vaccinia

Summary

Summary: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.

Top Publications

  1. Jacobs N, Chen R, Gubser C, Najarro P, Smith G. Intradermal immune response after infection with Vaccinia virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1157-61 pubmed
    Although Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used to eradicate smallpox by dermal vaccination, there is little information available about the immune response induced at the vaccination site...
  2. Abrahao J, Trindade G, Ferreira J, Campos R, Bonjardim C, Ferreira P, et al. Long-lasting stability of Vaccinia virus strains in murine feces: implications for virus circulation and environmental maintenance. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1551-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, causing exanthematic lesions in dairy cattle and humans...
  3. Flesch I, Woo W, Wang Y, Panchanathan V, Wong Y, La Gruta N, et al. Altered CD8(+) T cell immunodominance after vaccinia virus infection and the naive repertoire in inbred and F(1) mice. J Immunol. 2010;184:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we revisit this issue using vaccinia virus (VACV), which has a large genome, a recently defined immunodominance hierarchy in mice, and is a candidate ..
  4. Yang G, Pevear D, Davies M, Collett M, Bailey T, Rippen S, et al. An orally bioavailable antipoxvirus compound (ST-246) inhibits extracellular virus formation and protects mice from lethal orthopoxvirus Challenge. J Virol. 2005;79:13139-49 pubmed
    ..that inhibited cell viability by 50% = >40 microM), and active against multiple orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, monkeypox, camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia (mousepox), and variola viruses...
  5. Trindade G, Lobato Z, Drumond B, Leite J, Trigueiro R, Guedes M, et al. Short report: Isolation of two vaccinia virus strains from a single bovine vaccinia outbreak in rural area from Brazil: Implications on the emergence of zoonotic orthopoxviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:486-90 pubmed
    Outbreaks of bovine vaccinia disease caused by circulation of Vaccinia virus (VACV) strains have been a common occurrence in Brazil in the recent years, being an important emergent zoonosis...
  6. Kroon E, Mota B, Abrahão J, da Fonseca F, de Souza Trindade G. Zoonotic Brazilian Vaccinia virus: from field to therapy. Antiviral Res. 2011;92:150-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype species of the Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus, causes an occupational zoonotic disease in Brazil that is primarily associated with the handling of infected dairy cattle...
  7. Advani S, Buckel L, Chen N, Scanderbeg D, Geissinger U, Zhang Q, et al. Preferential replication of systemically delivered oncolytic vaccinia virus in focally irradiated glioma xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:2579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine how tumor-targeted ionizing radiation (IR) could be combined with systemically delivered oncolytic vaccinia virus. U-87 glioma xenografts were grown subcutaneously or orthotopically...
  8. Jordan I, Horn D, Oehmke S, Leendertz F, Sandig V. Cell lines from the Egyptian fruit bat are permissive for modified vaccinia Ankara. Virus Res. 2009;145:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the cell lines are fully permissive for a highly attenuated poxvirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA). MVA is a safe and well characterized vaccine vector that cannot replicate in most mammalian cells...
  9. Rice A, Turner P, Embury J, Moldawer L, Baker H, Moyer R. Roles of vaccinia virus genes E3L and K3L and host genes PKR and RNase L during intratracheal infection of C57BL/6 mice. J Virol. 2011;85:550-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In poxvirus infections, the interactions between the vaccinia virus (VV) genes E3L and K3L, which target RNase L and PKR, respectively, serve to prevent the induction of the ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Trefry J, Wooley D. Silver nanoparticles inhibit vaccinia virus infection by preventing viral entry through a macropinocytosis-dependent mechanism. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2013;9:1624-35 pubmed
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that 25-nm silver nanoparticles inhibited Vaccinia virus replication by preventing viral entry...
  2. Leite J, Drumond B, Trindade G, Lobato Z, da Fonseca F, dos S, et al. Passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1935-8 pubmed
    ..Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and ..
  3. de Souza Trindade G, Li Y, Olson V, Emerson G, Regnery R, da Fonseca F, et al. Real-time PCR assay to identify variants of Vaccinia virus: implications for the diagnosis of bovine vaccinia in Brazil. J Virol Methods. 2008;152:63-71 pubmed publisher
    Naturally occurring infections of Vaccinia virus (VACV) have been recognized in Brazil during the past 10 years...
  4. Meng X, Embry A, Rose L, Yan B, Xu C, Xiang Y. Vaccinia virus A6 is essential for virion membrane biogenesis and localization of virion membrane proteins to sites of virion assembly. J Virol. 2012;86:5603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..is poorly understood, but several poxvirus proteins essential for the process have been identified in studies of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypical poxvirus...
  5. Simpson E, Hercher M, Hammarlund E, Lewis M, Slifka M, Hanifin J. Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:442-4 pubmed
    The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up ..
  6. Quigley M, Martinez J, Huang X, Yang Y. A critical role for direct TLR2-MyD88 signaling in CD8 T-cell clonal expansion and memory formation following vaccinia viral infection. Blood. 2009;113:2256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..T cells was also required for their efficient clonal expansion by promoting the survival of activated T cells on vaccinia viral infection in vivo...
  7. Postigo A, Martin M, Dodding M, Way M. Vaccinia-induced epidermal growth factor receptor-MEK signalling and the anti-apoptotic protein F1L synergize to suppress cell death during infection. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1208-18 pubmed publisher
    F1L is a functional Bcl-2 homologue that inhibits apoptosis at the mitochondria during vaccinia infection...
  8. Lustig S, Maik Rachline G, Paran N, Melamed S, Israely T, Erez N, et al. Effective post-exposure protection against lethal orthopoxviruses infection by vaccinia immune globulin involves induction of adaptive immune response. Vaccine. 2009;27:1691-9 pubmed publisher
    The therapeutic potential of human vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIG) in orthopoxvirus infection was examined using two mouse models for human poxvirus, based on Ectromelia virus and Vaccinia Western Reserve (WR) respiratory infections...
  9. Moloughney J, Monken C, Tao H, Zhang H, Thomas J, Lattime E, et al. Vaccinia virus leads to ATG12–ATG3 conjugation and deficiency in autophagosome formation. Autophagy. 2011;7:1434-47 pubmed
    ..b>Vaccinia virus is a member of the family of Poxviridae which includes the smallpox virus...
  10. Fischer M, Davies M, Reider I, Heipertz E, Epler M, Sei J, et al. CD11b?, Ly6G? cells produce type I interferon and exhibit tissue protective properties following peripheral virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002374 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of the action of this population of cells may provide an intervention to prevent innate immune-mediated tissue destruction. ..
  11. Goulding J, Abboud G, Tahiliani V, Desai P, Hutchinson T, Salek Ardakani S. CD8 T cells use IFN-? to protect against the lethal effects of a respiratory poxvirus infection. J Immunol. 2014;192:5415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a model of respiratory vaccinia virus infection in mice, we could specifically determine the relative contribution of perforin, TRAIL, and IFN-?-..
  12. Nalca A, Hatkin J, Garza N, Nichols D, Norris S, Hruby D, et al. Evaluation of orally delivered ST-246 as postexposure prophylactic and antiviral therapeutic in an aerosolized rabbitpox rabbit model. Antiviral Res. 2008;79:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..e., survival was 67% and 33%, respectively. This work suggests that ST-246 is a very potent antiviral compound against aerosolized rabbitpox in rabbits and should be investigated for further development for all orthopoxvirus diseases. ..
  13. Wertheimer E, Olive D, Brundage J, Clark L. Contact transmission of vaccinia virus from smallpox vaccinees in the United States, 2003-2011. Vaccine. 2012;30:985-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 million military personnel have been vaccinated against smallpox. The vaccine contains live vaccinia virus that can be transferred through physical contact...
  14. Fortin C, Huang X, Yang Y. Both NK cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic STAT1 signaling are required for NK cell response against vaccinia virus. J Immunol. 2013;191:363-8 pubmed publisher
    NK cells play an important role in innate immune control of the infection with vaccinia virus (VV). However, it remains incompletely defined how the activation of NK cells in response to VV is regulated...
  15. Satheshkumar P, Weisberg A, Moss B. Vaccinia virus A19 protein participates in the transformation of spherical immature particles to barrel-shaped infectious virions. J Virol. 2013;87:10700-9 pubmed publisher
    The A19L open reading frame of vaccinia virus encodes a 9-kDa protein that is conserved in all sequenced chordopoxviruses, yet until now it has not been specifically characterized in any species...
  16. Cornberg M, Sheridan B, Saccoccio F, Brehm M, Selin L. Protection against vaccinia virus challenge by CD8 memory T cells resolved by molecular mimicry. J Virol. 2007;81:934-44 pubmed
    Live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccination has been highly successful in eradicating smallpox...
  17. Meisinger Henschel C, Späth M, Lukassen S, Wolferstätter M, Kachelriess H, Baur K, et al. Introduction of the six major genomic deletions of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) into the parental vaccinia virus is not sufficient to reproduce an MVA-like phenotype in cell culture and in mice. J Virol. 2010;84:9907-19 pubmed publisher
    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has a highly restricted host range in cell culture and is apathogenic in vivo...
  18. Chen Z, Earl P, Americo J, Damon I, Smith S, Zhou Y, et al. Chimpanzee/human mAbs to vaccinia virus B5 protein neutralize vaccinia and smallpox viruses and protect mice against vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1882-7 pubmed
    Chimpanzee Fabs against the B5 envelope glycoprotein of vaccinia virus were isolated and converted into complete mAbs with human gamma 1 heavy chain constant regions...
  19. Wittek R. Vaccinia immune globulin: current policies, preparedness, and product safety and efficacy. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:193-201 pubmed
    ..vaccine itself may be associated with a number of serious adverse events, which can often be managed with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG)...
  20. Zaitseva M, Kapnick S, Scott J, King L, Manischewitz J, Sirota L, et al. Application of bioluminescence imaging to the prediction of lethality in vaccinia virus-infected mice. J Virol. 2009;83:10437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..treatments, bioluminescence was measured in live BALB/c mice following lethal challenge with a recombinant WR vaccinia virus expressing luciferase...
  21. Benfield C, Ren H, Lucas S, Bahsoun B, Smith G. Vaccinia virus protein K7 is a virulence factor that alters the acute immune response to infection. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1647-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes many proteins that antagonize the innate immune system including a family of intracellular proteins with a B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like structure...
  22. Freyschmidt E, Mathias C, Diaz N, MacArthur D, Laouar A, Manjunath N, et al. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses. J Immunol. 2010;185:1295-302 pubmed publisher
    Individuals with atopic dermatitis immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially fatal disseminated infection...
  23. Assis F, Almeida G, Oliveira D, Franco Luiz A, Campos R, Guedes M, et al. Characterization of a new Vaccinia virus isolate reveals the C23L gene as a putative genetic marker for autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50413 pubmed publisher
    Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV), have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods...
  24. Sette A, Grey H, Oseroff C, Peters B, Moutaftsi M, Crotty S, et al. Definition of epitopes and antigens recognized by vaccinia specific immune responses: their conservation in variola virus sequences, and use as a model system to study complex pathogens. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 6:G21-6 pubmed publisher
    In the last few years, a wealth of information has become available relating to the targets of vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific CD4(+) T cell, CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses...
  25. Challa S, Woelfel M, Guildford M, Moquin D, Chan F. Viral cell death inhibitor MC159 enhances innate immunity against vaccinia virus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:10467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MC159 from molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in mice enhanced rather than inhibited the innate immune control of vaccinia virus (VV) replication...
  26. White S, Jacobs B. The amino terminus of the vaccinia virus E3 protein is necessary to inhibit the interferon response. J Virol. 2012;86:5895-904 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a multifunctional protein, E3L, that is necessary for interferon (IFN) resistance in cells in culture...
  27. Nie S, Cornberg M, Selin L. Resistance to vaccinia virus is less dependent on TNF under conditions of heterologous immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:6554-60 pubmed publisher
    ..directly demonstrate using wild-type TNF(-/-) and TNFR1(-/-) mice that TNF does play a role in protection against vaccinia virus (VV) infection in naive mice...
  28. Horsington J, Lynn H, Turnbull L, Cheng D, Braet F, Diefenbach R, et al. A36-dependent actin filament nucleation promotes release of vaccinia virus. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003239 pubmed publisher
    Cell-to-cell transmission of vaccinia virus can be mediated by enveloped virions that remain attached to the outer surface of the cell or those released into the medium...
  29. Di Pilato M, Mejías Pérez E, Gómez C, Perdiguero B, Sorzano C, Esteban M. New vaccinia virus promoter as a potential candidate for future vaccines. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2771-6 pubmed publisher
    Here we describe the design and strength of a new synthetic late-early optimized (LEO) vaccinia virus (VACV) promoter used as a transcriptional regulator of GFP expression during modified vaccinia Ankara infection...
  30. Guerra S, Lopez Fernandez L, Garcia M, Zaballos A, Esteban M. Human gene profiling in response to the active protein kinase, interferon-induced serine/threonine protein kinase (PKR), in infected cells. Involvement of the transcription factor ATF-3 IN PKR-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18734-45 pubmed
    ..To express PKR, we used vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants producing wild type PKR (VV-PKR) and the catalytically inactive mutant K296R (VV-PKR-..
  31. Rubins K, Hensley L, Bell G, Wang C, Lefkowitz E, Brown P, et al. Comparative analysis of viral gene expression programs during poxvirus infection: a transcriptional map of the vaccinia and monkeypox genomes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2628 pubmed publisher
    ..Poxviruses engage in a complex and intricate dialogue with host cells as part of their strategy for replication. However, relatively little molecular detail is available with which to understand the mechanisms behind this dialogue...
  32. Rahbar R, Murooka T, Fish E. Role for CCR5 in dissemination of vaccinia virus in vivo. J Virol. 2009;83:2226-36 pubmed publisher
    ..earlier report, we provided evidence that expression of CCR5 by primary human T cells renders them permissive for vaccinia virus (VACV) replication. This may represent a mechanism for dissemination throughout the lymphatic system...
  33. Quixabeira Santos J, Medaglia M, Pescador C, Damaso C. Animal movement and establishment of vaccinia virus Cantagalo strain in Amazon biome, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:726-9 pubmed publisher
    To understand the emergence of vaccinia virus Cantagalo strain in the Amazon biome of Brazil, during 2008-2010 we conducted a molecular and epidemiologic survey of poxvirus outbreaks...
  34. Gillard G, Bivas Benita M, Hovav A, Grandpre L, Panas M, Seaman M, et al. Thy1+ NK [corrected] cells from vaccinia virus-primed mice confer protection against vaccinia virus challenge in the absence of adaptive lymphocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002141 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that an innate memory immune response is generated in mice following infection with vaccinia virus, a poxvirus for which no cognate germline-encoded receptor has been identified...
  35. Postigo A, Way M. The vaccinia virus-encoded Bcl-2 homologues do not act as direct Bax inhibitors. J Virol. 2012;86:203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The Orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus encodes the Bcl-2-like F1 protein, which sequesters Bak but not Bax...
  36. Li G, Chen N, Feng Z, Buller R, Osborne J, Harms T, et al. Genomic sequence and analysis of a vaccinia virus isolate from a patient with a smallpox vaccine-related complication. Virol J. 2006;3:88 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin...
  37. Nelson G, Sisler J, Chandran D, Moss B. Vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex subunit A28 is a target of neutralizing and protective antibodies. Virology. 2008;380:394-401 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus entry/fusion complex (EFC) is comprised of at least eight transmembrane proteins that are conserved in all poxviruses...
  38. Hayasaka D, Ennis F, Terajima M. Pathogeneses of respiratory infections with virulent and attenuated vaccinia viruses. Virol J. 2007;4:22 pubmed
    Respiratory infection with the neurovirulent vaccinia virus (VV) strain Western Reserve (WR) results in an acute infection of the lung followed by dissemination of the virus to other organs and causes lethality in mice...
  39. Fuse S, Tsai C, Rommereim L, Zhang W, Usherwood E. Differential requirements for CD80/86-CD28 costimulation in primary and memory CD4 T cell responses to vaccinia virus. Cell Immunol. 2011;266:130-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus infection can confer immunity to smallpox by inducing potent T cell and antibody responses...
  40. Smee D, Humphreys D, Hurst B, Barnard D. Antiviral activities and phosphorylation of 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridines and N-methanocarbathymidine in cells infected with vaccinia virus. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2008;19:15-24 pubmed
    ..The antipoxviral activities and phosphorylation of N-methanocarbathymidine ([N]-MCT) and four 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridines, namely 5-fluoro-(FdU), 5-chloro-(CldU), 5-bromo-(BrdU), and 5-iodo-(IdU) derivatives, were explored...
  41. Turner A, Shaffer V, Araki K, Martens C, Turner P, Gangappa S, et al. Sirolimus enhances the magnitude and quality of viral-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to vaccinia virus vaccination in rhesus macaques. Am J Transplant. 2011;11:613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that sirolimus paradoxically increases the magnitude and quality of the CD8+ T-cell response to vaccinia vaccination in nonhuman primates, fostering more robust recall responses compared to untreated and tacrolimus-..
  42. Wang Z, Lai Y, Bernard J, MacLeod D, Cogen A, Moss B, et al. Skin mast cells protect mice against vaccinia virus by triggering mast cell receptor S1PR2 and releasing antimicrobial peptides. J Immunol. 2012;188:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that MCs react to vaccinia virus (VV) and degranulate using a membrane-activated pathway that leads to antimicrobial peptide discharge and ..
  43. Hou W, Gibbs J, Lu X, Brooke C, Roy D, Modlin R, et al. Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells. Blood. 2012;119:3128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, infection with vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, and a variety of influenza A viruses (including circulating swine-origin virus) induces monocytes to ..
  44. Ember S, Ren H, Ferguson B, Smith G. Vaccinia virus protein C4 inhibits NF-κB activation and promotes virus virulence. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2098-108 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C4 has been characterized and its function and contribution to virus virulence assessed...
  45. Elizaga M, Vasan S, Marovich M, Sato A, LAWRENCE D, Chaitman B, et al. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54407 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002...
  46. Assarsson E, Sidney J, Oseroff C, Pasquetto V, Bui H, Frahm N, et al. A quantitative analysis of the variables affecting the repertoire of T cell specificities recognized after vaccinia virus infection. J Immunol. 2007;178:7890-901 pubmed
    ..This was addressed using vaccinia virus and HLA-A*0201 as the model system...
  47. Vermeer P, McHugh J, Rokhlina T, Vermeer D, Zabner J, Welsh M. Vaccinia virus entry, exit, and interaction with differentiated human airway epithelia. J Virol. 2007;81:9891-9 pubmed
    ..better understand the pathogenesis of poxvirus infection and its interaction with respiratory epithelia, we used vaccinia virus and examined its interaction with primary cultures of well-differentiated human airway epithelia...
  48. Domingo Gil E, Perez Jimenez E, Ventoso I, Najera J, Esteban M. Expression of the E3L gene of vaccinia virus in transgenic mice decreases host resistance to vaccinia virus and Leishmania major infections. J Virol. 2008;82:254-67 pubmed
    The E3L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes the E3 protein that in cultured cells inhibits the activation of interferon (IFN)-induced proteins, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L (..
  49. Hartnack S, Essbauer S, Truyen U. Substitution of vaccinia virus Elstree by modified vaccinia virus Ankara to test the virucidal efficacy of chemical disinfectants. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..considered to be no longer required and was subsequently abandoned mainly because of possible adverse effects of vaccinia virus especially in first-time vaccinees...
  50. Garza N, Hatkin J, Livingston V, Nichols D, Chaplin P, Volkmann A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)/IMVAMUNE against aerosolized rabbitpox virus in a rabbit model. Vaccine. 2009;27:5496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tested the efficacy of IMVAMUNE [modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN)] for protecting rabbits against aerosolized RPXV...
  51. Amato R. 5T4-modified vaccinia Ankara: progress in tumor-associated antigen-based immunotherapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010;10:281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression and biology of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) 5T4 suggest it is an effective target for cancer immunotherapy...
  52. Zhao Y, Adams Y, Croft M. Preferential replication of vaccinia virus in the ovaries is independent of immune regulation through IL-10 and TGF-?. Viral Immunol. 2011;24:387-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) exhibits a strong tropism for ovarian tissue and can cause ovary pathology and sterility. Why VACV preferentially accumulates in this organ is not known...
  53. Kan S, Wang Y, Sun L, Jia P, Qi Y, Su J, et al. Attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by removal of viral TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31979 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was attenuated by deletion of the TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes to generate MVTT3...
  54. He Y, Manischewitz J, Meseda C, Merchlinsky M, Vassell R, Sirota L, et al. Antibodies to the A27 protein of vaccinia virus neutralize and protect against infection but represent a minor component of Dryvax vaccine--induced immunity. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1026-32 pubmed
    The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, which consists of replication-competent vaccinia virus, elicits antibodies that play a major role in protection...
  55. Martinez J, Huang X, Yang Y. Direct action of type I IFN on NK cells is required for their activation in response to vaccinia viral infection in vivo. J Immunol. 2008;180:1592-7 pubmed
    ..Using a murine model of infection with vaccinia virus (VV), we previously demonstrated a critical role for type I IFN in the innate immune control of VV ..
  56. Silverman J, Ciustea M, Shudofsky A, Bender F, Shoemaker R, Ricciardi R. Identification of polymerase and processivity inhibitors of vaccinia DNA synthesis using a stepwise screening approach. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Processivity factors are specific for their cognate DNA polymerases. For this reason, the vaccinia DNA polymerase (E9) and the proteins associated with processivity (A20 and D4) are excellent therapeutic targets...
  57. Fahy A, Clark R, Glyde E, Smith G. Vaccinia virus protein C16 acts intracellularly to modulate the host response and promote virulence. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2377-87 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve C16 protein has been characterized and its effects on virus replication and virulence have been determined...
  58. Midgley C, Putz M, Weber J, Smith G. Vaccinia virus strain NYVAC induces substantially lower and qualitatively different human antibody responses compared with strains Lister and Dryvax. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2992-7 pubmed publisher
    The antibody responses elicited by immunization of humans with vaccinia virus (VACV) strains Lister, Dryvax and NYVAC have been determined and compared...
  59. Abrahao J, Guedes M, Trindade G, Fonseca F, Campos R, Mota B, et al. One more piece in the VACV ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil?. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7428 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaccinia virus (VACV), a poxvirus used during the WHO smallpox vaccination campaign, has been involved in zoonotic ..
  60. Smee D, Wong M, Russell A, Ennis J, Turner J. Therapy and long-term prophylaxis of vaccinia virus respiratory infections in mice with an adenovirus-vectored interferon alpha (mDEF201). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26330 pubmed publisher
    ..5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201) was evaluated for efficacy against lethal vaccinia virus (WR strain) respiratory infections in mice...
  61. Vliegen I, Yang G, Hruby D, Jordan R, Neyts J. Deletion of the vaccinia virus F13L gene results in a highly attenuated virus that mounts a protective immune response against subsequent vaccinia virus challenge. Antiviral Res. 2012;93:160-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus F13L encodes the envelope protein p37, which is the target of the anti-pox virus drug ST-246 (Yang et al., 2005) and that is required for production of extracellular vaccinia virus...
  62. Handa Y, Durkin C, Dodding M, Way M. Vaccinia virus F11 promotes viral spread by acting as a PDZ-containing scaffolding protein to bind myosin-9A and inhibit RhoA signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:51-62 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia F11 protein promotes viral spread by modulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting RhoA signaling via an unknown mechanism...
  63. Abate G, Eslick J, Newman F, Frey S, Belshe R, Monath T, et al. Flow-cytometric detection of vaccinia-induced memory effector CD4(+), CD8(+), and gamma delta TCR(+) T cells capable of antigen-specific expansion and effector functions. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1362-71 pubmed
    ..a carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based flow-cytometric assay that can detect different subsets of vaccinia-specific T cells capable of both antigen-specific expansion and protective effector functions...
  64. Damaso C, Reis S, Jesus D, Lima P, Moussatche N. A PCR-based assay for detection of emerging vaccinia-like viruses isolated in Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:39-46 pubmed
    We report 2 strategies to identify Brazilian vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates related to Cantagalo virus (CTGV) based on the amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  65. Graham P, LaRussa P, Kohl K. Robust take following exposure to vaccinia virus: case definition and guidelines of data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2007;25:5763-70 pubmed
  66. Becker M, Obraztsova M, Kern E, Quenelle D, Keith K, Prichard M, et al. Isolation and characterization of cidofovir resistant vaccinia viruses. Virol J. 2008;5:58 pubmed publisher
    ..One mode of action for CDV has been demonstrated to be the inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase...
  67. Shinoda K, Wyatt L, Irvine K, Moss B. Engineering the vaccinia virus L1 protein for increased neutralizing antibody response after DNA immunization. Virol J. 2009;6:28 pubmed publisher
    The licensed smallpox vaccine, comprised of infectious vaccinia virus, has associated adverse effects, particularly for immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, safer DNA and protein vaccines are being investigated...
  68. . Human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait - Pennsylvania, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:1204-7 pubmed
    ..The program uses baits containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant virus vaccine...
  69. Cordeiro J, Guerra S, Arakawa Y, Dodding M, Esteban M, Way M. F11-mediated inhibition of RhoA signalling enhances the spread of vaccinia virus in vitro and in vivo in an intranasal mouse model of infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8506 pubmed publisher
    The cortical actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane represents a physical barrier that vaccinia virus has to overcome during its exit from an infected cell...
  70. Maruri Avidal L, Weisberg A, Moss B. Vaccinia virus L2 protein associates with the endoplasmic reticulum near the growing edge of crescent precursors of immature virions and stabilizes a subset of viral membrane proteins. J Virol. 2011;85:12431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..L2 is one of several vaccinia virus proteins known to be necessary for formation of crescents and the only one synthesized early in infection...
  71. Paran N, Lustig S, Zvi A, Erez N, Israely T, Melamed S, et al. Active vaccination with vaccinia virus A33 protects mice against lethal vaccinia and ectromelia viruses but not against cowpoxvirus; elucidation of the specific adaptive immune response. Virol J. 2013;10:229 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus protein A33 (A33VACV) plays an important role in protection against orthopoxviruses, and hence is included in experimental multi-subunit smallpox vaccines...
  72. Trindade G, Emerson G, Carroll D, Kroon E, Damon I. Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent decades, several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including genetically distinct isolates within the same ..
  73. Girgis N, Dehaven B, Fan X, Viner K, Shamim M, Isaacs S. Cell surface expression of the vaccinia virus complement control protein is mediated by interaction with the viral A56 protein and protects infected cells from complement attack. J Virol. 2008;82:4205-14 pubmed publisher
    The vaccinia virus (VACV) complement control protein (VCP) is the major protein secreted from VACV-infected cells...
  74. Ferreira J, Abrahão J, Drumond B, Oliveira F, Alves P, Pascoal Xavier M, et al. Vaccinia virus: shedding and horizontal transmission in a murine model. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2986-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, affecting cattle and humans...
  75. Suzuki H, Kidokoro M, Fofana I, Ohashi T, Okamura T, Matsuo K, et al. Immunogenicity of newly constructed attenuated vaccinia strain LC16m8Delta that expresses SIV Gag protein. Vaccine. 2009;27:966-71 pubmed publisher
    We developed the method to efficiently construct recombinant vaccinia viruses based on LC16m8Delta strain that can replicate in mammalian cells but is still safe in human...
  76. O Gorman W, Sampath P, Simonds E, Sikorski R, O Malley M, Krutzik P, et al. Alternate mechanisms of initial pattern recognition drive differential immune responses to related poxviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:174-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia immunization was pivotal to successful smallpox eradication. However, the early immune responses that distinguish poxvirus immunization from pathogenic infection remain unknown...
  77. Lu B, Yu W, Huang X, Wang H, Liu L, Chen Z. Mucosal immunization induces a higher level of lasting neutralizing antibody response in mice by a replication-competent smallpox vaccine: vaccinia Tiantan strain. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:970424 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we study for the first time the immunogenicity profile of a replication-competent smallpox vaccine (vaccinia Tiantan, VTT strain) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) through mucosal vaccination, which is ..
  78. Guerra S, Abaitua F, Mart nez Sobrido L, Esteban M, Garc a Sastre A, Rodr guez D. Host-range restriction of vaccinia virus E3L deletion mutant can be overcome in vitro, but not in vivo, by expression of the influenza virus NS1 protein. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28677 pubmed publisher
    During the last decades, research focused on vaccinia virus (VACV) pathogenesis has been intensified prompted by its potential beneficial application as a vector for vaccine development and anti-cancer therapies, but also due to the fear ..
  79. Xiao Y, Zeng Y, Alexander E, Mehta S, Joshi S, Buchman G, et al. Adsorption of recombinant poxvirus L1-protein to aluminum hydroxide/CpG vaccine adjuvants enhances immune responses and protection of mice from vaccinia virus challenge. Vaccine. 2013;31:319-26 pubmed publisher
    The stockpiling of live vaccinia virus vaccines has enhanced biopreparedness against the intentional or accidental release of smallpox...
  80. Holechek S, Denzler K, Heck M, Schriewer J, Buller R, Legrand F, et al. Use of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing interferon gamma for post-exposure protection against vaccinia and ectromelia viruses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77879 pubmed publisher
    Post-exposure vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) has been suggested to be effective in minimizing death if administered within four days of smallpox exposure...
  81. Beard P, Froggatt G, Smith G. Vaccinia virus kelch protein A55 is a 64 kDa intracellular factor that affects virus-induced cytopathic effect and the outcome of infection in a murine intradermal model. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1521-9 pubmed
    The vaccinia virus (VACV) protein A55 is a BTB/kelch protein with a broad-complex, tramtrack and bric-a-brac (BTB) domain in the N-terminal region and five kelch repeats in the C-terminal half...
  82. Froggatt G, Smith G, Beard P. Vaccinia virus gene F3L encodes an intracellular protein that affects the innate immune response. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1917-21 pubmed publisher
    The Vaccinia virus BTB/kelch protein F3 has been characterized and its effects on virus replication in vitro and virus virulence in vivo have been determined...
  83. Chichon F, Rodriguez M, Risco C, Fraile Ramos A, Fernandez J, Esteban M, et al. Membrane remodelling during vaccinia virus morphogenesis. Biol Cell. 2009;101:401-14 pubmed publisher
    VACV (vaccinia virus) is one of the most complex viruses, with a size exceeding 300 nm and more than 100 structural proteins. Its assembly involves sequential interactions and important rearrangements of its structural components.
  84. Soares J, Leite F, Andrade L, Torres A, de Sousa L, Barcelos L, et al. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway early during vaccinia and cowpox virus infections is required for both host survival and viral replication. J Virol. 2009;83:6883-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that consistent with the vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) requirement for cytoskeleton alterations early during the infection cycle, ..
  85. Delaney K, Phipps J, Johnson J, Mizel S. A recombinant flagellin-poxvirus fusion protein vaccine elicits complement-dependent protection against respiratory challenge with vaccinia virus in mice. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccinia virus antigens L1R and B5R are highly immunogenic in the context of the parent virus, but recombinant forms of ..
  86. Baur K, Brinkmann K, Schweneker M, Pätzold J, Meisinger Henschel C, Hermann J, et al. Immediate-early expression of a recombinant antigen by modified vaccinia virus ankara breaks the immunodominance of strong vector-specific B8R antigen in acute and memory CD8 T-cell responses. J Virol. 2010;84:8743-52 pubmed publisher
    Efficient T-cell responses against recombinant antigens expressed by vaccinia virus vectors require expression of these antigens in the early phase of the virus replication cycle...
  87. Lorenzo M, Sánchez Puig J, Blasco R. Mutagenesis of the palmitoylation site in vaccinia virus envelope glycoprotein B5. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:733-43 pubmed publisher
    The outer envelope of vaccinia virus extracellular virions is derived from intracellular membranes that, at late times in infection, are enriched in several virus-encoded proteins...
  88. Doceul V, Hollinshead M, Breiman A, Laval K, Smith G. Protein B5 is required on extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus for repulsion of superinfecting virions. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1876-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) spreads across cell monolayers fourfold faster than predicted from its replication kinetics...
  89. Chan W, Ward B. The A33-dependent incorporation of B5 into extracellular enveloped vaccinia virions is mediated through an interaction between their lumenal domains. J Virol. 2012;86:8210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that viral protein incorporation into extracellular virions is an active process requiring specific protein-protein interactions...
  90. Ferguson B, Benfield C, Ren H, Lee V, Frazer G, Strnadova P, et al. Vaccinia virus protein N2 is a nuclear IRF3 inhibitor that promotes virulence. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2070-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaccinia virus (VACV) expresses many proteins that are non-essential for virus replication but promote virulence by inhibiting components of the host immune response to infection...
  91. Hung C, Tsai Y, He L, Coukos G, Fodor I, Qin L, et al. Vaccinia virus preferentially infects and controls human and murine ovarian tumors in mice. Gene Ther. 2007;14:20-9 pubmed
    b>Vaccinia virus has been shown to efficiently infect tumor cells. Therefore, vaccinia virus represents a potentially safe and effective antitumor agent against ovarian cancer...
  92. Campos R, Brum M, Nogueira C, Drumond B, Alves P, Siqueira Lima L, et al. Assessing the variability of Brazilian Vaccinia virus isolates from a horse exanthematic lesion: coinfection with distinct viruses. Arch Virol. 2011;156:275-83 pubmed publisher
    During the last bovine vaccinia (BV) outbreaks, several Vaccinia virus (VACV) strains were isolated and characterised, revealing significant polymorphisms between strains, even within conserved genes...