flaviviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Jacob J, Lin K, Tennant B, Mansfield K. GB virus B infection of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and associated liver pathology. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2525-33 pubmed
  2. Nattermann J, Nischalke H, Kupfer B, Rockstroh J, Hess L, Sauerbruch T, et al. Regulation of CC chemokine receptor 5 in hepatitis G virus infection. AIDS. 2003;17:1457-62 pubmed
    ..This mechanism might contribute to the delayed progression of HIV-infection in HGV-coinfected patients. ..
  3. Feng Y, Zhao W, Feng Y, Dai J, Li Z, Zhang X, et al. A novel genotype of GB virus C: its identification and predominance among injecting drug users in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21151 pubmed publisher
  4. Seifried C, Weber M, Bialleck H, Seifried E, Schrezenmeier H, Roth W. High prevalence of GBV-C/HGV among relatives of GBV-C/HGV-positive blood donors in blood recipients and in patients with aplastic anemia. Transfusion. 2004;44:268-74 pubmed
  5. Ren H, Zhu F, Cao M, Wen X, Zhao P, Qi Z. Hepatitis G virus genomic RNA is pathogenic to Macaca mulatta. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:970-5 pubmed
    ..Macaca mulatta is susceptible to the inoculated HGV, and therefore can be used as an experimental animal model for the studies of HGV infection and pathogenesis. ..
  6. Martin A, Bodola F, Sangar D, Goettge K, Popov V, Rijnbrand R, et al. Chronic hepatitis associated with GB virus B persistence in a tamarin after intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9962-7 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial structural changes and altered lipid metabolism leading to steatosis are conserved features of the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis caused by these genetically distinct flaviviruses...
  7. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Kelly H, Watson K, Mijch A, Hammond R, et al. Reduction in hepatitis C-related liver disease associated with GB virus C in human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1821-30 pubmed
    ..However, GBV-C has no effect on the course of liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of GBV-C infection on liver disease in patients with HCV/HIV coinfection...
  8. Zhang W, Chaloner K, Tillmann H, Williams C, Stapleton J. Effect of early and late GB virus C viraemia on survival of HIV-infected individuals: a meta-analysis. HIV Med. 2006;7:173-80 pubmed
    ..The timing of GBV-C infection appears to account for the contradictory results of studies on the effect of GBV-C coinfection on survival of HIV-infected people. ..
  9. Williams C, Klinzman D, Yamashita T, Xiang J, Polgreen P, Rinaldo C, et al. Persistent GB virus C infection and survival in HIV-infected men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:981-90 pubmed
    ..Previous studies did not control for differences in the duration of HIV or GBV-C infection...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Zhu W, Yin L, Li P, Huang J, Zhuang H. Pathogenicity of GB virus C on virus hepatitis and hemodialysis patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:1739-42 pubmed
    ..To determine the pathogenicity of GB virus C (GBV-C) on liver and the effects of its co-infection on the clinical features and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B and C...
  2. Li G, Ma H, Lau G, Leung Y, Yao C, Chong Y, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis G virus infection and homology of different viral strains in Southern China. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:1081-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, by sequential analysis of viral species present in individual patients over a three months period there was no evidence of sequence variation in the 5' UTR. ..
  3. Tillmann H, Manns M. GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Antiviral Res. 2001;52:83-90 pubmed
    ..Still the definitive mechanism how GBV-C could inhibit the progression to AIDS and eventually death needs to be identified...
  4. Krajden M, Yu A, Braybrook H, Lai A, Mak A, Chow R, et al. GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case control study. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the largest case-control study to date associating GBV-C viremia and NHL risk. As GBV-C is known to be transmitted through blood products this may have important implications for blood safety...
  5. Levi J, Contri D, Lima L, Takaoka D, Garrini R, Santos W, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA among Brazilian blood donors. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:75-8 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing of nine randomly chosen isolates demonstrated the presence of genotypes 1, 2 and 3 among our population but clustering of these Brazilian isolates was not detected upon phylogenetic analysis...
  6. George S, Varmaz D. What you need to know about GB virus C. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:54-62 pubmed
    ..GBV-C E2 protein in serum has also been associated with prolonged survival in HIV infection; recent evidence indicates that GBV-C E2 protein may neutralize HIV infection in vitro...
  7. Sathar M, York D, Gouws E, Coutsoudis A, Coovadia H. GB virus type C coinfection in HIV-infected African mothers and their infants, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:405-9 pubmed
    ..The immunological indices measured tend to suggest an association with protection and or delayed progression of HIV disease in GBV-C-infected mothers...
  8. Nam J, Faulk K, Engle R, Govindarajan S, St Claire M, Bukh J. In vivo analysis of the 3' untranslated region of GB virus B after in vitro mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone: persistent infection in a transfected tamarin. J Virol. 2004;78:9389-99 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, the demonstration that GBV-B can persist in tamarins strengthens its relevance as a surrogate model for the study of HCV...
  9. Bjorkman P, Naucler A, Winqvist N, Mushahwar I, Widell A. A case-control study of transmission routes for GB virus C/hepatitis G virus in Swedish blood donors lacking markers for hepatitis C virus infection. Vox Sang. 2001;81:148-53 pubmed
    ..The transmission routes for GB virus-C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV) in blood donors unexposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unknown. We performed a case-control study of risk factors for GBV-C/HGV exposure in blood donors...
  10. Gomara M, Fernandez L, Perez T, Ercilla G, Haro I. Assessment of synthetic chimeric multiple antigenic peptides for diagnosis of GB virus C infection. Anal Biochem. 2010;396:51-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Branco C, Esteves A, Piedade J, Parreira R. A new genotype 2 subcluster identified among GBV-C strains circulating in the Lisbon metropolitan area of Portugal. J Med Virol. 2010;82:452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Med. Virol. 82:452-459, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  12. Xiang J, McLinden J, Chang Q, Kaufman T, Stapleton J. An 85-aa segment of the GB virus type C NS5A phosphoprotein inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ Jurkat T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15570-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, GBV-C NS5A protein alters the cellular milieu necessary for HIV-1 replication and may provide a previously undescribed therapeutic approach for anti-HIV therapy...
  13. Bhattarai N, Stapleton J. GB virus C: the good boy virus?. Trends Microbiol. 2012;20:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes existing data on potential mechanisms by which GBV-C interferes with HIV, and the research needed to capitalize on this epidemiological observation...
  14. Muerhoff A, Tillmann H, Manns M, Dawson G, Desai S. GB virus C genotype determination in GB virus-C/HIV co-infected individuals. J Med Virol. 2003;70:141-9 pubmed
    ..054). Additional studies with larger cohorts from separate geographical regions are needed to determine whether a particular GBV-C genotype is associated with reduced morbidity or mortality among HIV co-infected patients...
  15. De Renzo A, Persico E, De Marino F, Di Giacomo Russo G, Notaro R, Di Grazia C, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis G virus infection in Hodgkin's disease and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: absence of correlation with hepatitis C virus infection. Haematologica. 2002;87:714-8; discussion 718 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis G virus (HGV) shares genetic and biological features with HCV, thus it might also be involved in lymphomagenesis...
  16. Barusruk S, Urwijitaroon Y. High prevalence of HGV coinfection with HBV or HCV among northeastern Thai blood donors. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:289-93 pubmed
    ..001). HGV co-infection is highly prevalent among northeastern Thai blood donors who are infected with HBV or HCV. The results also reveal that blood donors seronegative for HCV and HBV are a low risk group for HGV infection...
  17. Souza I, Allen J, Xiang J, Klinzman D, Diaz R, Zhang S, et al. Effect of primer selection on estimates of GB virus C (GBV-C) prevalence and response to antiretroviral therapy for optimal testing for GBV-C viremia. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3105-13 pubmed
    ..Analyses based on testing with single primers do not lead to reliable conclusions about the association between GBV-C infection and clinical outcomes...
  18. Ramezani A, Gachkar L, Eslamifar A, Khoshbaten M, Jalilvand S, Adibi L, et al. Detection of hepatitis G virus envelope protein E2 antibody in blood donors. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:57-61 pubmed
    ..5% in Japan to 24.2% in Poland. Therefore there is a geographic difference in distribution of hepatitis G virus (HGV) in the world. We aimed to determine the frequency of HGV exposure in Iranian blood donors...
  19. Fabrizi F, De Vecchi A, Lunghi G, Finazzi S, Bisegna S, Ponticelli C. Epidemiology of GB virus c/hepatitis g virus infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2002;22:405-10 pubmed
    ..The epidemiology of GBV-C/HGV infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis is scarce and mostly based on RT-PCR technology...
  20. Ribeiro dos Santos G, Nishiya A, Nascimento C, Bassit L, Chamone D, Focaccia R, et al. Prevalence of GB virus C (hepatitis G virus) and risk factors for infection in São Paulo, Brazil. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:438-43 pubmed
    ..5; 95%CI 1.2-5.4) were independently associated with GBV-C infection. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBV-C infection is high in São Paulo. In addition to parenteral transmission, another route, e.g. sexual or vertical, may be involved...
  21. Xiang J, George S, Wunschmann S, Chang Q, Klinzman D, Stapleton J. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by GB virus C infection through increases in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1. Lancet. 2004;363:2040-6 pubmed
    ..This study provides insight into the epidemiological association between GBV-C infection and longer survival in HIV-infected individuals...
  22. Hitzler W, Runkel S. Prevalence, persistence and liver enzyme levels of HGV RNA-positive blood donors determined by large-scale screening and transmission by blood components. Clin Lab. 2004;50:25-31 pubmed
    ..In blood donors no liver affection by means of ALT or AST elevation can be seen. Long persistence of HGV viremia is common and the presence of anti-E2 does not exclude viremia...
  23. Maidana Giret M, Silva T, Sauer M, Tomiyama H, Levi J, Bassichetto K, et al. GB virus type C infection modulates T-cell activation independently of HIV-1 viral load. AIDS. 2009;23:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..As recent evidence has implicated cellular activation in HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of GBV-C viremia on T-cell activation in early HIV-1 infection...
  24. Nunnari G, Nigro L, Palermo F, Attanasio M, Berger A, Doerr H, et al. Slower progression of HIV-1 infection in persons with GB virus C co-infection correlates with an intact T-helper 1 cytokine profile. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:26-30 pubmed
    ..Progression to AIDS is slower in persons infected with both HIV-1 and GB virus C (GBV-C), also known as hepatitis G virus...
  25. Bright H, Carroll A, Watts P, Fenton R. Development of a GB virus B marmoset model and its validation with a novel series of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors. J Virol. 2004;78:2062-71 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first demonstration of the in vivo efficacy of a small-molecule inhibitor for HCV in an animal model and illustrate the utility of GBV-B as a surrogate animal model system for HCV...
  26. Loureiro C, Alonso R, Pacheco B, Uzcátegui M, Villegas L, León G, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus genotype 3 among autochthonous Venezuelan populations. J Med Virol. 2002;68:357-62 pubmed
    ..This report confirms the circulation of the Asiatic genotype of GBV-C/HGV among Amerindians, suggesting an old origin of GBV-C/HGV. This might be associated with the apparently low pathogenesis of this virus...
  27. Liu H, Teng C, Fukuda Y, Nakano I, Hayashi K, Takamatsu J, et al. A novel subtype of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus genotype 1 detected uniquely in patients with hemophilia in Japan. J Med Virol. 2003;71:385-90 pubmed
  28. Mohr E, Stapleton J. GB virus type C interactions with HIV: the role of envelope glycoproteins. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of action may identify novel approaches to HIV therapy. ..
  29. van der Bij A, Kloosterboer N, Prins M, Boeser Nunnink B, Geskus R, Lange J, et al. GB virus C coinfection and HIV-1 disease progression: The Amsterdam Cohort Study. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:678-85 pubmed
  30. Fernandez Vidal M, Cubero M, Ercilla G, Gomara M, Haro I. Application of a chimeric synthetic peptide in the development of a serologic method for the diagnosis of hepatitis G virus infection. Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14:865-70 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, CD and FTIR have been used in conjunction to characterize their conformational changes showing that the chimeric peptide presents a more ordered secondary structure than its parent peptides...
  31. Alves Sousa V, Komninakis S, Baggio Zappia G, Barbosa A, Mantovani N, Diaz R, et al. Short communication: Evaluation of GB virus C/hepatitis G viral load among HIV type 1-coinfected patients in São Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1301-4 pubmed
  32. Schwarze Zander C, Neibecker M, Othman S, Tural C, Clotet B, Blackard J, et al. GB virus C coinfection in advanced HIV type-1 disease is associated with low CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression on CD4(+) T-cells. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:745-52 pubmed publisher
  33. Björkman P, Flamholc L, Molnegren V, Marshall A, Güner N, Widell A. Enhanced and resumed GB virus C replication in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving HAART. AIDS. 2007;21:1641-3 pubmed
    ..001). In patients interrupting HAART, GBV-C-RNA titres decreased as HIV replication resumed. These findings further support the theory that GBV-C replication could depend on the dynamics of HIV progression...
  34. Björkman P, Flamholc L, Naucler A, Molnegren V, Wallmark E, Widell A. GB virus C during the natural course of HIV-1 infection: viremia at diagnosis does not predict mortality. AIDS. 2004;18:877-86 pubmed
  35. George S, Varmaz D, Stapleton J. GB virus C replicates in primary T and B lymphocytes. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:451-4 pubmed
  36. Polgreen P, Xiang J, Chang Q, Stapleton J. GB virus type C/hepatitis G virus: a non-pathogenic flavivirus associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected individuals. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:1255-61 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies suggest that GBV-C inhibits HIV replication and alters cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. Thus, GBV-C may be a major factor influencing the natural history of HIV disease...
  37. Hanci S, Cevahir N, Kaleli I, Hanci V. [Investigation of hepatitis G virus prevalence in hemodialysis patients and blood donors in Denizli, Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:617-25 pubmed
  38. Supapol W, Remis R, Raboud J, Millson M, Tappero J, Kaul R, et al. Reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV associated with infant but not maternal GB virus C infection. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether maternal or infant GBV-C infection was associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection...
  39. Ishii K, Iijima S, Kimura N, Lee Y, Ageyama N, Yagi S, et al. GBV-B as a pleiotropic virus: distribution of GBV-B in extrahepatic tissues in vivo. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:515-21 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GBV-B as well as HCV is a pleiotropic virus in vivo...
  40. Muerhoff A, Dawson G, Desai S. A previously unrecognized sixth genotype of GB virus C revealed by analysis of 5'-untranslated region sequences. J Med Virol. 2006;78:105-11 pubmed
    ..The discovery of this sixth genotype emphasizes the diverse nature of GBV-C isolates and may have important implications for the interpretation of studies involving GBV-C/HIV co-infected individuals...
  41. Kaye S, Howard M, Alabi A, Hansmann A, Whittle H, Schim van der Loeff M. No observed effect of GB virus C coinfection on disease progression in a cohort of African woman infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:876-8 pubmed
    ..No association between GBV-C and HIV plasma virus loads or CD4 cell count was observed...
  42. Neibecker M, Schwarze Zander C, Rockstroh J, Spengler U, Blackard J. Evidence for extensive genotypic diversity and recombination of GB virus C (GBV-C) in Germany. J Med Virol. 2011;83:685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that genotypic diversity and viral recombination contribute to the overall genetic variability of GBV-C...
  43. Schleicher S, Flehmig B. Genotyping of GB virus C by restriction pattern analysis of the 5' untranslated region. J Med Virol. 2003;71:226-32 pubmed
    ..This method may be useful for rapid and reliable characterization of GBV-C isolates when either epidemiological or transmission studies are carried out...
  44. Smith S, Donio M, Singh M, Fallon J, Jitendranath L, Chkrebtii N, et al. Prevalence of GB virus type C in urban Americans infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Retrovirology. 2005;2:38 pubmed
    ..These data provide increased insight into the prevalence of GBV-C co-infection in the HIV epidemic in this understudied population...
  45. Alcalde R, Nishiya A, Casseb J, Inocêncio L, Fonseca L, Duarte A. Prevalence and distribution of the GBV-C/HGV among HIV-1-infected patients under anti-retroviral therapy. Virus Res. 2010;151:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The GBV-C/HGV infection prevalence was 30% among HIV-1-infected subjects, and was associated with lower VL and higher CD4+ lymphocyte counts. GBV-C/HGV genotype 2b may be associated with better immunological response...
  46. Bukh J, Engle R, Govindarajan S, Purcell R. Immunity against the GBV-B hepatitis virus in tamarins can prevent productive infection following rechallenge and is long-lived. J Med Virol. 2008;80:87-94 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrated that the immunity was long-lived: 1 year after the fourth challenge, the animal with sterilizing immunity had low titer viremia for only 1 week following an additional challenge...
  47. Stapleton J, Foung S, Muerhoff A, Bukh J, Simmonds P. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose renaming 'GB' viruses within the tentative genus Pegivirus to reflect their host origin...
  48. Ramos Filho R, Carneiro M, Teles S, Dias M, Cardoso D, Lampe E, et al. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:639-43 pubmed
    ..Genotype 2 (subtype 2b) seems to be the most prevalent GBV-C/HGV genotype in our region...
  49. Desai M, Pal R, Banker D. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in Indian blood donors and high-risk groups. Transfus Apher Sci. 2004;30:111-7 pubmed
    ..Overall our findings seem to indicate that HGV infections generally are asymptomatic, transient and self-limiting and the virus does not seem to show a very high prevalence among the Indian population...
  50. Stapleton J, Chaloner K, Zhang J, Klinzman D, Souza I, Xiang J, et al. GBV-C viremia is associated with reduced CD4 expansion in HIV-infected people receiving HAART and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS. 2009;23:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..GBV-C replication is significantly inhibited in vitro by activation of primary CD4 cell cultures with IL-2 and phytohemagglutinin. We sought to determine if there is an interaction between GBV-C and IL-2 in vivo...
  51. Vahidnia F, Petersen M, Stapleton J, Rutherford G, Busch M, Custer B. Acquisition of GB virus type C and lower mortality in patients with advanced HIV disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Open questions are the presence and the direction of any causal relationship between GBV-C infection and HIV disease markers in the context of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  52. Shankar E, Solomon S, Vignesh R, Murugavel K, Sundaram M, Solomon S, et al. GB virus infection: a silent anti-HIV panacea within?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..With sufficient knowledge of resistance patterns studied in tropical south India, researchers are now keen to study the competitive interactions between GBV-induced chemokines and HIV ligands to bind CCR5...
  53. Stapleton J, Williams C, Xiang J. GB virus type C: a beneficial infection?. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3915-9 pubmed
  54. Rodriguez B, Woolley I, Lederman M, Zdunek D, Hess G, Valdez H. Effect of GB virus C coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:504-7 pubmed
    ..This association was found to be independent of baseline CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA, which indicates that an association exists between GBV-C infection and response to HAART...
  55. Quiros Roldan E, Maroto M, Torti C, Moretti F, Casari S, Pan A, et al. No evidence of benefical effect of GB virus type C infection on the course of HIV infection. AIDS. 2002;16:1430-1 pubmed
  56. Klusonova H, Pliskova L, Palicka V, Fixa P. [Prevalence of viral hepatitis G infection in hemodialysis patients and coinfection with viral hepatitis B and C]. Vnitr Lek. 2001;47:678-81 pubmed
    ..5%). Raised transaminase activity was found only in three patients with HGV RNA positivity (13.6%). From the presented results ensues that haemodialyzed patients are a high risk group for HGV infection...
  57. Abu Odeh R, Al Moslih M, Al Jokhdar M, Ezzeddine S. Detection and genotyping of GBV-C virus in the United Arab Emirates. J Med Virol. 2005;76:534-40 pubmed
  58. Ruiz V, Giordano M, Rivero C, Minassian M, Cuestas M, Trinks J, et al. GB virus C quasispecies detected in plasma and lymphocyte subsets in a natural human infection. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report showing the quasispecies nature of GBV-C in lymphocyte subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  59. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Roberts S. GB virus C: insights into co-infection. J Clin Virol. 2005;33:257-66 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of the putative protective effect of GBV-C in HIV co-infection could potentially identify novel targets for anti-HIV therapeutics and lead to the development of disease modifying vaccines...
  60. Muerhoff A, Leary T, Sathar M, Dawson G, Desai S. African origin of GB virus C determined by phylogenetic analysis of a complete genotype 5 genome from South Africa. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1729-35 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of the corresponding region of the chimpanzee isolate GBV-Ctro in the analysis produced trees rooted on the branch leading to the genotype 5 isolate D50, suggesting an ancient African origin of GBV-C...
  61. Giannoulis E, Economopoulos T, Mandraveli K, Giannoulis K, Nikolaides C, Zervou E, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis G virus infection in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Greece: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Acta Haematol. 2004;112:189-93 pubmed
    ..The increased prevalence of HGV infection detected in patients with NHL could imply the potential participation of HGV in the pathogenesis of NHL...
  62. Lanford R, Chavez D, Notvall L, Brasky K. Comparison of tamarins and marmosets as hosts for GBV-B infections and the effect of immunosuppression on duration of viremia. Virology. 2003;311:72-80 pubmed
    ..The greater availability of marmosets in comparison to tamarins will greatly facilitate future research efforts with this model...
  63. Hekmat S, Mohraz M, Vahabpour R, Jam S, Bahramali G, Banifazl M, et al. Frequency and genotype of GB virus C among Iranian patients infected with HIV. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..GBV-C infection is relatively common in patients infected with HIV. The prevailing GBV-C genotype 2a in this study group concurred with reports from other parts of the Middle East...
  64. Eslamifar A, Hamkar R, Ramezani A, Ahmadi F, Gachkar L, Jalilvand S, et al. Hepatitis G virus exposure in dialysis patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2007;39:1257-63 pubmed
    ..The predominant route of its transmission is parenteral. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of HGV exposure in haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in Iran...
  65. Rydze R, Xiang J, McLinden J, Stapleton J. GB virus type C infection polarizes T-cell cytokine gene expression toward a Th1 cytokine profile via NS5A protein expression. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..GBV-C-induced modulation in T-cell cytokines may contribute to the beneficial effect of GBV-C in HIV-infected individuals...