, Chen Y, Wu Y, Chen Y. Candidate multi-peptide-vaccine against classical swine fever virus induced potent immunity with serological marker. Vaccine. 2005;23:3630-3 pubmed
    Our previous study proposed a protective multi-peptide-vaccine (MPV) with Freund's adjuvant against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In this study, another candidate MPV, using aluminum adjuvant, was further examined...
  9. Dong X, Chen Y. Marker vaccine strategies and candidate CSFV marker vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:205-30 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is its etiological agent, and the only natural hosts are domestic pigs and wild boars...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Durand S, Hulst M, de Wit A, Mastebroek L, Loeffen W. Activation and modulation of antiviral and apoptotic genes in pigs infected with classical swine fever viruses of high, moderate or low virulence. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1417-31 pubmed publisher
    ..For the highly and moderately virulent strains, this decrease in antiviral and apoptotic gene expression coincided with higher levels of virus in these immune tissues. ..
  2. Tignon M, Kulcsar G, Haegeman A, Barna T, Fabian K, Lévai R, et al. Classical swine fever: comparison of oronasal immunisation with CP7E2alf marker and C-strain vaccines in domestic pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:59-68 pubmed publisher
    Effective oronasal vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is essential to achieve protection in wild boar. However the currently available live CSF vaccines, e.g...
  3. Nunez A, Gomez Villamandos J, Sánchez Cordón P, Fernández de Marco M, Pedrera M, Salguero F, et al. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines by hepatic macrophages in acute classical swine fever. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:23-32 pubmed
    Fourteen pigs were inoculated with the 'Alfort 187' strain of classical swine fever (CSF) virus and killed in pairs at 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14 or 17 days post-inoculation for histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical ..
  4. Dong X, Chen Y. Spying the neutralizing epitopes on E2 N-terminal by candidate epitope-vaccines against classical swine fever virus. Vaccine. 2006;24:4029-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these findings also indicate that epitope-vaccine is a potent candidate strategy for marker vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV).
  5. Vengust G, Grom J, Bidovec A, Kramer M. Monitoring of classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Slovenia. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:247-9 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious multi-systemic haemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Not only domestic pigs, but also wild boar appear to play a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF...
  6. Graham S, Everett H, Haines F, Johns H, Sosan O, Salguero F, et al. Challenge of pigs with classical swine fever viruses after C-strain vaccination reveals remarkably rapid protection and insights into early immunity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29310 pubmed publisher
    ..Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF)...
  7. Chen L, Dong X, Zhao M, Shen H, Wang J, Pei J, et al. Classical swine fever virus failed to activate nuclear factor-kappa b signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Virol J. 2012;9:293 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the cause of CSF which is a severe disease of pigs, leading to heavy economic losses in many regions of the world...
  8. Crauwels A, Nielen M, Elbers A, Stegeman J, Tielen M. Neighbourhood infections of classical swine fever during the 1997-1998 epidemic in The Netherlands. Prev Vet Med. 2003;61:263-77 pubmed
    Data of the 1997-1998 epidemic of classical swine fever (CSF) in The Netherlands were analysed in survival analysis to identify risk factors that were associated with the rate of neighbourhood infections...
  9. Leuenberger R, Boujon P, Thur B, Miserez R, Garin Bastuji B, Rüfenacht J, et al. Prevalence of classical swine fever, Aujeszky's disease and brucellosis in a population of wild boar in Switzerland. Vet Rec. 2007;160:362-8 pubmed
    ..could be detected with a probability of 95 per cent at a threshold prevalence of less than 1 per cent for classical swine fever and Aujeszky's disease and less than 1.5 per cent for brucellosis...
  10. Chen N, Hu H, Zhang Z, Shuai J, Jiang L, Fang W. Genetic diversity of the envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus: recent isolates branched away from historical and vaccine strains. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:286-99 pubmed
    The envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) plays multiple roles in the viral life cycle, interaction with host and pathogenesis...
  11. Gladue D, Holinka L, Fernandez Sainz I, Prarat M, O Donell V, Vepkhvadze N, et al. Effects of the interactions of classical swine fever virus Core protein with proteins of the SUMOylation pathway on virulence in swine. Virology. 2010;407:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway, SUMO-1 (small ubiquitin-like modifier) and UBC9, a SUMO-1 conjugating enzyme that interact with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Core protein...
  12. Gladue D, Holinka L, Largo E, Fernandez Sainz I, Carrillo C, O Donnell V, et al. Classical swine fever virus p7 protein is a viroporin involved in virulence in swine. J Virol. 2012;86:6778-91 pubmed publisher
    The nonstructural protein p7 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a small hydrophobic polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 6 to 7 kDa...
  13. Van Gennip H, Vlot A, Hulst M, De Smit A, Moormann R. Determinants of virulence of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia. J Virol. 2004;78:8812-23 pubmed
    Two related classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Brescia clones were isolated from blood samples from an infected pig. Virus C1.1.1 is a cell-adapted avirulent variant, whereas CoBrB is a virulent variant...
  14. Deng M, Huang C, Huang T, Chang C, Lin Y, Chien M, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus isolated from Taiwan. Vet Microbiol. 2005;106:187-93 pubmed
    By analyzing the E2 sequences of classical swine fever virus from field outbreaks in Taiwan during 1993-2001, three virus populations with distinct genotypes were determined including one historical (subgroup 3...
  15. Hoffmann B, Beer M, Schelp C, Schirrmeier H, Depner K. Validation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for sensitive and specific detection of classical swine fever. J Virol Methods. 2005;130:36-44 pubmed
    ..multiplexed for simultaneous detection of an internal control, for the simple and rapid diagnosis of classical swine fever (CSF) was developed...
  16. Boender G, Meester R, Gies E, de Jong M. The local threshold for geographical spread of infectious diseases between farms. Prev Vet Med. 2007;82:90-101 pubmed
    ..of the spatial pattern of farms on the geographical spread of infectious livestock diseases, such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza in a combined analytical-numerical approach...
  17. van Oirschot J. Emergency vaccination against classical swine fever. Dev Biol (Basel). 2003;114:259-67 pubmed
    At present, emergency vaccination against classical swine fever is not practised in Western countries. However, stamping out and pre-emptive culling policies are increasingly meeting greater resistance...
  18. Suradhat S, Sada W, Buranapraditkun S, Damrongwatanapokin S. The kinetics of cytokine production and CD25 expression by porcine lymphocyte subpopulations following exposure to classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;106:197-208 pubmed
    ..production relative to CD25 expression in porcine lymphocyte subpopulations, following immunization with a classical swine fever (CSF) vaccine...
  19. Lange A, Blome S, Moennig V, Greiser Wilke I. [Pathogenesis of classical swine fever--similarities to viral haemorrhagic fevers: a review]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:36-47 pubmed
    ..Due to the clinical picture, the acute lethal form of classical swine fever (CSF) is also considered as a viral haemorrhagic disease...
  20. Ceppi M, de Bruin M, Seuberlich T, Balmelli C, Pascolo S, Ruggli N, et al. Identification of classical swine fever virus protein E2 as a target for cytotoxic T cells by using mRNA-transfected antigen-presenting cells. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2525-34 pubmed
    Vaccination of pigs against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) by using live-virus vaccines induces early protection before detectable humoral immune responses...
  21. von Rüden S, Staubach C, Kaden V, Hess R, Blicke J, Kühne S, et al. Retrospective analysis of the oral immunisation of wild boar populations against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in region Eifel of Rhineland-Palatinate. Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:29-38 pubmed publisher
    In the present study the effect of control measures implemented during the classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic in wild boar in the Eifel region of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate from 1999 to 2005 was assessed...
  22. Pan C, Jong M, Huang Y, Huang T, Chao P, Lai S. Rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type and three attenuated lapinized vaccine strains of classical swine fever virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:448-56 pubmed
    ..in the viral genome for simultaneous detection and differentiation of wild type and vaccine strains of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)...
  23. Rossi S, Pol F, Forot B, Masse Provin N, Rigaux S, Bronner A, et al. Preventive vaccination contributes to control classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.). Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:99-107 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccination implementing a live attenuated vaccine has been experimented in Europe in order to control classical swine fever (CSF) in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa sp.)...
  24. Risatti G, Callahan J, Nelson W, Borca M. Rapid detection of classical swine fever virus by a portable real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:500-5 pubmed
    A fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan)-reverse transcriptase PCR assay for classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine...
  25. Zhu Y, Shi Z, Drew T, Wang Q, Qiu H, Guo H, et al. Antigenic differentiation of classical swine fever viruses in China by monoclonal antibodies. Virus Res. 2009;142:169-74 pubmed publisher
    The phylogenetic diversity of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in China has been extensively studied previously, with the report of the classification of Chinese CSFVs into four subgroups within two of the established genotypes, but ..
  26. Reimann I, Depner K, Utke K, Leifer I, Lange E, Beer M. Characterization of a new chimeric marker vaccine candidate with a mutated antigenic E2-epitope. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The substitution of BVDV E1 and E2 with the respective proteins of classical swine fever (CSF) strain Alfort 187 allows an optimal heterodimerization of E1 and E2 in the chimeric virus, which is ..
  27. Dewulf J, Koenen F, Mintiens K, Denis P, Ribbens S, de Kruif A. Analytical performance of several classical swine fever laboratory diagnostic techniques on live animals for detection of infection. J Virol Methods. 2004;119:137-43 pubmed
    ..These experiments involved 128 classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infected pigs (weaner pigs, fatteners and sows)...
  28. Depner K, Strebelow G, Staubach C, Kramer M, Teuffert J, Bötcher L, et al. Case report: the significance of genotyping for the epidemiological tracing of classical swine fever (CSF). Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;113:159-62 pubmed
    ..This case is decribed in detail. The epidemiological significance of different diagnostic methods is discussed, in particular the genetic typing of CSF virus isolates. ..
  29. Pérez L, Díaz de Arce H, Tarradas J, Rosell R, Perera C, Muñoz M, et al. Development and validation of a novel SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of classical swine fever virus evaluated on different real-time PCR platforms. J Virol Methods. 2011;174:53-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease that causes significant economic losses in pig production on a global scale...
  30. Blome S, Grotha I, Moennig V, Greiser Wilke I. Classical swine fever virus in South-Eastern Europe--retrospective analysis of the disease situation and molecular epidemiology. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:276-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most important diseases of domestic pigs and causes great socio-economic losses...
  31. Töpfer A, Höper D, Blome S, Beer M, Beerenwinkel N, Ruggli N, et al. Sequencing approach to analyze the role of quasispecies for classical swine fever. Virology. 2013;438:14-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a positive-sense RNA virus with a high degree of genetic variability among isolates...
  32. Blacksell S, Khounsy S, Van Aken D, Gleeson L, Westbury H. Comparative susceptibility of indigenous and improved pig breeds to Classical swine fever virus infection: practical and epidemiological implications in a subsistence-based, developing country setting. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2006;38:467-74 pubmed
    ..susceptibility of indigenous Moo Laat and improved Large White/Landrace pig breeds to infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) under controlled conditions in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)...
  33. Weesendorp E, Stegeman A, Loeffen W. Dynamics of virus excretion via different routes in pigs experimentally infected with classical swine fever virus strains of high, moderate or low virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2009;133:9-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is transmitted via secretions and excretions of infected pigs. The efficiency and speed of the transmission depends on a multitude of parameters, like quantities of virus excreted by infected pigs...
  34. Tarradas J, Alvarez B, Fraile L, Rosell R, Muñoz M, Galindo Cardiel I, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of swine CCL20 chemokine in DNA vaccination against CSFV. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;142:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the adjuvant effect of swine CCL20 to effectively enhance the potential of DNA vaccine in the immune induction and protection against virus challenge in swine infection model. ..
  35. Floegel Niesmann G, Bunzenthal C, Fischer S, Moennig V. Virulence of recent and former classical swine fever virus isolates evaluated by their clinical and pathological signs. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2003;50:214-20 pubmed
    The clinical diagnosis of classical swine fever (CSF) still caused problems to the veterinarians during the last decade. The primary CSF outbreak was often detected too late and, meanwhile, the virus had spread...
  36. Sun Y, Yang Y, Zheng H, Xi D, Lin M, Zhang X, et al. Co-expression of Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus by replication-defective recombinant adenovirus completely protects pigs against virulent challenge with classical swine fever virus. Res Vet Sci. 2013;94:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The Erns and E2 genes of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which encode the two main protective glycoproteins from the "Shimen" strain of ..
  37. He C, Ding N, Chen J, Li Y. Evidence of natural recombination in classical swine fever virus. Virus Res. 2007;126:179-85 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) virus, one member of the family Flaviviridae is the pathogen of CSF, an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs...
  38. Zhao H, Sun J, Li N, Sun Y, Xia Z, Wang Y, et al. Assessment of the cell-mediated immunity induced by alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccines against classical swine fever in a mouse model. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;129:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..shown that an alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine (pSFV1CS-E2) encoding the E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) completely protected the immunized pigs from lethal challenge...
  39. Blacksell S, Khounsy S, Westbury H. The effect of sample degradation and RNA stabilization on classical swine fever virus RT-PCR and ELISA methods. J Virol Methods. 2004;118:33-7 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral infection of swine caused by a member of the genus pestivirus of the family, Flaviviridae...
  40. Rossi S, Artois M, Pontier D, Cruciere C, Hars J, Barrat J, et al. Long-term monitoring of classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.) using serological data. Vet Res. 2005;36:27-42 pubmed
    In the European Community, epizootics of classical swine fever (CSF) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are compulsorily monitored because transmission may occur between wild boars and domestic pigs, causing heavy economic losses to the pork ..
  41. Risatti G, Borca M, Kutish G, Lu Z, Holinka L, French R, et al. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine. J Virol. 2005;79:3787-96 pubmed
    To identify genetic determinants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) virulence and host range, chimeras of the highly pathogenic Brescia strain and the attenuated vaccine strain CS were constructed and evaluated for viral virulence in ..
  42. Risatti G, Holinka L, Lu Z, Kutish G, Tulman E, French R, et al. Mutation of E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus affects viral virulence in swine. Virology. 2005;343:116-27 pubmed
    Transposon linker insertion mutagenesis of a full-length infectious clone (IC) (pBIC) of the pathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Brescia was used to identify genetic determinants of CSFV virulence and host range...
  43. Jiang Y, Shang H, Xu H, Zhu L, Chen W, Zhao L, et al. Simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, classical swine fever virus, porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Vet J. 2010;183:172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..reproductive and respiratory failure in pigs: porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)...
  44. Piriou L, Chevallier S, Hutet E, Charley B, Le Potier M, Albina E. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of d/d histocompatible pigs against classical swine fever (CSF) virus. Vet Res. 2003;34:389-404 pubmed
    A better understanding of cell-mediated immune responses to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is essential for the future development of improved vaccines...
  45. Maurer R, Stettler P, Ruggli N, Hofmann M, Tratschin J. Oronasal vaccination with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replicon particles with either partial or complete deletion of the E2 gene induces partial protection against lethal challenge with highly virulent CSFV. Vaccine. 2005;23:3318-28 pubmed
    A cDNA clone of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort/187 [Ruggli N, Tratschin JD, Mittelholzer C, Hofmann MA...
  46. Ophuis R, Morrissy C, Boyle D. Detection and quantitative pathogenesis study of classical swine fever virus using a real time RT-PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 2006;131:78-85 pubmed
    A real time reverse transcription (RT) TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) previously described for use on a SmartCycler was validated on the Applied Biosystems AB 7700 Sequence Detection System using ..
  47. Risatti G, Holinka L, Fernandez Sainz I, Carrillo C, Lu Z, Borca M. N-linked glycosylation status of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia E2 glycoprotein influences virulence in swine. J Virol. 2007;81:924-33 pubmed publisher
    E2 is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of classical swine fever virus (CSFV)...
  48. Koenig P, Hoffmann B, Depner K, Reimann I, Teifke J, Beer M. Detection of classical swine fever vaccine virus in blood and tissue samples of pigs vaccinated either with a conventional C-strain vaccine or a modified live marker vaccine. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:343-51 pubmed
    Attenuated live classical swine fever (CSF) viruses are the most efficacious vaccines against the disease. However, little is known about the distribution and detection of CSF vaccine viruses in the host...
  49. Chen N, Li D, Yuan X, Li X, Hu H, Zhu B, et al. Genetic characterization of E2 gene of classical swine fever virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis. Virus Genes. 2010;40:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of the E2 gene were developed for genetic subtyping and differentiation of vaccinated and infected classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains...
  50. Dewulf J, Laevens H, Koenen F, Mintiens K, de Kruif A. Efficacy of E2-sub-unit marker and C-strain vaccines in reducing horizontal transmission of classical swine fever virus in weaner pigs. Prev Vet Med. 2004;65:121-33 pubmed
    At present, two types of vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) virus are commercially available: E2 sub-unit marker vaccines and the conventional attenuated live C-strain vaccines...
  51. Lin M, Trottier E, Mallory M. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a chimeric antigen bearing antigenic regions of structural proteins Erns and E2 for serodiagnosis of classical swine fever virus infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:877-81 pubmed
    The antigenic region (residues 109 to 160) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) protein E(rns) and the N-terminal antigenic region (residues 1 to 136) of protein E2 were constructed in the form of a fused, chimeric protein, C21E(rns)E2, ..
  52. Le Dimna M, Vrancken R, Koenen F, Bougeard S, Mesplède A, Hutet E, et al. Validation of two commercial real-time RT-PCR kits for rapid and specific diagnosis of classical swine fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:136-42 pubmed
    ..CSF), obtained an agreement to be commercialised in France, subject to conditions, defined by the French Classical Swine Fever (CSF) National Reference Laboratory...
  53. Bronsvoort B, Alban L, Greiner M. Quantitative assessment of the likelihood of the introduction of classical swine fever virus into the Danish swine population. Prev Vet Med. 2008;85:226-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a major infectious-disease agent of livestock and causes production losses through increased morbidity and mortality, particularly of young pigs...
  54. Weesendorp E, Stegeman A, Loeffen W. Quantification of classical swine fever virus in aerosols originating from pigs infected with strains of high, moderate or low virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:222-30 pubmed publisher
    During epidemics of classical swine fever (CSF), the route of virus introduction into a farm is often unclear. One of the suggested routes is via the air...
  55. Barrera M, Sanchez O, Farnos O, Rodriguez M, Domínguez P, Tait H, et al. Early onset and long lasting protection in pigs provided by a classical swine fever E2-vaccine candidate produced in the milk of goats. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:25-32 pubmed publisher
    For vaccination against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), it is strongly desirable to induce a rapid and long lasting protection...
  56. Xia H, Wahlberg N, Qiu H, Widén F, Belak S, Liu L. Lack of phylogenetic evidence that the Shimen strain is the parental strain of the lapinized Chinese strain (C-strain) vaccine against classical swine fever. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1041-4 pubmed publisher
    ..hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV), also called the "Chinese strain" or "C-strain" of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), was developed in China in the 1950s...
  57. Sánchez Cordón P, Romanini S, Salguero F, Nunez A, Bautista M, Jover A, et al. Apoptosis of thymocytes related to cytokine expression in experimental classical swine fever. J Comp Pathol. 2002;127:239-48 pubmed
    ..and loss of thymocytes were studied in 32 pigs inoculated with the virulent strain "Alfort" of classical swine fever (CSF) virus and killed at intervals from 2 to 15 days after infection...
  58. Moennig V, Floegel Niesmann G, Greiser Wilke I. Clinical signs and epidemiology of classical swine fever: a review of new knowledge. Vet J. 2003;165:11-20 pubmed
    Although classical swine fever (CSF) has been well known for decades and epidemics still occur, clinical diagnosis continues to cause problems for veterinary practitioners...
  59. Klinkenberg D, Nielen M, Mourits M, de Jong M. The effectiveness of classical swine fever surveillance programmes in The Netherlands. Prev Vet Med. 2005;67:19-37 pubmed
    Consequences of classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics depend on the control measures, but also on the number of infected herds at the end of the high-risk period (HRP)...
  60. Karsten S, Rave G, Krieter J. Monte Carlo simulation of classical swine fever epidemics and control. I. General concepts and description of the model. Vet Microbiol. 2005;108:187-98 pubmed
    A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed to describe the spread of classical swine fever virus between farms within a certain region. The data of the farms can be imported and considered individually...
  61. Gomez Villamandos J, García de Leániz I, Nunez A, Salguero F, Ruiz Villamor E, Romero Trevejo J, et al. Neuropathologic study of experimental classical swine fever. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:530-40 pubmed
    ..this study was to report on the lesions occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) during experimental classical swine fever (CSF) to clarify the spatial and chronologic distribution of the lesions and virus antigen in the CNS...
  62. Faust A, Lange E, Kaden V. Efficacy of lyophilised C-strain vaccine after oral immunisation of domestic pigs and wild boar against classical swine fever: first results. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2007;114:412-7 pubmed
    ..This result demonstrates that lyophilised vaccine may become an effective vaccine formulation for oral immunisation of wild boar against CSF in the near future...
  63. Leifer I, Lange E, Reimann I, Blome S, Juanola S, Duran J, et al. Modified live marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf provides early onset of protection against lethal challenge infection with classical swine fever virus after both intramuscular and oral immunization. Vaccine. 2009;27:6522-9 pubmed publisher
    Due to the vast economic consequences of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, emergency vaccination plans are under discussion in European Union Member States...
  64. Renson P, Blanchard Y, Le Dimna M, Felix H, Cariolet R, Jestin A, et al. Acute induction of cell death-related IFN stimulated genes (ISG) differentiates highly from moderately virulent CSFV strains. Vet Res. 2010;41:7 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) severity is dependent on the virulence of the CSF virus (CSFV) strain. The earliest event detected following CSFV infection is a decrease in lymphocytes number...
  65. Choi C, Chae C. Detection of classical swine fever virus in boar semen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:35-41 pubmed
    A seminested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in semen. Five boars were inoculated intranasally with CSFV isolate propagated in PK15 cells...
  66. Mintiens K, Laevens H, Dewulf J, Boelaert F, Verloo D, Koenen F. Risk analysis of the spread of classical swine fever virus through "neighbourhood infections" for different regions in Belgium. Prev Vet Med. 2003;60:27-36 pubmed
    Risk factors associated with the occurrence of "neighbourhood infections" [Epidemiology of classical swine fever. In: Truszczynski, M. (Ed...
  67. Deng M, Wang H, Ward G, Beckham T, McKenna T. Comparison of six RNA extraction methods for the detection of classical swine fever virus by real-time and conventional reverse transcription-PCR. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:574-8 pubmed
    ..kit, RNeasy mini kit, and TRIzol LS reagent, were evaluated on blood and 7 tissues from pig infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV)...
  68. Grummer B, Fischer S, Depner K, Riebe R, Blome S, Greiser Wilke I. Replication of classical swine fever virus strains and isolates in different porcine cell lines. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;113:138-42 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is an economically important pathogen of domestic pigs and wild boar. Due to the highly variable clinical picture of CSF, laboratory methods are essential for an unambiguous diagnosis...
  69. Durand B, Davila S, Cariolet R, Mesplède A, Le Potier M. Comparison of viraemia- and clinical-based estimates of within- and between-pen transmission of classical swine fever virus from three transmission experiments. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:196-204 pubmed publisher
    Analyses of recent classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics in the European Union have shown that silent circulation of CSF virus (CSFV) occurs before the first outbreak is detected and this may lead to a large epidemic...
  70. Sun Y, Li N, Li H, Li M, Qiu H. Enhanced immunity against classical swine fever in pigs induced by prime-boost immunization using an alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine and a recombinant adenovirus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;137:20-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) - caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) - is a fatal disease of pigs that is responsible for extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide...
  71. Kaden V, Lange E, Steyer H. Does multiple oral vaccination of wild boar against classical swine fever (CSF) have a positive influence on the immunity?. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2004;111:63-7 pubmed
    We studied the efficacy of multiple vaccinations of wild boar against classical swine fever (CSF) using a C-strain vaccine. The study consisted of two experiments...
  72. Zhao J, Cheng D, Li N, Sun Y, Shi Z, Zhu Q, et al. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for quantitative and differential detection of wild-type viruses and C-strain vaccine of Classical swine fever virus. Vet Microbiol. 2008;126:1-10 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), one of OIE listed diseases...
  73. Uttenthal A, Parida S, Rasmussen T, Paton D, Haas B, Dundon W. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:73-87 pubmed publisher
    ..describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry.
  74. Chen N, Tong C, Li D, Wan J, Yuan X, Li X, et al. Antigenic analysis of classical swine fever virus E2 glycoprotein using pig antibodies identifies residues contributing to antigenic variation of the vaccine C-strain and group 2 strains circulating in China. Virol J. 2010;7:378 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein E2, the immunodominant protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), can induce neutralizing antibodies and confer protective immunity in pigs. Our previous phylogenetic analysis showed that subgroup 2...
  75. Riedel C, Lamp B, Heimann M, König M, Blome S, Moennig V, et al. The core protein of classical Swine Fever virus is dispensable for virus propagation in vitro. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002598 pubmed publisher
    ..the family Flaviviridae that affect cloven-hoofed animals, causing economically important diseases like classical swine fever (CSF) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD)...
  76. Hofmann M. Construction of an infectious chimeric classical swine fever virus containing the 5'UTR of bovine viral diarrhea virus, and its application as a universal internal positive control in real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2003;114:77-90 pubmed
    ..The construction of two chimeric classical swine fever virus (CSFV) recombinants based on a marker virus constructed previously [J. Virol...
  77. Wang Y, Wang Q, Lu X, Zhang C, Fan X, Pan Z, et al. 12-nt insertion in 3' untranslated region leads to attenuation of classic swine fever virus and protects host against lethal challenge. Virology. 2008;374:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the 12-nt insertion in 3' UTR is sufficient for the attenuation of CSFV. Taken together, a novel attenuation mechanism of CSFV is found and may pave a way to further research for new attenuated vaccine...
  78. Martínez López B, Ivorra B, Ramos A, Sanchez Vizcaino J. A novel spatial and stochastic model to evaluate the within- and between-farm transmission of classical swine fever virus. I. General concepts and description of the model. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:300-9 pubmed publisher
    A new stochastic and spatial model was developed to evaluate the potential spread of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) within- and between-farms, and considering the specific farm-to-farm contact network...
  79. Liu J, Fan X, Wang Q, Xu L, Zhao Q, Huang W, et al. Dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of classical swine fever virus in experimentally infected pigs. Virol J. 2011;8:201 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease...
  80. Pan C, Jong M, Huang T, Liu H, Lin S, Lai S. Phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus in Taiwan. Arch Virol. 2005;150:1101-19 pubmed
    Two envelope glycoprotein (Erns and E2) regions of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced directly from 158 specimens collected between 1989 and 2003 in Taiwan...
  81. Van Gennip H, Hesselink A, Moormann R, Hulst M. Dimerization of glycoprotein E(rns) of classical swine fever virus is not essential for viral replication and infection. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2271-86 pubmed
    ..This suggests that interaction of virus-bound E(rns) homodimers with membrane associated HS may be a joined action of the two HS-binding domains (one in each monomer) present in the homodimer...
  82. Sánchez Cordón P, Nunez A, Salguero F, Pedrera M, Fernández de Marco M, Gomez Villamandos J. Lymphocyte apoptosis and thrombocytopenia in spleen during classical swine fever: role of macrophages and cytokines. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:477-88 pubmed
    Thirty-two Large White x Landrace pigs, 4 months old, were inoculated with the classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera virus strain "Alfort" in order to identify the mechanism responsible for the lymphopenia and ..
  83. Martin P, Cameron A, Barfod K, Sergeant E, Greiner M. Demonstrating freedom from disease using multiple complex data sources 2: case study--classical swine fever in Denmark. Prev Vet Med. 2007;79:98-115 pubmed
    ..2007). This paper presents an application of the methods, using as an example surveillance for classical swine fever (CSF) in Denmark in 2005...
  84. Hüsser L, Ruggli N, Summerfield A. N(pro) of classical swine fever virus prevents type I interferon-mediated priming of conventional dendritic cells for enhanced interferon-? response. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:221-9 pubmed publisher
    A hallmark of acute classical swine fever is the high interferon (IFN)-? levels found in the serum early after infection, followed by an inflammatory cytokine storm...
  85. Mangen M, Nielen M, Burrell A. Simulated effect of pig-population density on epidemic size and choice of control strategy for classical swine fever epidemics in The Netherlands. Prev Vet Med. 2002;56:141-63 pubmed
    We examined the importance of pig-population density in the area of an outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF) for the spread of the infection and the choice of control measures...
  86. Holland W, Do T, Huong N, Dung N, Thanh N, Vercruysse J, et al. The effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pig performance and vaccination against classical swine fever. Vet Parasitol. 2003;111:115-23 pubmed
    ..performance and induces immunosuppression in pigs, induction of immune responses by vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) and by immunization with a control antigen, human serum albumin (HSA), was assessed in T...
  87. Risatti G, Holinka L, Carrillo C, Kutish G, Lu Z, Tulman E, et al. Identification of a novel virulence determinant within the E2 structural glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus. Virology. 2006;355:94-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein contains a discrete epitope (TAVSPTTLR, residues 829-837 of CSFV polyprotein) recognized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) WH303, used to differentiate CSFV from related ruminant pestiviruses,..
  88. Boender G, Nodelijk G, Hagenaars T, Elbers A, de Jong M. Local spread of classical swine fever upon virus introduction into The Netherlands: mapping of areas at high risk. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:9 pubmed publisher
    In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are pork-exporting countries...
  89. Sung J, Kang M, Lee W, Shin M, Lim S, Kim B, et al. Improved sero-monitoring assay for classical swine fever (CSF) using the recombinant E2 protein of a recent Korean isolate. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:329-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of pigs that causes fever, diarrhea and paralysis, often resulting in death...
  90. Tian H, Hou X, Wu J, Chen Y, Shang Y, Yin S, et al. A promising multiple-epitope recombinant vaccine against classical swine fever virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2014;157:59-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of swine. It is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), one of the members of the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family...
  91. Choi C, Chae C. Localization of classical swine fever virus from chronically infected pigs by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:107-13 pubmed
    b>Classical swine fever (CSF) virus (CSFV) nucleic acid and antigen were detected in 15 pigs with naturally occurring chronic CSF by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry...
  92. Agüero M, Fernández J, Romero L, Zamora M, Sanchez C, Belak S, et al. A highly sensitive and specific gel-based multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential diagnosis of African swine fever and Classical swine fever in clinical samples. Vet Res. 2004;35:551-63 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR assay is presented for the simultaneous and differential diagnosis of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF)...