rna virus infections

Summary

Summary: Diseases caused by RNA VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. Johansen R, Grove S, Svendsen A, Modahl I, Dannevig B. A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:327-41 pubmed
    ..None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious...
  2. Haugland O, Mikalsen A, Nilsen P, Lindmo K, Thu B, Eliassen T, et al. Cardiomyopathy syndrome of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus of the Totiviridae family. J Virol. 2011;85:5275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of the causative agent for CMS is important for improved disease surveillance and disease control and will serve as a basis for vaccine development against the disease...
  3. Ganesh B, Nataraju S, Rajendran K, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Manna B, et al. Detection of closely related Picobirnaviruses among diarrhoeic children in Kolkata: evidence of zoonoses?. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the close monitoring of their global spread as well as in-depth molecular characterization is essential for better understanding of emerging PBV strains...
  4. Kemp C, Imler J. Antiviral immunity in drosophila. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, DExD/H box helicases appear to play a crucial role in the cytosolic detection of viral RNAs in flies and mammals...
  5. Chérif N, Thiery R, Castric J, Biacchesi S, Bremont M, Thabti F, et al. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata farmed in Tunisia. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, viral sequences obtained from fish that were held at lower temperature (<20 degrees C) were distinct from the rest of the sequences...
  6. Sommerset I, Nerland A. Complete sequence of RNA1 and subgenomic RNA3 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:117-25 pubmed
  7. Patel S, Overgård A, Nerland A. CD8alpha and CD8beta in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus: cloning, characterization and gene expression during viral and bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Both CD8alpha and CD8beta were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated in spleen at 48h compared to their levels at 12h post-infection with nodavirus and V. anguillarum...
  8. Giordano M, Martinez L, Masachessi G, Barril P, Ferreyra L, Isa M, et al. Evidence of closely related picobirnavirus strains circulating in humans and pigs in Argentina. J Infect. 2011;62:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the published literature, it is still difficult to draw conclusions as to whether picobirnavirus (PBV) circulation is influenced by host species restriction...
  9. Panzarin V, Patarnello P, Mori A, Rampazzo E, Cappellozza E, Bovo G, et al. Development and validation of a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of betanodavirus in clinical specimens. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay that was developed is capable of detecting members of all of the betanodavirus genetic groups currently described and can be considered a valid alternative to the time-consuming and contamination-prone nested PCR...
  10. Scapigliati G, Buonocore F, Randelli E, Casani D, Meloni S, Zarletti G, et al. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Johansen R, Grove S, Svendsen A, Modahl I, Dannevig B. A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:327-41 pubmed
    ..None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious...
  2. Haugland O, Mikalsen A, Nilsen P, Lindmo K, Thu B, Eliassen T, et al. Cardiomyopathy syndrome of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus of the Totiviridae family. J Virol. 2011;85:5275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of the causative agent for CMS is important for improved disease surveillance and disease control and will serve as a basis for vaccine development against the disease...
  3. Ganesh B, Nataraju S, Rajendran K, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Manna B, et al. Detection of closely related Picobirnaviruses among diarrhoeic children in Kolkata: evidence of zoonoses?. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the close monitoring of their global spread as well as in-depth molecular characterization is essential for better understanding of emerging PBV strains...
  4. Kemp C, Imler J. Antiviral immunity in drosophila. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, DExD/H box helicases appear to play a crucial role in the cytosolic detection of viral RNAs in flies and mammals...
  5. Chérif N, Thiery R, Castric J, Biacchesi S, Bremont M, Thabti F, et al. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata farmed in Tunisia. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, viral sequences obtained from fish that were held at lower temperature (<20 degrees C) were distinct from the rest of the sequences...
  6. Sommerset I, Nerland A. Complete sequence of RNA1 and subgenomic RNA3 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:117-25 pubmed
  7. Patel S, Overgård A, Nerland A. CD8alpha and CD8beta in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus: cloning, characterization and gene expression during viral and bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Both CD8alpha and CD8beta were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated in spleen at 48h compared to their levels at 12h post-infection with nodavirus and V. anguillarum...
  8. Giordano M, Martinez L, Masachessi G, Barril P, Ferreyra L, Isa M, et al. Evidence of closely related picobirnavirus strains circulating in humans and pigs in Argentina. J Infect. 2011;62:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the published literature, it is still difficult to draw conclusions as to whether picobirnavirus (PBV) circulation is influenced by host species restriction...
  9. Panzarin V, Patarnello P, Mori A, Rampazzo E, Cappellozza E, Bovo G, et al. Development and validation of a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of betanodavirus in clinical specimens. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay that was developed is capable of detecting members of all of the betanodavirus genetic groups currently described and can be considered a valid alternative to the time-consuming and contamination-prone nested PCR...
  10. Scapigliati G, Buonocore F, Randelli E, Casani D, Meloni S, Zarletti G, et al. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus...
  11. Fregolente M, de Castro Dias E, Martins S, Spilki F, Allegretti S, Gatti M. Molecular characterization of picobirnaviruses from new hosts. Virus Res. 2009;143:134-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more hosts must be included in the analysis so that we may reach better conclusions regarding the spread of these viruses...
  12. Carruyo G, Mateu G, Martinez L, Pujol F, Nates S, Liprandi F, et al. Molecular characterization of porcine picobirnaviruses and development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples collected in Venezuela and Argentina showed that PBV circulate at high frequencies in piglets...
  13. Basler C, Garcia Sastre A. Sensing RNA virus infections. Nat Chem Biol. 2007;3:20-1 pubmed
  14. Wakuda M, Pongsuwanna Y, Taniguchi K. Complete nucleotide sequences of two RNA segments of human picobirnavirus. J Virol Methods. 2005;126:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On comparison with a part of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA segment, 2 of the other published picobirnavirus strains, the Thai strain was found to be related most closely to one of the US strains...
  15. Yoneyama M, Fujita T. RNA recognition and signal transduction by RIG-I-like receptors. Immunol Rev. 2009;227:54-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular machinery underlying RNA recognition and subsequent signal transduction by RLRs...
  16. Morrow C, Samu G, Mátrai E, Klausz A, Wood A, Richter S, et al. Avian hepatitis E virus infection and possible associated clinical disease in broiler breeder flocks in Hungary. Avian Pathol. 2008;37:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry using a BLS-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of avian hepatitis E virus antigen in livers and spleen...
  17. Gomez D, Matsuoka S, Mori K, Okinaka Y, Park S, Nakai T. Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara with clinical signs. Arch Virol. 2009;154:343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..septemfasciatus were challenged intravitreously with virus, abnormal swimming behavior and high mortality were observed. This is the first report on viral nervous necrosis in a wild population of redspotted grouper with clinical signs...
  18. Zhao Q, Zhou E, Dong S, Qiu H, Zhang L, Hu S, et al. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3...
  19. Chen Y, Su Y, Lin J, Yang H, Chen T. Cloning of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Mx cDNA and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:58-71 pubmed
    ..These results may provide a possible regulated pathway against nodavirus...
  20. Johansen R, Sommerset I, Tørud B, Korsnes K, Hjortaas M, Nilsen F, et al. Characterization of nodavirus and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). J Fish Dis. 2004;27:591-601 pubmed
    ..In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on an 823 nt region of the sequence indicated that TNV clustered outside the four established fish nodavirus genotypes, suggesting a fifth genotype within the betanodaviruses...
  21. Fregolente M, Gatti M. Nomenclature proposal for picobirnavirus. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1953-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Picobirnaviruses have been identified in the feces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Because there is no standard nomenclature for these viruses, we propose a clear and unique name for each strain...
  22. Aliyari R, Wu Q, Li H, Wang X, Li F, Green L, et al. Mechanism of induction and suppression of antiviral immunity directed by virus-derived small RNAs in Drosophila. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, therefore, provide a model in which small RNA-directed viral immunity is induced during the initiation of viral progeny (+)RNA synthesis and suppressed by B2 inside the viral RNA replication complex...
  23. Peralta B, Biarnés M, Ordóñez G, Porta R, Martin M, Mateu E, et al. Evidence of widespread infection of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) in chickens from Spain. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of aHEV sequences in chickens from Europe. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance of avian HEV infections in Europe...
  24. Takeuchi O, Akira S. MDA5/RIG-I and virus recognition. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008;20:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss recent advances toward clarifying the signaling pathways activated by RLHs and TLRs...
  25. Nerland A, Skaar C, Eriksen T, Bleie H. Detection of nodavirus in seawater from rearing facilities for Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus larvae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:201-5 pubmed
    ..6 x 10(4) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) ml(-1). Evaluated against in vitro transcribed RNA, the concentration was estimated at 2 x 10(7) virus particles ml(-1) seawater...
  26. Azad I, Shekhar M, Thirunavukkarasu A, Jithendran K. Viral nerve necrosis in hatchery-produced fry of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer: sequential microscopic analysis of histopathology. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;73:123-30 pubmed
  27. Bhattacharya R, Sahoo G, Nayak M, Rajendran K, Dutta P, Mitra U, et al. Detection of Genogroup I and II human picobirnaviruses showing small genomic RNA profile causing acute watery diarrhoea among children in Kolkata, India. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:229-38 pubmed
    ..After more than a decade, four PBV positives of Genogroup II were detected during this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed varying degree of genetic diversity amongst PBV strains from Kolkata and other countries...
  28. Lilius E, Nuutila J. Bacterial infections, DNA virus infections, and RNA virus infections manifest differently in neutrophil receptor expression. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:527347 pubmed publisher
    ..when the individual variables are combined to generate the CIS point method for a bacterial infection marker, DNAVS point for differentiating between DNA and RNA virus infections, and CRP/CD11b ratio for a marker of Gram-positive sepsis.
  29. Gomez D, Sato J, Mushiake K, Isshiki T, Okinaka Y, Nakai T. PCR-based detection of betanodaviruses from cultured and wild marine fish with no clinical signs. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:603-8 pubmed
  30. Bilic I, Jaskulska B, Basic A, Morrow C, Hess M. Sequence analysis and comparison of avian hepatitis E viruses from Australia and Europe indicate the existence of different genotypes. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:863-73 pubmed publisher
  31. Su Y, Hong J. Betanodavirus B2 causes ATP depletion-induced cell death via mitochondrial targeting and complex II inhibition in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39801-10 pubmed publisher
  32. Sommerset I, Skern R, Biering E, Bleie H, Fiksdal I, Grove S, et al. Protection against Atlantic halibut nodavirus in turbot is induced by recombinant capsid protein vaccination but not following DNA vaccination. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005;18:13-29 pubmed
    ..The study also demonstrates evidence of viral replication inside the myocytes of intramuscularly challenged fish...
  33. Fenner B, Goh W, Kwang J. Sequestration and protection of double-stranded RNA by the betanodavirus b2 protein. J Virol. 2006;80:6822-33 pubmed
    ..We thus conclude that betanodavirus B2 is a dsRNA binding protein that sequesters and protects both long and short dsRNAs to protect betanodavirus from cellular RNA interference...
  34. Grove S, Johansen R, Reitan L, Press C, Dannevig B. Quantitative investigation of antigen and immune response in nervous and lymphoid tissues of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged with nodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:525-39 pubmed
  35. Korsnes K, Devold M, Nerland A, Nylund A. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar after intraperitoneal challenge with a nodavirus from Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;68:7-15 pubmed
    ..This susceptibility suggests that co-location of salmon and marine species should be avoided until further studies of possible transmission have been carried out...
  36. Bhattacharya R, Sahoo G, Nayak M, Saha D, Sur D, Naik T, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human picobirnaviruses among children of a slum community in Kolkata, India. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:453-8 pubmed
  37. Nuutila J, Hohenthal U, Laitinen I, Kotilainen P, Rajamäki A, Nikoskelainen J, et al. A novel method for distinguishing between dsDNA and ssRNA virus infections. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To commence proper antiviral treatment, timely knowledge of whether the infection is caused by DNA or RNA virus would be beneficial for the clinician...
  38. Chi S, Wu Y, Cheng T. Persistent infection of betanodavirus in a novel cell line derived from the brain tissue of barramundi Lates calcarifer. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:91-8 pubmed
    ..The BB cell line is the first cell line reported to be persistently infected with NNV, and would be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of NNV-persistent infection in vitro and in vivo...
  39. Ucko M, Colorni A, Diamant A. Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:459-69 pubmed
    ..Red Sea and Mediterranean isolated sequences grouped in distinct clusters, together with several foreign isolates from the Mediterranean area and the Far East, as phylogenetically close to the Epinephelus akaara RGNNV type...
  40. Mazelet L, Dietrich J, Rolland J. New RT-qPCR assay for viral nervous necrosis virus detection in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.): application and limits for hatcheries sanitary control. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..VNN is widespread in water bodies and has the ability to infect a large number of fish species, with this in mind, this PCR technique may be used for the surveillance of various fish farms...
  41. Furusawa R, Okinaka Y, Nakai T. Betanodavirus infection in the freshwater model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2333-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a model virus-model host infection system in fish. This system should facilitate elucidation of the mechanisms underlying RNA virus infections in fish.
  42. Lu M, Chao Y, Guo T, Santi N, Evensen O, Kasani S, et al. The interferon response is involved in nervous necrosis virus acute and persistent infection in zebrafish infection model. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1146-52 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate NNV infection of zebrafish, which could serve as a potential animal model to study virus pathogenesis and neuron degeneration research...
  43. Van Leeuwen M, Williams M, Koraka P, Simon J, Smits S, Osterhaus A. Human picobirnaviruses identified by molecular screening of diarrhea samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that sequence-independent amplification of partially purified viral RNA is an efficient procedure for identification of known and highly divergent new RNA viruses in clinical diarrhea samples...
  44. Adachi K, Ichinose T, Watanabe K, Kitazato K, Kobayashi N. Potential for the replication of the betanodavirus redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus in human cell lines. Arch Virol. 2008;153:15-24 pubmed
    ..The betanodavirus in its present form cannot infect human cells...
  45. Furusawa R, Okinaka Y, Uematsu K, Nakai T. Screening of freshwater fish species for their susceptibility to a betanodavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;77:119-25 pubmed
    ..We believe that these susceptible freshwater fish species could act as good host models for betanodavirus-fish interaction studies...
  46. Lopez Jimena B, Alonso M, Thompson K, Adams A, Infante C, Castro D, et al. Tissue distribution of Red Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) genome in experimentally infected juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Vet Microbiol. 2011;154:86-95 pubmed publisher
  47. Banyai K, Martella V, Bogdan A, Forgach P, Jakab F, Meleg E, et al. Genogroup I picobirnaviruses in pigs: evidence for genetic diversity and relatedness to human strains. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clones with complete sequence identities originating from different animals suggested effective animal-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our findings indicate that infection with genogroup I PBVs is common in pigs...
  48. Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Uematsu S, Matsui K, et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity. 2005;23:19-28 pubmed
    ..In contrast, plasmacytoid DCs, which produce large amounts of IFN-alpha, use the TLR system rather than RIG-I for viral detection. Taken together, RIG-I and the TLR system exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner...
  49. Aliyari R, Ding S. RNA-based viral immunity initiated by the Dicer family of host immune receptors. Immunol Rev. 2009;227:176-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We also highlight some of the many unresolved questions...
  50. Su Y, Wu J, Hong J. Betanodavirus non-structural protein B2: A novel necrotic death factor that induces mitochondria-mediated cell death in fish cells. Virology. 2009;385:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that B2 upregulates Bax and triggers mitochondria-mediated necrotic cell death independent of cytochrome c release...
  51. Biacchesi S. The reverse genetics applied to fish RNA viruses. Vet Res. 2011;42:12 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an overview on the recent breakthroughs achieved by using these reverse genetics systems in terms of viral protein function, virulence and host-specificity factor, vaccine development and vector design...
  52. Kai Y, Su H, Tai K, Chi S. Vaccination of grouper broodfish (Epinephelus tukula) reduces the risk of vertical transmission by nervous necrosis virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:996-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning...
  53. Kuo H, Wang T, Chen P, Chen Y, Chuang H, Chen T. Real-time quantitative PCR assay for monitoring of nervous necrosis virus infection in grouper aquaculture. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1090-6 pubmed publisher
  54. Chen H, Sun H, You F, Sun W, Zhou X, Chen L, et al. Activation of STAT6 by STING is critical for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2011;147:436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, STAT6 mediates immune signaling in response to both cytokines at the plasma membrane, and virus infection at the endoplasmic reticulum...
  55. Chen S, Yang H, Lin H, Chen M, Wu J, Hong J. Enhanced viability of a nervous necrosis virus-infected stable cell line over-expressing a fusion product of the zfBcl-xL and green fluorescent protein genes. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:347-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NNV-induced apoptotic cell death can be lessened in transgenic grouper fish cells...
  56. Marek A, Bilic I, Prokofieva I, Hess M. Phylogenetic analysis of avian hepatitis E virus samples from European and Australian chicken flocks supports the existence of a different genus within the Hepeviridae comprising at least three different genotypes. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we would like to propose that avian HEV represent a separate genus within the Hepeviridae consisting of different genotypes...
  57. Bigarré L, Cabon J, Baud M, Heimann M, Body A, Lieffrig F, et al. Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in fresh water. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water...
  58. Takizawa N, Adachi K, Kobayashi N. Establishment of reverse genetics system of betanodavirus for the efficient recovery of infectious particles. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may thus help in the future development of a betanodavirus vaccine...
  59. Masachessi G, Martinez L, Giordano M, Barril P, Isa B, Ferreyra L, et al. Picobirnavirus (PBV) natural hosts in captivity and virus excretion pattern in infected animals. Arch Virol. 2007;152:989-98 pubmed
    ..No disease association with PBV infection could be demonstrated. Thus, infected animals could be persistently infected asymptomatic carriers and could serve as reservoirs of infection...
  60. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Recognition of viruses by innate immunity. Immunol Rev. 2007;220:214-24 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss recent advances toward clarifying the signaling pathways activated by RLHs and TLRs...
  61. Ghosh S, Kobayashi N, Nagashima S, Naik T. Molecular characterization of full-length genomic segment 2 of a bovine picobirnavirus (PBV) strain: evidence for high genetic diversity with genogroup I PBVs. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2519-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggested that bovine strain RUBV-P might be distinct from genogroup I picobirnaviruses of humans and other animals...
  62. Stein D. Inhibition of RNA virus infections with peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:2619-34 pubmed
    b>RNA virus infections cause immense human disease burdens globally, and few effective antiviral drugs are available for their treatment...