birnaviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Borrego J, Pérez Prieto S. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: biology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic methods. Adv Virus Res. 2003;62:113-65 pubmed
  2. Stoute S, Jackwood D, Sommer Wagner S, Cooper G, Anderson M, Woolcock P, et al. The diagnosis of very virulent infectious bursal disease in California pullets. Avian Dis. 2009;53:321-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first occurrence of vvIBDV reported from birds in the United States...
  3. Orpetveit I, Mikalsen A, Sindre H, Evensen O, Dannevig B, Midtlyng P. Detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in subclinically infected Atlantic salmon by virus isolation in cell culture or real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction: influence of sample preservation and storage. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:886-95 pubmed
    ..Independent of detection method, these results indicate that for long-term storage, samples are best kept at -80°C after homogenization in TM. ..
  4. de Las Heras A, Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S. Immunogenic and protective effects of an oral DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates the potential of the encapsulation technique for IPNV-DNA vaccine delivery and the relevance of the IPNV-VP2 gene for future plasmid constructs...
  5. Petkov D, Linnemann E, Kapczynski D, Sellers H. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens. Avian Dis. 2009;53:347-55 pubmed
    ..Overall, these are the first studies to identify two distinct IgM B-cell subpopulations in the chicken bursa, and the first to describe the decrease in the IgM B-cell population relative to IgA and IgG B-cells following IBDV infection...
  6. Li J, Huang Y, Liang X, Lu M, Li L, Yu L, et al. Plasmid DNA encoding antigens of infectious bursal disease viruses induce protective immune responses in chickens: factors influencing efficacy. Virus Res. 2003;98:63-74 pubmed
  7. Zhou X, Wang D, Xiong J, Zhang P, Li Y, She R. Protection of chickens, with or without maternal antibodies, against IBDV infection by a recombinant IBDV-VP2 protein. Vaccine. 2010;28:3990-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Negash T, Al Garib S, Gruys E. Comparison of in ovo and post-hatch vaccination with particular reference to infectious bursal disease. A review. Vet Q. 2004;26:76-87 pubmed
    ..Investigations on in ovo vaccination to produce safe and efficient vaccines are still in progress. Currently a large number of vaccines are under investigation for viral, bacterial and protozoal diseases...
  9. Withers D, Young J, Davison T. Infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunosuppression in the chick is associated with the presence of undifferentiated follicles in the recovering bursa. Viral Immunol. 2005;18:127-37 pubmed
    ..These foci contained few B cells at the margins, but large numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, scattered gammadelta(+) T-cells and macrophages, and small central aggregates of dendriticlike cells expressing the CD40 antigen...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Rautenschlein S, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Haase C. A comparison of immune responses to infection with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) between specific-pathogen-free chickens infected at 12 and 28 days of age. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:251-60 pubmed
    ..Under these experimental conditions, age-related differences were found only for the cytokine patterns but interestingly this did not influence the outcome of the disease with IBDV-IM...
  2. Kim S, Sung H, Han J, Jackwood D, Kwon H. Protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus in chickens immunized with DNA vaccines. Vet Microbiol. 2004;101:39-51 pubmed
  3. Williams A, Davison T. Enhanced immunopathology induced by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:4-14 pubmed
    ..The marked influx of T cells into the infected bursa indicates that cell-mediated immunity is likely to be important in the clearance of vvIBDV...
  4. Pantin Jackwood M, Brown T, Kim Y, Huff G. Proventriculitis in broiler chickens: effects of immunosuppression. Avian Dis. 2004;48:300-16 pubmed
  5. Qi X, Gao H, Gao Y, Qin L, Wang Y, Gao L, et al. Naturally occurring mutations at residues 253 and 284 in VP2 contribute to the cell tropism and virulence of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Antiviral Res. 2009;84:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The two residues were mainly responsible for the virulence of vvIBDV. These findings may be helpful in the design of new tailored IBDV vaccines...
  6. Wang X, Jiang P, Deen S, Wu J, Liu X, Xu J. Efficacy of DNA vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens enhanced by coadministration with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Avian Dis. 2003;47:1305-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that coadministration of the constructed plasmid pcDNA3.1-VP2 or pCI-VP2 with CpG ODN or commercial attenuated IBD vaccine could protect chickens efficiently from direct vvIBDV challenge...
  7. Muller H, Islam M, Raue R. Research on infectious bursal disease--the past, the present and the future. Vet Microbiol. 2003;97:153-65 pubmed
  8. Martinez Alonso S, Vakharia V, Saint Jean S, Perez Prieto S, Tafalla C. Immune responses elicited in rainbow trout through the administration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus-like particles. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results together with the fact that VLPs strongly induced non-specific lymphocyte proliferation and specific anti-IPNV antibody production point to VLPs as excellent candidates for vaccine development...
  9. Hon C, Lam T, Drummond A, Rambaut A, Lee Y, Yip C, et al. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a correlation between the expansion of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus and reassortment of its genome segment B. J Virol. 2006;80:8503-9 pubmed
    ..This report reveals the possible mechanisms leading to the emergence and expansion of vvIBDV, which would certainly provide insights into the scope of surveillance and prevention efforts regarding the disease. ..
  10. Gadan K, Sandtrø A, Marjara I, Santi N, Munang andu H, Evensen Ø. Stress-induced reversion to virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in naïve fry of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54656 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that stress plays a key role in viral replication in vivo and can facilitate conditions that will allow reversion from attenuated virus variants of IPNV...
  11. Guy D, Bishop S, Brotherstone S, Hamilton A, Roberts R, McAndrew B, et al. Analysis of the incidence of infectious pancreatic necrosis mortality in pedigreed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., populations. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:637-47 pubmed
  12. Cao Y, Shi Q, Ma J, Xie Q, Bi Y. Vaccination against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus using recombinant T4 bacteriophage displaying viral protein VP2. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2005;37:657-64 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV...
  13. Rauf A, Khatri M, Murgia M, Saif Y. Expression of perforin-granzyme pathway genes in the bursa of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study highlight the mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis and the role of cytotoxic T cells in the clearance of virus-infected cells...
  14. Liew P, Zulkifli I, Hair Bejo M, Omar A, Israf D. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress. Poult Sci. 2003;82:1879-85 pubmed
    ..We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response...
  15. Wang X, Zeng X, Gao H, Fu C, Wei P. Changes in VP2 gene during the attenuation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus strain Gx isolated in China. Avian Dis. 2004;48:77-83 pubmed
    ..Virus neutralization tests with Gx strain showed that the antigenicities are similar from Gx to CEF-20...
  16. Hsieh M, Wu C, Lin T. The effect of co-administration of DNA carrying chicken interferon-gamma gene on protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease by DNA-mediated vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24:6955-65 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that co-administration of plasmid encoding chicken IFN-gamma gene with plasmid encoding a large segment gene of the IBDV did not enhance immune response and protection against challenge by IBDV...
  17. Munang andu H, Fredriksen B, Mutoloki S, Brudeseth B, Kuo T, Marjara I, et al. Comparison of vaccine efficacy for different antigen delivery systems for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a cohabitation challenge model. Vaccine. 2012;30:4007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, there still remains the challenge of developing highly efficacious vaccines with the ability to eliminate the post challenge carrier state in IPNV vaccinology...
  18. Mahgoub H, Bailey M, Kaiser P. An overview of infectious bursal disease. Arch Virol. 2012;157:2047-57 pubmed publisher
  19. Ruane N, McCarthy L, Swords D, Henshilwood K. Molecular differentiation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolates from farmed and wild salmonids in Ireland. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the importance of import risk analysis for diseases not listed under current legislation...
  20. Munro E, Gahlawat S, Acosta F, Ellis A. In infectious pancreatic necrosis virus carrier Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts, almost all kidney macrophages ex vivo contain a low level of non-replicating virus. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:43-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a very high proportion of the adherent kidney macrophages must be infected with very few non-replicating virions...
  21. Raue R, Islam M, Islam M, Islam K, Badhy S, Das P, et al. Reversion of molecularly engineered, partially attenuated, very virulent infectious bursal disease virus during infection of commercial chickens. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:181-9 pubmed
    ..Further investigations demonstrated that the codon for amino acid at position 284 had already reverted to the wild-type phenotype (T284A) 3 days after inoculation...
  22. Francois A, Chevalier C, Delmas B, Eterradossi N, Toquin D, Rivallan G, et al. Avian adenovirus CELO recombinants expressing VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus induce protection against bursal disease in chickens. Vaccine. 2004;22:2351-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CELO-based vectors are useful to safely induce a strong protective immunity against vvIBDV in chickens...
  23. Chen P, Wu J, Her G, Hong J. Aquatic birnavirus induces necrotic cell death via the mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this death-signaling pathway is disrupted by bongkrekic acid in fish cells, indicating that this drug may serve to modulate IPNV-induced pathogenesis...
  24. Kumar S, Ahi Y, Salunkhe S, Koul M, Tiwari A, Gupta P, et al. Effective protection by high efficiency bicistronic DNA vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus expressing VP2 protein and chicken IL-2. Vaccine. 2009;27:864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, mortality, gross picture of bursa and histopathological findings demonstrated the efficacy of the vaccine in reducing virulence of the disease...
  25. Yuwen Y, Gao Y, Gao H, Qi X, Li T, Liu W, et al. Sequence analysis of the VP2 hypervariable region of eight very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolates from the northeast of China. Avian Dis. 2008;52:284-90 pubmed
    ..The other isolates were similar to the UK661 strain. Our findings demonstrated that the vvlBDV strains in the northeast of China could be diverse...
  26. Wu Y, Hong L, Ye J, Huang Z, Zhou J. The VP5 protein of infectious bursal disease virus promotes virion release from infected cells and is not involved in cell death. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study contributes to the further characterization of the VP5 protein, which will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of IBDV pathogenicity...
  27. Tarpey I, van Loon A, de Haas N, Davis P, Orbell S, Cavanagh D, et al. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus expressing chicken interleukin-2 increases the protection provided by in ovo vaccination with infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis virus. Vaccine. 2007;25:8529-35 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination...
  28. Wei Y, Yu X, Zheng J, Chu W, Xu H, Yu X, et al. Reassortant infectious bursal disease virus isolated in China. Virus Res. 2008;131:279-82 pubmed
    ..Our findings, which strongly suggest genetic exchange between attenuated and very virulent strains of IBDV, emphasizes the risk of generating uncontrolled chimeric viruses by using live attenuated vaccines...
  29. Jackwood D, Cookson K, Sommer Wagner S, Le Galludec H, de Wit J. Molecular characteristics of infectious bursal disease viruses from asymptomatic broiler flocks in Europe. Avian Dis. 2006;50:532-6 pubmed
    ..Confirmation of the presence of antigenic variant IBDV strains in Europe requires additional immunologic studies to elucidate the exact nature of the viral epitopes. Our data support the need for these immunologic studies...
  30. Boot H, Hoekman A, Gielkens A. The enhanced virulence of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus is partly determined by its B-segment. Arch Virol. 2005;150:137-44 pubmed
    ..Insight into the virulence factors of very virulent IBDV will contribute to the improvement of live IBDV vaccines...
  31. Li L, Fang W, Li J, Huang Y, Yu L. Oral DNA vaccination with the polyprotein gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) delivered by the attenuated Salmonella elicits protective immune responses in chickens. Vaccine. 2006;24:5919-27 pubmed
    ..Our results have implications in the development of DNA vaccines against avian viral diseases by bacteria-vectored oral delivery system...
  32. Kabell S, Handberg K, Kusk M, Bisgaard M. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Avian Dis. 2005;49:534-9 pubmed
    ..All three of the IBDV strains used were detected in bursa tissues, whereas only the two virulent strains were detected in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus...
  33. Liu M, Vakharia V. Nonstructural protein of infectious bursal disease virus inhibits apoptosis at the early stage of virus infection. J Virol. 2006;80:3369-77 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the NS protein has an antiapoptotic function at the early stage of virus infection...
  34. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Encinas P, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Oral immunization of rainbow trout to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (Ipnv) induces different immune gene expression profiles in head kidney and pyloric ceca. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of new gene markers on head kidney/pyloric ceca could be used to follow up and/or to improve immunity during fish oral vaccination...
  35. Santi N, Vakharia V, Evensen Ø. Identification of putative motifs involved in the virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Virology. 2004;322:31-40 pubmed
  36. Cuesta A, Chaves Pozo E, de las Heras A, Saint Jean S, Perez Prieto S, Tafalla C. An active DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) with a different mode of action than fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:3291-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The effectiveness of this new IPNV DNA vaccine and its possible mechanism of action are discussed and compared to other viral vaccines...
  37. Chiu C, Wu J, Her G, Chou Y, Hong J. Aquatic birnavirus capsid protein, VP3, induces apoptosis via the Bad-mediated mitochondria pathway in fish and mouse cells. Apoptosis. 2010;15:653-68 pubmed publisher
  38. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Trout oral VP2 DNA vaccination mimics transcriptional responses occurring after infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the genes described here could be used as markers to further optimize the oral immunization method...
  39. Xu J, Zhang Z, Yin Y, Cui S, Xu S, Guo Y, et al. Development of reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of infectious bursal disease virus. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay was significantly more sensitive than normal gel-based RT-PCR. Because it is specific and simple, the RT-LAMP assay can be widely applied in clinical laboratories for rapid detection of IBVD...
  40. Kabell S, Handberg K, Li Y, Kusk M, Bisgaard M. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens. Acta Vet Scand. 2005;46:219-27 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvlBDV in vaccinated chickens...
  41. Hulse D, Romero C. Partial protection against infectious bursal disease virus through DNA-mediated vaccination with the VP2 capsid protein and chicken IL-2 genes. Vaccine. 2004;22:1249-59 pubmed
    ..It was also found that immunological tolerance may have been induced in one of the chicken experiments by vaccination with plasmid DNA...
  42. Dey S, Upadhyay C, Madhan Mohan C, Kataria J, Vakharia V. Formation of subviral particles of the capsid protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus and its application in serological diagnosis. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay proved to be sensitive, specific and accurate as compared to the serum neutralization test and agar gel immunodiffusion test. The recombinant VP2 antigen is a suitable alternative to whole viral antigen...
  43. Houston R, Gheyas A, Hamilton A, Guy D, Tinch A, Taggart J, et al. Detection and confirmation of a major QTL affecting resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;132:199-204 pubmed
    ..The size of QTL effect is such that the QTL flanking markers can be immediately applied in marker-assisted selection programmes to improve the resistance of salmon populations to IPN, thus reducing mortality due to the disease...
  44. Perozo F, Villegas P, Estevez C, Alvarado I, Purvis L, Williams S. Protection against infectious bursal disease virulent challenge conferred by a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus vaccine. Avian Dis. 2008;52:315-9 pubmed
    ..The use of rAAAV virions for gene delivery represents a novel approach to poultry vaccination...
  45. Eterradossi N, Gauthier C, Reda I, Comte S, Rivallan G, Toquin D, et al. Extensive antigenic changes in an atypical isolate of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus and experimental clinical control of this virus with an antigenically classical live vaccine. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:423-31 pubmed
    ..These results document that an active antibody response to a classical live antigen may clinically control infection by an antigenically atypical very virulent IBDV...
  46. de Las Heras A, Pérez Prieto S, Rodríguez Saint Jean S. In vitro and in vivo immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, specific antibodies were detected 30 days after vaccination. These results suggest that the VP2 gene is a good candidate for the design of IPNV-DNA vaccines and to investigate the use of cytokines as co-stimulatory molecules...
  47. Wu H, Singh N, Locy R, SCISSUM GUNN K, Giambrone J. Immunization of chickens with VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Avian Dis. 2004;48:663-8 pubmed
    ..Chickens immunized with a commercial vaccine at 1 and 3 wk showed 78% protection. Results supported the efficacy of plant-produced VP2 as a vaccine against IBD...
  48. Yamaguchi T, Kasanga C, Terasaki K, Maw M, Ohya K, Fukushi H. Nucleotide sequence analysis of VP2 hypervariable domain of infectious bursal disease virus detected in Japan from 1993 to 2004. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:733-8 pubmed
    ..These findings show the prevalence of classical IBDVs closely related to the attenuated vaccines and highly virulent IBDVs derived from other countries throughout Japan since 1993...
  49. Rong J, Cheng T, Liu X, Jiang T, Gu H, Zou G. Development of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens. Vaccine. 2005;23:4844-51 pubmed
    ..7% chickens. The results indicate that E. coli BL 21/pET 28 a-VP2 could be used to develop recombinant VP2 vaccine against infectious bursal disease in chickens...
  50. Butter C, Sturman T, Baaten B, Davison T. Protection from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-induced immunosuppression by immunization with a fowlpox recombinant containing IBDV-VP2. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:597-604 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that measurement of immunosuppression could be a useful strategy for assessing the efficacy of vaccines to protect against the consequences of IBDV infection...
  51. Rong J, Jiang T, Cheng T, Shen M, Du Y, Li S, et al. Large-scale manufacture and use of recombinant VP2 vaccine against infectious bursal disease in chickens. Vaccine. 2007;25:7900-8 pubmed
    ..Correlation coefficient between the OD values of VP2-based ELISA and the virions-based ELISA was 0.782. The results will make it possible for the vaccine to be produced commercially and used in poultry industry in large scale...
  52. Palmquist J, Khatri M, Cha R, Goddeeris B, Walcheck B, Sharma J. In vivo activation of chicken macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:305-15 pubmed
    ..The robust expression of proinflammatory cytokine transcripts, along with a decrease in macrophage numbers, suggest that IBDV activates and may lead to a reduction of resident macrophages in vivo...
  53. Bautista D, Elankumaran S, Heckert R. Effect of a variant infectious bursal disease virus (E/Del) on Salmonella typhimurium infection in commercial broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 2004;48:361-9 pubmed
  54. Haygreen E, Kaiser P, Burgess S, Davison T. In ovo DNA immunisation followed by a recombinant fowlpox boost is fully protective to challenge with virulent IBDV. Vaccine. 2006;24:4951-61 pubmed
    ..An antibody response was not detected after the prime-boost vaccination, even after chicks had been challenged with IBDV, implying that the DNA prime delivered in ovo stimulated a protective cellular immune response...
  55. Xu X, Tong D, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Li Z, Zhang K, et al. Baculovirus virions displaying infectious bursal disease virus VP2 protein protect chickens against infectious bursal disease virus infection. Avian Dis. 2011;55:223-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus BacSC-VP2 can be a potential vaccine against IBDV infections...
  56. Icard A, Sellers H, Mundt E. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus isolates with unknown antigenic properties by reverse genetics. Avian Dis. 2008;52:590-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, using the reverse-genetics approach, a number of field isolates showed no reactivity with any of the used monoclonal antibodies, indicating that an unknown, antigenic subtype of IBDV serotype 1 is circulating in the field...
  57. Eldaghayes I, Rothwell L, Williams A, Withers D, Balu S, Davison F, et al. Infectious bursal disease virus: strains that differ in virulence differentially modulate the innate immune response to infection in the chicken bursa. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:83-91 pubmed
    ..This suggests that both viruses modulate the host immune response, although probably by using different mechanisms...
  58. Jackwood D. Molecular epidemiologic evidence of homologous recombination in infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Dis. 2012;56:574-7 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence data, however, suggest they would contain antigenic epitopes of both variant and classic IBDVs...
  59. Skjesol A, Skjæveland I, Elnæs M, Timmerhaus G, Fredriksen B, Jørgensen S, et al. IPNV with high and low virulence: host immune responses and viral mutations during infection. Virol J. 2011;8:396 pubmed publisher
    ..However little is known about the rates and modes of sequence divergence and molecular mechanisms that determine virulence. Also how the host response may influence IPNV virulence is poorly described...
  60. Shivappa R, Song H, Yao K, Aas Eng A, Evensen O, Vakharia V. Molecular characterization of Sp serotype strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus exhibiting differences in virulence. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;61:23-32 pubmed
    ..Segment B is 2777 nucleotides long and encodes in a single large ORF (a polypeptide of 844 amino acid residues), VP1...
  61. Ramirez Nieto G, Shivaprasad H, Kim C, Lillehoj H, Song H, Osorio I, et al. Adaptation of a mallard H5N2 low pathogenicity influenza virus in chickens with prior history of infection with infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Dis. 2010;54:513-21 pubmed
  62. Gao L, Qi X, Li K, Gao H, Gao Y, Qin L, et al. Development of a tailored vaccine against challenge with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens using reverse genetics. Vaccine. 2011;29:5550-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant clinical and pathological lesions were observed in chickens immunized with rGtHLJVP2. Our data demonstrated that rGtHLJVP2 could be used as a novel vaccine candidate for prevention against vvIBDV...
  63. Villegas P, Hamoud M, Purvis L, Perozo F. Infectious bursal disease subunit vaccination. Avian Dis. 2008;52:670-4 pubmed
  64. Jackwood D, Sreedevi B, LeFever L, Sommer Wagner S. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity. Virology. 2008;377:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the molecular and pathogenicity data indicate that a single amino acid mutation from Histidine (H) to Glutamine (Q) or Asparagine (N) at position 253 in VP2 will markedly increase the virulence of an attenuated IBDV...
  65. Roh H, Sung H, Kwon H. Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-gamma on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:361-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-gamma had no significant effect...
  66. Mahmood M, Siddique M, Hussain I, Khan A, Mansoor M. Protection capability of recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus in chickens adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Vaccine. 2006;24:4838-46 pubmed
    ..05). The results revealed that co-administration of recombinant plasmids with CpG ODN could protect chickens efficiently from IBDV challenge...
  67. Rodriguez Lecompte J, Niño Fong R, Lopez A, Frederick Markham R, Kibenge F. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) induces apoptosis in chicken B cells. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;28:321-37 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that both serotypes compete for the same receptor in DT-40 cells, and suggest that IBDV-induced apoptosis is a multistep process involving virus replication, protein expression, and release of virions...
  68. Kusk M, Kabell S, Jørgensen P, Handberg K. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2005;109:159-67 pubmed
    ..The method, which is highly specific, fast and inexpensive, can be applied in all laboratories with basal PCR capabilities and equipment...
  69. Jackwood D. Recent trends in the molecular diagnosis of infectious bursal disease viruses. Anim Health Res Rev. 2004;5:313-6 pubmed
    ..These assays are accurate, reliable and inexpensive compared with conventional RT-PCR because they do not require RFLP or other labor-intensive post-RT-PCR assays to distinguish viral strains...
  70. Chaves Pozo E, Montero J, Cuesta A, Tafalla C. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses replicate differently in rainbow trout gonad and induce different chemokine transcription profiles. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:648-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This lack of immune response might be an advantage that permits its vertical transmission...
  71. Skjesol A, Aamo T, Hegseth M, Robertsen B, Jørgensen J. The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection. Virus Res. 2009;143:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The longer headstart the virus gets, the more prominent is the weakening of IFN signaling. IPNV VP4 and VP5 inhibit IFN-induced expression from the Mx promoter, indicating that these proteins contribute to the antagonistic effect...
  72. Matsuo A, Oshiumi H, Tsujita T, Mitani H, Kasai H, Yoshimizu M, et al. Teleost TLR22 recognizes RNA duplex to induce IFN and protect cells from birnaviruses. J Immunol. 2008;181:3474-85 pubmed
    ..TLR22 may be a functional substitute of human cell-surface TLR3 and serve as a surveillant for infection with dsRNA virus to alert the immune system for antiviral protection in fish...
  73. Xia R, Wang H, Huang G, Zhang M. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a Chinese very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1725-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a reassortment and/or recombination event may have occurred in the emergence of Chinese vvIBDV strains...
  74. Hong J, Guan B, Her G, Evensen O, Santi N, Wu J. Aquatic birnavirus infection activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB via tyrosine kinase signalling leading to cell death. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..i. Taken together our data suggest that IPNV may induce NF-kappaB activation through tyrosine kinase signalling, which may be associated with induction of apoptosis...
  75. Wei Y, Li J, Zheng J, Xu H, Li L, Yu L. Genetic reassortment of infectious bursal disease virus in nature. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:277-87 pubmed
    ..The discovery of reassortant viruses in nature suggests an additional risk of using live IBDV vaccines, which could act as genetic donors for genome reassortment...