smallpox

Summary

Summary: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Pol R, Dannenberg H, Robertus J, van Ginkel R. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar...
  2. Li Y, Carroll D, Gardner S, Walsh M, Vitalis E, Damon I. On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15787-92 pubmed
    Human disease likely attributable to variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent of smallpox, has been reported in human populations for >2,000 years. VARV is unique among orthopoxviruses in that it is an exclusively human pathogen...
  3. Morikawa S, Sakiyama T, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Maeda A, Kurane I, et al. An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protection. J Virol. 2005;79:11873-91 pubmed
    The potential threat of smallpox bioterrorism has made urgent the development of lower-virulence vaccinia virus vaccines...
  4. Meseda C, Weir J. Third-generation smallpox vaccines: challenges in the absence of clinical smallpox. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1367-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Smallpox, a disease caused by variola virus, is estimated to have killed hundreds of millions to billions of people before it was certified as eradicated in 1980...
  5. Judkowski V, Bunying A, Ge F, Appel J, Law K, Sharma A, et al. GM-CSF production allows the identification of immunoprevalent antigens recognized by human CD4+ T cells following smallpox vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24091 pubmed publisher
    The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory...
  6. Nishiura H. Smallpox during pregnancy and maternal outcomes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1119-21 pubmed
    A historical study evaluated maternal outcomes in pregnancy complicated by smallpox. The overall case fatality was estimated to be 34.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.4-37...
  7. Karem K, Reynolds M, Hughes C, Braden Z, Nigam P, Crotty S, et al. Monkeypox-induced immunity and failure of childhood smallpox vaccination to provide complete protection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:1318-27 pubmed
    ..from cases, defined by standard definition, and household contacts of cases to evaluate the role of preexisting (smallpox vaccine-derived) and acquired immunity in susceptibility to monkeypox disease and clinical outcomes...
  8. Huggins J, Goff A, Hensley L, Mucker E, Shamblin J, Wlazlowski C, et al. Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that oral dosing once per day with ST-246 protects animals from poxvirus disease, as measured by reductions in viral load and numbers of lesions and enhancement of survival...
  9. Ferrier Rembert A, Drillien R, Meignier B, Garin D, Crance J. Safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of a new cell-cultured Lister smallpox vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2007;25:8290-7 pubmed
    It is now difficult to manufacture the first-generation smallpox vaccine, as the process could not comply with current safety and manufacturing regulations...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Coulibaly S, Bruhl P, Mayrhofer J, Schmid K, Gerencer M, Falkner F. The nonreplicating smallpox candidate vaccines defective vaccinia Lister (dVV-L) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicit robust long-term protection. Virology. 2005;341:91-101 pubmed
    Current smallpox vaccines are live vaccinia viruses that replicate in the vaccinee inducing immunity against the deadly disease smallpox...
  2. Del Valle S, Hethcote H, Hyman J, Castillo Chavez C. Effects of behavioral changes in a smallpox attack model. Math Biosci. 2005;195:228-51 pubmed
    ..Response strategies to a smallpox bioterrorist attack have focused on interventions such as isolation of infectives, contact tracing, quarantine of ..
  3. Sousa A, Pearson R. Drought, smallpox, and emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:916-21 pubmed publisher
    ..as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877-1879...
  4. Nishiura H, Schwehm M, Eichner M. Still protected against smallpox? Estimation of the duration of vaccine-induced immunity against smallpox. Epidemiology. 2006;17:576-81 pubmed
    ..has led to discussions on the durability of vaccine-induced immunity, the actual duration of protection against smallpox is still unknown...
  5. Nishiura H, Eichner M. Predicting residual immunity against smallpox. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:160-1; author reply 161-2 pubmed
  6. Ovsyannikova I, Kennedy R, O Byrne M, Jacobson R, Pankratz V, Poland G. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:4182-9 pubmed publisher
    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of antibody levels in a multi-ethnic group of 1071 healthy smallpox vaccine recipients...
  7. Strikas R, Neff L, Rotz L, Cono J, Knutson D, Henderson J, et al. US Civilian Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, 2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46 Suppl 3:S157-67 pubmed publisher
    Variola virus, the cause of smallpox disease, has been deemed a possible bioterrorism agent. Since November 2001, federal, state, and local public health partners implemented activities to prepare for a possible smallpox outbreak...
  8. Parrino J, McCurdy L, Larkin B, Gordon I, Rucker S, Enama M, et al. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) against Dryvax challenge in vaccinia-naïve and vaccinia-immune individuals. Vaccine. 2007;25:1513-25 pubmed
    ..MVA vaccination is safe and immunogenic and improves the safety and immunogenicity of subsequent Dryvax vaccination supporting the potential for using MVA as a vaccine in the general population to improve immunity to orthopoxviruses. ..
  9. Moyron Quiroz J, McCausland M, Kageyama R, Sette A, Crotty S. The smallpox vaccine induces an early neutralizing IgM response. Vaccine. 2009;28:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..after immunization with vaccinia virus (VacV) is known to be sufficient to confer host protection against VacV or smallpox. In humans it has been shown that such anti-VacV antibody production can be sustained for decades...
  10. Weinstein R. Should remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:681-3 pubmed publisher
    In 2011, the World Health Organization will recommend the fate of existing smallpox stockpiles, but circumstances have changed since the complete destruction of these cultures was first proposed...
  11. Burke D, Epstein J, Cummings D, Parker J, Cline K, Singa R, et al. Individual-based computational modeling of smallpox epidemic control strategies. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:1142-9 pubmed
    ..bioterrorism, the authors developed an individual-based (or "agent-based") computational model of smallpox epidemic transmission and control...
  12. Bolken T, Hruby D. Tecovirimat for smallpox infections. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010;46:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent...
  13. Kim S, Yeo S, Park K, Bang J, Kim H, Kim N, et al. The persistence of humoral and cellular immunities more than three decades after smallpox vaccination. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:91-3 pubmed
    ..vaccinia virus) and cellular (immediate vaccinia-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing T-cell) immunities to smallpox in a Korean population...
  14. Nishiura H, Brockmann S, Eichner M. Extracting key information from historical data to quantify the transmission dynamics of smallpox. Theor Biol Med Model. 2008;5:20 pubmed publisher
    Quantification of the transmission dynamics of smallpox is crucial for optimizing intervention strategies in the event of a bioterrorist attack...
  15. Kennedy R, OVSYANNIKOVA I, Poland G. Smallpox vaccines for biodefense. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D73-9 pubmed publisher
    Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia...
  16. House T, Hall I, Danon L, Keeling M. Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain--the role of geographical scale and contact structure. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:25 pubmed publisher
    In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies...
  17. Shchelkunov S. How long ago did smallpox virus emerge?. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1865-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic studies of a set of smallpox (variola) virus (VARV) isolates demonstrated the patterns of phylogenetic relationships between geographic ..
  18. Putz M, Alberini I, Midgley C, Manini I, Montomoli E, Smith G. Prevalence of antibodies to Vaccinia virus after smallpox vaccination in Italy. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2955-60 pubmed
    Decades after smallpox was eradicated and vaccination discontinued, the level of residual immunity in today's population is largely unknown...
  19. Phelps A, Gates A, Hillier M, Eastaugh L, Ulaeto D. Comparative efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a potential replacement smallpox vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:34-42 pubmed
    ..Bioterrorist or Biowarfare associated release of variola virus have prompted renewed interest in the vaccines for smallpox. The traditional live, replicating vaccine strains are subject to novel safety concerns associated with ..
  20. Hammarlund E, Lewis M, Hanifin J, Simpson E, Carlson N, Slifka M. Traditional smallpox vaccination with reduced risk of inadvertent contact spread by administration of povidone iodine ointment. Vaccine. 2008;26:430-9 pubmed
    One concern with traditional smallpox vaccination is inadvertent spread of virus to atopic or immunocompromised contacts...
  21. Cann J, Jahrling P, Hensley L, Wahl Jensen V. Comparative pathology of smallpox and monkeypox in man and macaques. J Comp Pathol. 2013;148:6-21 pubmed publisher
    In the three decades since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination, the collective memory of the devastating epidemics caused by this orthopoxvirus has waned, and the human population has become increasingly ..
  22. Adams M, Rice A, Moyer R. Rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus infection of rabbits as a model for human smallpox. J Virol. 2007;81:11084-95 pubmed
    The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined...
  23. Wells T, LeardMann C, Smith T, Smith B, Jacobson I, Reed R, et al. Self-reported adverse health events following smallpox vaccination in a large prospective study of US military service members. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:127-33 pubmed
    In December 2002, the Department of Defense re-instituted smallpox vaccination for US military forces following growing concerns that smallpox might be employed as a bioterrorist weapon...
  24. Jordan R, Hruby D. Smallpox antiviral drug development: satisfying the animal efficacy rule. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006;4:277-89 pubmed
    ..weapon have prompted new interest in the development of small molecule therapeutics to prevent and treat smallpox infection...
  25. Panchanathan V, Chaudhri G, Karupiah G. Protective immunity against secondary poxvirus infection is dependent on antibody but not on CD4 or CD8 T-cell function. J Virol. 2006;80:6333-8 pubmed
    Renewed interest in smallpox and the need for safer vaccines have highlighted our lack of understanding of the requirements for protective immunity...
  26. Elderd B, Dwyer G, Dukic V. Population-level differences in disease transmission: a Bayesian analysis of multiple smallpox epidemics. Epidemics. 2013;5:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..method, we fit spatial and non-spatial susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) models to a series of 13 smallpox outbreaks...
  27. Nafziger S. Smallpox. Crit Care Clin. 2005;21:739-46, vii pubmed
    b>Smallpox is a highly infectious disease, which, in 1980, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization as a result of successful vaccination campaigns...
  28. Esteves G, Simoes A, Souza E, Dias R, Ospina R, Venancio T. New insights about host response to smallpox using microarray data. BMC Syst Biol. 2007;1:38 pubmed
    b>Smallpox is a lethal disease that was endemic in many parts of the world until eradicated by massive immunization. Due to its lethality, there are serious concerns about its use as a bioweapon...
  29. Taub D, Ershler W, Janowski M, Artz A, Key M, McKelvey J, et al. Immunity from smallpox vaccine persists for decades: a longitudinal study. Am J Med. 2008;121:1058-64 pubmed publisher
    The threat of smallpox resulting from bioterrorist action has prompted a reassessment of the level of immunity in current populations.
  30. Moore Z, Seward J, Lane J. Smallpox. Lancet. 2006;367:425-35 pubmed
    The WHO declared smallpox eradicated in 1980. However, concern over its potential use by terrorists or in biowarfare has led to striking growth in research related to this much-feared disease...
  31. Nishiura H, Dietz K, Eichner M. The earliest notes on the reproduction number in relation to herd immunity: Theophil Lotz and smallpox vaccination. J Theor Biol. 2006;241:964-7 pubmed
  32. Kennedy J, Gurwith M, Dekker C, Frey S, Edwards K, Kenner J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naive adults. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    LC16m8 is an attenuated cell culture-adapted Lister vaccinia smallpox vaccine missing the B5R protein and licensed for use in Japan.
  33. Inaba H, Nishiura H. The state-reproduction number for a multistate class age structured epidemic system and its application to the asymptomatic transmission model. Math Biosci. 2008;216:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..As a practical example, we illustrate the eradication threshold for case isolation of smallpox. The generation time and serial interval are comparatively examined for pandemic influenza.
  34. von Krempelhuber A, Vollmar J, Pokorny R, Rapp P, Wulff N, Petzold B, et al. A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNE. Vaccine. 2010;28:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    IMVAMUNE is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine...
  35. Aldis G, Roberts M. An integral equation model for the control of a smallpox outbreak. Math Biosci. 2005;195:1-22 pubmed
    An integral equation model of a smallpox epidemic is proposed...
  36. Qutaishat S, Olson J. Bioterrorism preparedness: the smallpox vaccine debate. Clin Med Res. 2003;1:85-6 pubmed
  37. Klinkenberg D, Fraser C, Heesterbeek H. The effectiveness of contact tracing in emerging epidemics. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e12 pubmed
    ..With these insights we explain why contact tracing was and will be effective for control of smallpox and SARS, only partially effective for foot-and-mouth disease, and likely not effective for influenza.
  38. Simpson E, Hercher M, Hammarlund E, Lewis M, Slifka M, Hanifin J. Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:442-4 pubmed
    The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate...
  39. Earl P, Americo J, Wyatt L, Espenshade O, Bassler J, Gong K, et al. Rapid protection in a monkeypox model by a single injection of a replication-deficient vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10889-94 pubmed publisher
    The success of the World Health Organization smallpox eradication program three decades ago resulted in termination of routine vaccination and consequent decline in population immunity...
  40. Amanna I, Messaoudi I, Slifka M. Protective immunity following vaccination: how is it defined?. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:316-9 pubmed
    ..breakthrough pioneered by Edward Jenner over 200 years ago when he developed the world's first vaccine against smallpox. To this day, vaccination remains the most effective means available for combating infectious disease...
  41. Glasser J, Foster S, Millar J, Lane J. Evaluating public health responses to reintroduced smallpox via dynamic, socially structured, and spatially distributed metapopulation models. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46 Suppl 3:S182-94 pubmed publisher
    The risk of smallpox reintroduction has motivated preparations in potential target countries...
  42. Esteban D, Parker S, Schriewer J, Hartzler H, Buller R. Mousepox, a small animal model of smallpox. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;890:177-98 pubmed publisher
  43. Arndt W, Mitnik C, Denzler K, White S, Waters R, Jacobs B, et al. In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpox. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32610 pubmed publisher
    In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada...
  44. Kennedy R, Ovsyannikova I, Jacobson R, Poland G. The immunology of smallpox vaccines. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:314-20 pubmed publisher
    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and ..
  45. Henderson D. Smallpox virus destruction and the implications of a new vaccine. Biosecur Bioterror. 2011;9:163-8 pubmed publisher
    The World Health Assembly is scheduled to decide in May 2011 whether the 2 known remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus are to be destroyed or retained...
  46. Rimoin A, Mulembakani P, Johnston S, Lloyd Smith J, Kisalu N, Kinkela T, et al. Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that is immunologically naïve to orthopoxviruses has increased significantly due to cessation of mass smallpox vaccination campaigns...
  47. Taylor S. Political epidemiology: strengthening socio-political analysis for mass immunisation - lessons from the smallpox and polio programmes. Glob Public Health. 2009;4:546-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the smallpox and polio eradication programmes illustrates the importance of disease-specific socio-political analysis in ..
  48. Olson V, Karem K, Smith S, Hughes C, Damon I. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:792-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication...
  49. Garcel A, Perino J, Crance J, Drillien R, Garin D, Favier A. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of the traditional Lister smallpox vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:708-17 pubmed publisher
    As an initial step in the development of a second-generation smallpox vaccine derived from the Lister strain, to be prepared for a variola virus threat, diversity of the traditional vaccine was examined by characterizing a series of ten ..
  50. Jahrling P, Fritz E, Hensley L. Countermeasures to the bioterrorist threat of smallpox. Curr Mol Med. 2005;5:817-26 pubmed
    Variola, the agent of smallpox, is a bioterrorist threat, as is monkeypox virus, which also occurs naturally in Africa...
  51. Duraffour S, Andrei G, Snoeck R. Tecovirimat, a p37 envelope protein inhibitor for the treatment of smallpox infection. IDrugs. 2010;13:181-91 pubmed
    Since the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox in 1980, the fear that variola virus could be used as a biological weapon has become real...
  52. Egan J, Hall I, Leach S. Stamping out fires! Controlling smallpox with targeted mass vaccination. Med Decis Making. 2011;31:69-78 pubmed publisher
    More than 30 years have now passed since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox; however, the variola virus still exists in at least 2 locations...
  53. Kremer M, Suezer Y, Volz A, Frenz T, Majzoub M, Hanschmann K, et al. Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpox. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002557 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism(s) of rapidly protective vaccinia virus immunization using mousepox as surrogate model for human smallpox. We found that fast protection against lethal systemic poxvirus disease solely depended on CD4 and CD8 T cell ..
  54. Davidovitch N, Greenberg Z. Public health, culture, and colonial medicine: smallpox and variolation in Palestine during the British Mandate. Public Health Rep. 2007;122:398-406 pubmed
  55. Kawakami Y, Tomimori Y, Yumoto K, Hasegawa S, Ando T, Tagaya Y, et al. Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatum. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..have renewed efforts to better understand poxvirus pathogenesis and to develop a safer vaccine against smallpox. Individuals with atopic dermatitis are excluded from smallpox vaccination because of their propensity to develop ..
  56. Alejo A, Ruiz Argüello M, Ho Y, Smith V, Saraiva M, Alcami A. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5995-6000 pubmed
    Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health...
  57. Nishiura H, Eichner M. Estimation of the duration of vaccine-induced residual protection against severe and fatal smallpox based on secondary vaccination failure. Infection. 2006;34:241-6 pubmed
    Understanding the loss of vaccine-induced immunity against smallpox is essential in determining the fraction of those who are still protected in the present population and in constructing effective countermeasures against bioterrorist ..
  58. Fang M, Roscoe F, Sigal L. Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mice genetically resistant to mousepox (the mouse parallel of human smallpox) lose resistance at mid-age...
  59. Cooper B. Poxy models and rash decisions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12221-2 pubmed
  60. Puissant Lubrano B, Bossi P, Gay F, Crance J, Bonduelle O, Garin D, et al. Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-gamma+TNF-alpha+ effector/memory CD4+ lymphocytes in humans. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1636-44 pubmed publisher
    Vaccinia virus (VV) vaccination is used to immunize against smallpox and historically was considered to have been successful if a skin lesion formed at the vaccination site...
  61. Hall I, Egan J, Barrass I, Gani R, Leach S. Comparison of smallpox outbreak control strategies using a spatial metapopulation model. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1133-44 pubmed
    To determine the potential benefits of regionally targeted mass vaccination as an adjunct to other smallpox control strategies we employed a spatial metapopulation patch model based on the administrative districts of Great Britain...
  62. Yu W, Fang Q, Zhu W, Wang H, Tien P, Zhang L, et al. One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challenge. Vaccine. 2010;28:2088-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic ..
  63. Wallin A, Luksiene Z, Zagminas K, Surkiene G. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox. Medicina (Kaunas). 2007;43:278-84 pubmed
    ..Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola ..
  64. Beachkofsky T, Carrizales S, Bidinger J, Hrncir D, Whittemore D, Hivnor C. Adverse events following smallpox vaccination with ACAM2000 in a military population. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146:656-61 pubmed publisher
    Generalized vaccinia and benign exanthems are 2 adverse events that have been associated with the smallpox vaccination. Accurate incidence and prevalence rates of each are not readily available, but these events are thought to be uncommon...
  65. Jacobson I, Smith T, Smith B, Wells T, Reed R, Ryan M. US military service members vaccinated against smallpox in 2003 and 2004 experience a slightly higher risk of hospitalization postvaccination. Vaccine. 2008;26:4048-56 pubmed publisher
    ..explores adverse events severe enough to warrant hospitalization that may have been associated with receiving the smallpox vaccine in conjunction with military service...
  66. Thomas T, Reef S, Neff L, Sniadack M, Mootrey G. A review of the smallpox vaccine adverse events active surveillance system. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46 Suppl 3:S212-20 pubmed publisher
    In response to concern about smallpox possibly being used as a biological weapon, the President of the United States launched the National Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program on 13 December 2002...
  67. Ostrout N, McHugh M, Tisch D, Moormann A, Brusic V, Kazura J. Long-term T cell memory to human leucocyte antigen-A2 supertype epitopes in humans vaccinated against smallpox. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;149:265-73 pubmed
    ..T cell epitopes is important to develop methods to track the evolution of T cell memory to new generation smallpox vaccines and allow comparison to older vaccinia virus preparations known to induce protection against smallpox...
  68. Henderson D. The eradication of smallpox--an overview of the past, present, and future. Vaccine. 2011;29 Suppl 4:D7-9 pubmed publisher
    The 30th anniversary of the declaration of smallpox eradication is a propitious time to look back on the evolutionary history of the program, its execution, and its legacy for the future...
  69. Davies D, Molina D, Wrammert J, Miller J, Hirst S, Mu Y, et al. Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpox. Proteomics. 2007;7:1678-86 pubmed
    The eradication of smallpox by vaccination with vaccinia virus was probably one of the greatest achievements of vaccinology. However, the immunological basis of this protection is not fully understood...
  70. Riley S, Ferguson N. Smallpox transmission and control: spatial dynamics in Great Britain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12637-42 pubmed
    Contingency planning for the possible deliberate reintroduction of smallpox has become a priority for many national public health organizations in recent years...
  71. Paran N, Sutter G. Smallpox vaccines: New formulations and revised strategies for vaccination. Hum Vaccin. 2009;5:824-31 pubmed
    b>Smallpox has been eradicated but stockpiles of the causative infectious agent, variola virus, have been maintained over decades...
  72. Nishiura H, Eichner M. Interpreting the epidemiology of postexposure vaccination against smallpox. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:219-26 pubmed
    Six historical studies were investigated to clarify the obtainable information on postexposure vaccination against smallpox. Using the distribution of incubation period, the frequency of cases by time from exposure to vaccination was ..
  73. Perera L, Waldmann T, Mosca J, Baldwin N, Berzofsky J, Oh S. Development of smallpox vaccine candidates with integrated interleukin-15 that demonstrate superior immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety in mice. J Virol. 2007;81:8774-83 pubmed
    The potential use of variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, as a bioterror agent has heightened the interest in the reinitiation of smallpox vaccination...
  74. McDevitt J, Lai K, Rudnick S, Houseman E, First M, Milton D. Characterization of UVC light sensitivity of vaccinia virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5760-6 pubmed
    Interest in airborne smallpox transmission has been renewed because of concerns regarding the potential use of smallpox virus as a biothreat agent...
  75. Zielinski R, Smedley J, Perera P, Silvera P, Waldmann T, Capala J, et al. Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. Vaccine. 2010;28:7081-91 pubmed publisher
    Despite the eradication of smallpox, there is heightened concern that it could be reintroduced as a result of intentional release of Variola major virus through an act of bioterrorism...
  76. Milton D. What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefense. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:150 pubmed publisher
    ..The mode of smallpox transmission was never conclusively established...
  77. Henderson D, Klepac P. Lessons from the eradication of smallpox: an interview with D. A. Henderson. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20130113 pubmed publisher
    It has been more than 35 years since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox. Sufficient time has passed to allow an objective overview of what were the key factors in the success of the eradication effort and what lessons smallpox ..
  78. Wiser I, Balicer R, Cohen D. An update on smallpox vaccine candidates and their role in bioterrorism related vaccination strategies. Vaccine. 2007;25:976-84 pubmed
    ..attack urged different countries to renew the production of traditional vaccines and develop new generations of smallpox vaccines...
  79. Handley L, Buller R, Frey S, Bellone C, Parker S. The new ACAM2000 vaccine and other therapies to control orthopoxvirus outbreaks and bioterror attacks. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:841-50 pubmed publisher
    ..and population vaccination facilitated the global eradication, in 1980, of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The vaccines used during the eradication period, including Dryvax, the smallpox vaccine used in the USA, were ..
  80. Jones T. IMVAMUNE, an attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine for smallpox infection. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2008;10:407-17 pubmed
    ..IMVAMUNE, which is based on a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara virus, for the potential prevention of smallpox infection, particularly in those patients contraindicated to traditional smallpox vaccines, such as the ..
  81. Jang H, Kim C, Kim K, Lee K, Byun Y, Seong B, et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, in healthy volunteers. Vaccine. 2010;28:5845-9 pubmed publisher
    ..trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CJ-50300, a newly developed cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine, and to determine its minimum effective dose...