flavivirus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Fernandez Garcia M, Mazzon M, Jacobs M, Amara A. Pathogenesis of flavivirus infections: using and abusing the host cell. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:318-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We draw attention to the importance of these studies in defining the pathogenesis of flaviviral diseases...
  2. Medeiros D, Nunes M, Vasconcelos P, Chang G, Kuno G. Complete genome characterization of Rocio virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae), a Brazilian flavivirus isolated from a fatal case of encephalitis during an epidemic in Sao Paulo state. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2237-46 pubmed
  3. Huang X, Han K, Zhao D, Liu Y, Zhang J, Niu H, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from geese in China. Res Vet Sci. 2013;94:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that flavivirus infects not only egg-laying and breeder ducks but also geese. The findings extend our understanding of how the virus spreads and causes disease...
  4. Gaunt M, Gould E. Rapid subgroup identification of the flaviviruses using degenerate primer E-gene RT-PCR and site specific restriction enzyme analysis. J Virol Methods. 2005;128:113-27 pubmed
    ..Ninety percent of the known vector-borne flaviviruses with published full length E-gene sequences could be identified within 10 h. ..
  5. Chvala S, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Weissenbock H. Pathology and viral distribution in fatal Usutu virus infections of birds from the 2001 and 2002 outbreaks in Austria. J Comp Pathol. 2004;131:176-85 pubmed
    ..All of 33 birds tested additionally by USUV-specific RT-PCR gave positive results. ..
  6. Cerutti F, Giacobini M, Mosca A, Grasso I, Rambozzi L, Rossi L, et al. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results contribute to a wider point of view on the heterogeneity of viruses infecting mosquitoes suggesting a taxonomical revision of the Mosquito-borne Flavivirus group. ..
  7. Yun T, Ni Z, Hua J, Ye W, Chen L, Zhang S, et al. Development of a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay using a minor-groove-binding probe for the detection of duck Tembusu virus. J Virol Methods. 2012;181:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..0 h, including the nucleic acid extraction step. Therefore, this assay is an excellent tool for research routine diagnostic applications, and study of the epidemiology of TMUV infections among duck flocks. ..
  8. Chvala S, Bakonyi T, Bukovsky C, Meister T, Brugger K, Rubel F, et al. Monitoring of Usutu virus activity and spread by using dead bird surveillance in Austria, 2003-2005. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:237-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, the proportion of birds with low amounts of virus in their tissues increased continuously, which may indicate developing herd immunity. ..
  9. Sánchez Seco M, Rosario D, Domingo C, Hernandez L, Valdes K, Guzman M, et al. Generic RT-nested-PCR for detection of flaviviruses using degenerated primers and internal control followed by sequencing for specific identification. J Virol Methods. 2005;126:101-9 pubmed
    ..The introduction of an internal control would reduce the number of false negative results and could be used to quantify the viral load in clinical samples where the method works well. ..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Duffy M, Chen T, Hancock W, Powers A, Kool J, Lanciotti R, et al. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..No previous outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented...
  2. Bondre V, Sapkal G, Yergolkar P, Fulmali P, Sankararaman V, Ayachit V, et al. Genetic characterization of Bagaza virus (BAGV) isolated in India and evidence of anti-BAGV antibodies in sera collected from encephalitis patients. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the isolation of BAGV from India. The presence of anti-BAGV neutralizing antibodies suggests that the human population has been exposed to BAGV. ..
  3. Weissenbock H, Bakonyi T, Rossi G, Mani P, Nowotny N. Usutu virus, Italy, 1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed...
  4. May F, Clark D, Pham K, Diviney S, Williams D, Field E, et al. Genetic divergence among members of the Kokobera group of flaviviruses supports their separation into distinct species. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1462-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, our recent detection of KOKV group-specific antibodies in horses in the field suggests that these viruses should be considered in the epidemiology of flavivirus encephalitis in Australia...
  5. Hayes E. Zika virus outside Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. ..
  6. Lobigs M, Diamond M. Feasibility of cross-protective vaccination against flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The review will also focus on the structural and mechanistic basis for cross-protective immunity among this group of flaviviruses, which is predominantly mediated by antibodies against a single viral surface protein. ..
  7. Solomon T, Mallewa M. Dengue and other emerging flaviviruses. J Infect. 2001;42:104-15 pubmed
    ..The tick-borne haemorrhagic flaviviruses, Omsk haemorrhagic fever and Kyasanur Forrest disease are localized in small areas. ..
  8. Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel R, Lemasson J, Gonzalez J, Gallian P, et al. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. Virology. 2007;361:80-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Ticks that feed on both categories of vertebrates may constitute the evolutionary bridge between the three distinct identified lineages...
  9. Haddow A, Schuh A, Yasuda C, Kasper M, Heang V, Huy R, et al. Genetic characterization of Zika virus strains: geographic expansion of the Asian lineage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1477 pubmed publisher
    ..Because ZIKV infection in humans produces an illness clinically similar to dengue fever and many other tropical infectious diseases, it is likely greatly misdiagnosed and underreported. ..
  10. Buckley A, Dawson A, Gould E. Detection of seroconversion to West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus in UK sentinel chickens. Virol J. 2006;3:71 pubmed
    ..The proportion of seropositive chickens was higher for WNV than for Usutu virus or Sindbis virus. Attempts to isolate infectious virus or to detect viral RNA in the sera, failed. ..
  11. Foy B, Kobylinski K, Chilson Foy J, Blitvich B, Travassos da Rosa A, Haddow A, et al. Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:880-2 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection. ..
  12. Petersen L, Hayes E. West Nile virus in the Americas. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:1307-22, ix pubmed
  13. Memish Z, Balkhy H, Francis C, Cunningham G, Hajeer A, Almuneef M. Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever: case report and infection control details. Br J Biomed Sci. 2005;62:37-9 pubmed
  14. Dobler G. Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:221-8 pubmed publisher
  15. Agüero M, Fernandez Pinero J, Buitrago D, Sanchez A, Elizalde M, San Miguel E, et al. Bagaza virus in partridges and pheasants, Spain, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1498-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution ..
  16. Madani T. Alkhumra virus infection, a new viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. J Infect. 2005;51:91-7 pubmed
    ..This new flavivirus was originally isolated in 1995 from 6 patients with dengue-like hemorrhagic fever from Alkhumra district, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
  17. Gould E, Solomon T. Pathogenic flaviviruses. Lancet. 2008;371:500-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Manarolla G, Bakonyi T, Gallazzi D, Crosta L, Weissenbock H, Dorrestein G, et al. Usutu virus in wild birds in northern Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2010;141:159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of the amplification products revealed 99.8-100% nucleotide identity of the Italian USUV strains to those from other central European countries. ..
  19. Figueiredo L. The Brazilian flaviviruses. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:1643-9 pubmed
    ..Aspects of sylvatic maintenance cycles and human diseases caused by these viruses are analyzed. Large dengue outbreaks are occurring in Brazil and there is a risk of yellow fever urbanization. ..
  20. Savini G, Monaco F, Terregino C, Di Gennaro A, Bano L, Pinoni C, et al. Usutu virus in Italy: an emergence or a silent infection?. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..According to this study two strains of USUVs are likely to have circulated in Italy between 2008 and 2009. They have developed strategies of adaptation and evolution to spread into new areas and to become established...
  21. Lelli R, Savini G, Teodori L, Filipponi G, Di Gennaro A, Leone A, et al. Serological evidence of USUTU virus occurrence in north-eastern Italy. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no virus was rescued from these animals and from wild or farm birds sampled in the area, these results still provided evidence of the circulation of USUV in north-eastern Italy...
  22. Blitvich B, Marlenee N, Hall R, Calisher C, Bowen R, Roehrig J, et al. Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to west nile virus in multiple avian species. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1041-7 pubmed
    ..The blocking assays reported here provide a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive diagnostic and surveillance technique to monitor WNV activity in multiple avian species...
  23. Heinz F, Stiasny K. Flaviviruses and flavivirus vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:4301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, several kinds of dengue vaccines are in development, but only one of these candidates (a chimeric dengue-yellow fever live attenuated vaccine) has reached the stage of phase 3 clinical trials...
  24. Lindenbach B, Rice C. Molecular biology of flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;59:23-61 pubmed
  25. Turtle L, Griffiths M, Solomon T. Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses. QJM. 2012;105:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of T cells is less clear, and may be either protective or pathogenic. This review summarizes recent developments in the understanding of the pathogenesis of encephalitis caused by flaviviruses...
  26. Yan L, Yan P, Zhou J, Teng Q, Li Z. Establishing a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of the newly emerged duck Tembusu virus. Virol J. 2011;8:464 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reveal that the newly established real-time PCR assay might be a useful diagnostic method for epidemiologically investigating and closely observing the newly emerged DTMUV...
  27. Brass A, Huang I, Benita Y, John S, Krishnan M, Feeley E, et al. The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. Cell. 2009;139:1243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively this work identifies a family of antiviral restriction factors that mediate cellular innate immunity to at least three major human pathogens...
  28. Solomon T. Flavivirus encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:370-8 pubmed
  29. Roehrig J, Staudinger L, Hunt A, Mathews J, Blair C. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy for flavivirus encephalitis infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:286-97 pubmed
    ..Antiflaviviral human or humanized MAbs might be practical and cost-effective reagents for preventing or modifying flaviviral diseases...
  30. Mackenzie J, Gubler D, Petersen L. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nat Med. 2004;10:S98-109 pubmed
  31. Tesh R, Siirin M, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa A, Wu X, Duan T, et al. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster: studies on its mechanism and possible implications for other flavivirus infections. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:287-95 pubmed
    ..These findings are similar to previous reports of persistent infection with tickborne encephalitis and Modoc viruses...
  32. Faye O, Faye O, Dupressoir A, Weidmann M, Ndiaye M, Alpha Sall A. One-step RT-PCR for detection of Zika virus. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis of Zika fever requires virus isolation and serology, which are time consuming or cross-reactive...
  33. Buckley A, Dawson A, Moss S, Hinsley S, Bellamy P, Gould E. Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2807-17 pubmed
    ..The potential health risk posed to humans and animals by these viruses circulating in the UK is discussed...
  34. Ghosh D, Basu A. Present perspectives on flaviviral chemotherapy. Drug Discov Today. 2008;13:619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines the chemotherapeutic agents explored till date, and highlights perspectives on a possible future breakthrough - at least to ameliorate if not to abrogate the diseases...
  35. Chang G, Davis B, Hunt A, Holmes D, Kuno G. Flavivirus DNA vaccines: current status and potential. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:272-85 pubmed
    ..The use of DNA vaccines in multivalent and/or combination vaccines designed to immunize against multiple flaviviruses is also a promising area of development...
  36. Cavrini F, Della Pepa M, Gaibani P, Pierro A, Rossini G, Landini M, et al. A rapid and specific real-time RT-PCR assay to identify Usutu virus in human plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Virol. 2011;50:221-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Usutu virus (USUV), a flavivirus that belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) family, has recently emerged as a human pathogen, necessitating new diagnostic tools...
  37. Koraka P, Zeller H, Niedrig M, Osterhaus A, Groen J. Reactivity of serum samples from patients with a flavivirus infection measured by immunofluorescence assay and ELISA. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:1209-15 pubmed
    b>Flavivirus infections are a significant public health problem, since several members of the Flaviviridae family are highly pathogenic to humans...
  38. Tang Y, Diao Y, Yu C, Gao X, Ju X, Xue C, et al. Characterization of a Tembusu virus isolated from naturally infected house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Northern China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that house sparrows carrying the Tembusu virus may play an important role in transmitting the virus among other species...
  39. Yan L, Peng S, Yan P, Zhou J, Teng Q, Li G, et al. Comparison of real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for duck Tembusu virus. J Virol Methods. 2012;182:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..With its high sensitivity, specificity, and convenience, the real-time RT-LAMP is a practical molecular diagnostic method for rapid and quantitative detection of DTMUV infection in a resource-limited setting...
  40. Bakonyi T, Erdélyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Csörgo T, Lussy H, et al. Emergence of Usutu virus in Hungary. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3870-4 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that the USUV strain responsible for the blackbird die-off in Budapest most likely spread from Austria to Hungary instead of being independently introduced from Africa...
  41. Yun T, Zhang D, Ma X, Cao Z, Chen L, Ni Z, et al. Complete genome sequence of a novel flavivirus, duck tembusu virus, isolated from ducks and geese in china. J Virol. 2012;86:3406-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis...
  42. Stein D, Shi P. Nucleic acid-based inhibition of flavivirus infections. Front Biosci. 2008;13:1385-95 pubmed
    ..The goal of this review is to summarize the findings of many of the significant reports that have appeared on the topic of antisense-mediated strategies for the development of antiviral therapy for flaviviruses...
  43. Charrel R, Fagbo S, Moureau G, Alqahtani M, Temmam S, de Lamballerie X. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in Ornithodoros savignyi ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:153-5 pubmed
    ..One Ornithodoros savignyi tick from Saudi Arabia contained AHFV RNA. This is the first direct evidence that AHFV is a tickborne flavivirus and confirms the association between human AHFV cases and tickbite history...
  44. Bakonyi T, Gould E, Kolodziejek J, Weissenb ck H, Nowotny N. Complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of Usutu virus that emerged in Austria in 2001: comparison with the South African strain SAAR-1776 and other flaviviruses. Virology. 2004;328:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors that determine the severe clinical symptoms caused by the Austrian USUV strain in Eurasian blackbirds are discussed. We also offer a possible explanation for the origins and dispersal of USUV, JEV, and MVEV out of Africa...
  45. Chvala S, Bakonyi T, Hackl R, Hess M, Nowotny N, Weissenbock H. Limited pathogenicity of usutu virus for the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) following experimental inoculation. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:171-5 pubmed
    ..This experiment shows that USUV is able to replicate in geese, but does not induce clinical disease, is unlikely to induce mortality, and only infrequently leads to viraemia or virus shedding...
  46. Holbrook M, Shope R, Barrett A. Use of recombinant E protein domain III-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for differentiation of tick-borne encephalitis serocomplex flaviviruses from mosquito-borne flaviviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4101-10 pubmed
    ..by the presence of flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies that produce false-positive results for flavivirus infections, especially in regions where more than one virus is endemic...
  47. Gaibani P, Pierro A, Cavrini F, Rossini G, Landini M, Sambri V. False-positive transcription-mediated amplification assay detection of West Nile virus in blood from a patient with viremia caused by an Usutu virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3338-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a false-positive result of a WNV transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) in a patient with viremia that was caused by Usutu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus...
  48. Leyssen P, Van Lommel A -, Drosten C, Schmitz H, De Clercq E -, Neyts J. A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. Virology. 2001;279:27-37 pubmed
    ..The Modoc virus model appears attractive for the study of chemoprophylactic or chemotherapeutic strategies against Flavivirus infections.
  49. Yan P, Zhao Y, Zhang X, Xu D, Dai X, Teng Q, et al. An infectious disease of ducks caused by a newly emerged Tembusu virus strain in mainland China. Virology. 2011;417:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that FX2010 and BYD virus are newly emerged Tembusu virus strains that cause an infectious disease in ducks...
  50. Gaibani P, Cavrini F, Gould E, Rossini G, Pierro A, Landini M, et al. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the first Usutu virus isolate from a human patient presenting with neurological symptoms. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64761 pubmed publisher
  51. Putnak R, Porter K, Schmaljohn C. DNA vaccines for flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:445-68 pubmed
  52. Weissenbock H, Hubalek Z, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N. Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..g. industrialized countries worldwide...
  53. Lindh E, Huovilainen A, Rätti O, Ek Kommonen C, Sironen T, Huhtamo E, et al. Orthomyxo-, paramyxo- and flavivirus infections in wild waterfowl in Finland. Virol J. 2008;5:35 pubmed publisher
  54. Liu P, Lu H, Li S, Moureau G, Deng Y, Wang Y, et al. Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly emerging Chinese duck egg-drop syndrome flavivirus: genomic comparison with Tembusu and Sitiawan viruses. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2158-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of these studies is discussed in the context of the emergence, evolution, epidemiology, antigenicity and pathogenicity of the newly emergent DEDSV...
  55. Johnson A, Martin D, Karabatsos N, Roehrig J. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1827-31 pubmed
    ..The tests were standardized for laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections, with the intent that they be used in tandem with the corresponding IgM antibody-capture ELISAs...
  56. Gaibani P, Pierro A, Alicino R, Rossini G, Cavrini F, Landini M, et al. Detection of Usutu-virus-specific IgG in blood donors from northern Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:431-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the presence of an anti-USUV response in 4 subjects with no history of other flavivirus infection...
  57. King N, Shrestha B, Kesson A. Immune modulation by flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;60:121-55 pubmed
    ..This may enable viral growth and immune escape in cycling cells, which do not significantly upregulate cell surface molecules...
  58. Chiou S, Crill W, Chen L, Chang G. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using novel Japanese encephalitis virus antigen improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of flavivirus infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:825-35 pubmed publisher
    The cross-reactive antibodies induced by flavivirus infections confound serodiagnosis and pathogenesis, especially in secondary infections caused by antigenically closely related yet distinct flaviviruses...
  59. Morrey J, Olsen A, Siddharthan V, Motter N, Wang H, Taro B, et al. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability is not a primary determinant for lethality of West Nile virus infection in rodents. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of a consistent increase in BBB permeability in WNV-infected rodents has implications for the understanding of viral entry, viral pathogenesis and accessibility of the CNS of rodents to drugs or effector molecules...
  60. King N, Getts D, Getts M, Rana S, Shrestha B, Kesson A. Immunopathology of flavivirus infections. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:33-42 pubmed
  61. Nikolay B, Diallo M, Boye C, Sall A. Usutu virus in Africa. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1417-23 pubmed publisher
  62. Charrel R, Zaki A, Fakeeh M, Yousef A, de Chesse R, Attoui H, et al. Low diversity of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994-1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of divergence times showed that AHFV and KFDV ancestral lineage diverged 66-177 years ago, and the diversity observed within the studied AHFV strains reflected a 4- to 72-year period of evolution...
  63. Billoir F, de Chesse R, Tolou H, De Micco P, Gould E, De Lamballerie X. Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:781-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed...
  64. Ishikawa T, Konishi E. [Flaviviruses]. Uirusu. 2011;61:221-38 pubmed
    ..In this review, the flavivirus nature and epidemiology, replication mechanism, immune response and immune evasion, and antivirals and vaccines against flaviviruses were described...
  65. Chambers T, Diamond M. Pathogenesis of flavivirus encephalitis. Adv Virus Res. 2003;60:273-342 pubmed
  66. Eckels K, Putnak R. Formalin-inactivated whole virus and recombinant subunit flavivirus vaccines. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:395-418 pubmed
    ..Feasibility of non-replicating flavivirus vaccines has been clearly demonstrated and further development is now warranted...
  67. Vaidya N, Wang F, Zou X, Wahl L. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35161 pubmed publisher
    ..Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides...
  68. Boadella M, Díez Delgado I, Gutierrez Guzmán A, Höfle U, Gortazar C. Do wild ungulates allow improved monitoring of flavivirus circulation in Spain?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:490-5 pubmed publisher
  69. Tang Y, Diao Y, Gao X, Yu C, Chen L, Zhang D. Analysis of the complete genome of Tembusu virus, a flavivirus isolated from ducks in China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:336-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that TMUV is a unique virus among the mosquito-borne flaviviruses and also provide a useful reference for a critically important study to determine why TMUV is a serious pathogen for ducks...
  70. Sips G, Wilschut J, Smit J. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections. Rev Med Virol. 2012;22:69-87 pubmed publisher
  71. Chvala S, Bakonyi T, Hackl R, Hess M, Nowotny N, Weissenbock H. Limited pathogenicity of Usutu virus for the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Avian Pathol. 2005;34:392-5 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that domestic chickens are not at risk of developing clinical disease following USUV infection and that chickens are unlikely to be useful for sentinel purposes in USUV surveillance programmes...
  72. Calzolari M, Zé Zé L, Ruzek D, Vazquez A, Jeffries C, Defilippo F, et al. Detection of mosquito-only flaviviruses in Europe. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the close relationship of these putative viruses to other insect-only flaviviruses...
  73. Pierson T, Diamond M. Molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralisation of flavivirus infection. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008;10:e12 pubmed publisher
    ..How recent advances in this area have the potential to improve the development of safe and effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics is also addressed...
  74. Lanciotti R, Kosoy O, Laven J, Velez J, Lambert A, Johnson A, et al. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated with ZIKV was detected in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. We report the genetic and serologic properties of the ZIKV associated with this epidemic...
  75. Scaramozzino N, Crance J, Jouan A, DeBriel D, Stoll F, Garin D. Comparison of flavivirus universal primer pairs and development of a rapid, highly sensitive heminested reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of flaviviruses targeted to a conserved region of the NS5 gene sequences. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1922-7 pubmed
    ..This technique was successfully performed with a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a patient hospitalized with West Nile virus encephalitis...
  76. Tang Y, Gao X, Diao Y, Feng Q, Chen H, Liu X, et al. Tembusu virus in human, China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5% identity with other duck TMUV strains, which can cause severe egg drop in ducks. These findings contribute to the realization that TMUV may be overlooked as a zoonotic transmission in China...
  77. Deas T, Binduga Gajewska I, Tilgner M, Ren P, Stein D, Moulton H, et al. Inhibition of flavivirus infections by antisense oligomers specifically suppressing viral translation and RNA replication. J Virol. 2005;79:4599-609 pubmed
  78. Monath T, McCarthy K, Bedford P, Johnson C, Nichols R, Yoksan S, et al. Clinical proof of principle for ChimeriVax: recombinant live, attenuated vaccines against flavivirus infections. Vaccine. 2002;20:1004-18 pubmed
    ..The new vaccine holds promise for prevention of JE in travelers and residents of endemic countries. The ChimeriVax technology platform is being exploited for development of new vaccines against dengue and West Nile...
  79. Gaunt M, Sall A, De Lamballerie X, Falconar A, Dzhivanian T, Gould E. Phylogenetic relationships of flaviviruses correlate with their epidemiology, disease association and biogeography. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1867-76 pubmed
    ..The correlation between epidemiology, disease correlation and biogeography begins to define the complex evolutionary relationships between the virus, vector, vertebrate host and ecological niche...
  80. Chávez J, Silva J, Amarilla A, Moraes Figueiredo L. Domain III peptides from flavivirus envelope protein are useful antigens for serologic diagnosis and targets for immunization. Biologicals. 2010;38:613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We review here some important aspects of the molecular structure of the DIII as well as its use as antigens for serologic diagnosis and immunization in animal models...