monkeypox

Summary

Summary: A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).

Top Publications

  1. Ellis C, Carroll D, Lash R, Peterson A, Damon I, Malekani J, et al. Ecology and geography of human monkeypox case occurrences across Africa. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:335-47 pubmed
    ..Here, we build on a previous ENM analysis of the potential distribution of human monkeypox in Africa by refining georeferencing criteria and using more-diverse environmental data to identify ..
  2. Hutson C, Carroll D, Self J, Weiss S, Hughes C, Braden Z, et al. Dosage comparison of Congo Basin and West African strains of monkeypox virus using a prairie dog animal model of systemic orthopoxvirus disease. Virology. 2010;402:72-82 pubmed publisher
    The prairie dog is valuable for the study of monkeypox virus (MPXV) virulence and closely resembles human systemic orthopoxvirus disease...
  3. Saijo M, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Nagata N, Iwata N, Hasegawa H, et al. Virulence and pathophysiology of the Congo Basin and West African strains of monkeypox virus in non-human primates. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2266-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus is divided into Congo Basin and West African strains...
  4. Saijo M, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Nagata N, Iwata N, Hasegawa H, et al. LC16m8, a highly attenuated vaccinia virus vaccine lacking expression of the membrane protein B5R, protects monkeys from monkeypox. J Virol. 2006;80:5179-88 pubmed
    ..Human monkeypox, a rare but important viral zoonosis endemic to central and western Africa, has recently emerged in the United ..
  5. Karem K, Reynolds M, Hughes C, Braden Z, Nigam P, Crotty S, et al. Monkeypox-induced immunity and failure of childhood smallpox vaccination to provide complete protection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:1318-27 pubmed
    Following the U.S. monkeypox outbreak of 2003, blood specimens and clinical and epidemiologic data were collected from cases, defined by standard definition, and household contacts of cases to evaluate the role of preexisting (smallpox ..
  6. Reynolds M, Davidson W, Curns A, Conover C, Huhn G, Davis J, et al. Spectrum of infection and risk factors for human monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1332-9 pubmed publisher
    For the 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak in the United States, interhuman transmission was not documented and all case-patients were near or handled MPXV-infected prairie dogs...
  7. Thomassen H, Fuller T, Asefi Najafabady S, Shiplacoff J, Mulembakani P, Blumberg S, et al. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66071 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ..
  8. Iizuka I, Saijo M, Shiota T, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Nagata N, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based diagnostic assay for monkeypox virus infections. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1102-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes a smallpox-like disease in non-human primates and humans. This infection is endemic to central and western Africa...
  9. Di Giulio D, Eckburg P. Human monkeypox. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:199 pubmed

More Information

Publications80

  1. Di Giulio D, Eckburg P. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:15-25 pubmed
    Human monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis endemic to central and western Africa that has recently emerged in the USA...
  2. Nigam P, Earl P, Americo J, Sharma S, Wyatt L, Edghill Spano Y, et al. DNA/MVA HIV-1/AIDS vaccine elicits long-lived vaccinia virus-specific immunity and confers protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge. Virology. 2007;366:73-83 pubmed
    ..of protective immune responses elicited by a DNA/MVA HIV-1 vaccine with those elicited by Dryvax using a monkeypox virus/macaque model...
  3. Weaver J, Isaacs S. Monkeypox virus and insights into its immunomodulatory proteins. Immunol Rev. 2008;225:96-113 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox is a disease that is endemic in Central and Western Africa. However, in 2003, there was an outbreak in the United States, representing the first documented monkeypox cases in the Western hemisphere...
  4. Learned L, Reynolds M, Wassa D, Li Y, Olson V, Karem K, et al. Extended interhuman transmission of monkeypox in a hospital community in the Republic of the Congo, 2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:428-34 pubmed
    This report describes the first reported outbreak of human monkeypox in the Republic of Congo...
  5. Li Y, Zhao H, Wilkins K, Hughes C, Damon I. Real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of monkeypox virus West African and Congo Basin strain DNA. J Virol Methods. 2010;169:223-7 pubmed publisher
    Orthopoxvirus monkeypox (MPXV) forms two distinct clades: the MPXV Congo Basin clade viruses are endemic in the Congo Basin, human illness typically presents with symptoms similar to discrete, ordinary smallpox and has a case fatality ..
  6. Americo J, Moss B, Earl P. Identification of wild-derived inbred mouse strains highly susceptible to monkeypox virus infection for use as small animal models. J Virol. 2010;84:8172-80 pubmed publisher
    Infection with monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes disease manifestations in humans that are similar, although usually less severe, than those of smallpox...
  7. Reed K, Melski J, Graham M, Regnery R, Sotir M, Wegner M, et al. The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:342-50 pubmed
    ..Zoonotic transmission of a bacterial or viral pathogen was suspected...
  8. Reynolds M, Cono J, Curns A, Holman R, Likos A, Regnery R, et al. Human monkeypox. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:604-5; discussion 605 pubmed
  9. Lash R, Carroll D, Hughes C, Nakazawa Y, Karem K, Damon I, et al. Effects of georeferencing effort on mapping monkeypox case distributions and transmission risk. Int J Health Geogr. 2012;11:23 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we develop three datasets from the same, original monkeypox disease occurrence data, with varying levels of care and effort: the first based on an automated web-service, ..
  10. Nalca A, Rimoin A, Bavari S, Whitehouse C. Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1765-71 pubmed
    Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa...
  11. Karem K, Reynolds M, Braden Z, Lou G, Bernard N, Patton J, et al. characterization of acute-phase humoral immunity to monkeypox: use of immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of monkeypox infection during the 2003 North American outbreak. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:867-72 pubmed
    A monkeypox outbreak occurred in the United States in 2003. Patient's sera were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a part of outbreak response measures...
  12. Lederman E, Reynolds M, Karem K, Braden Z, Learned Orozco L, Wassa Wassa D, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against orthopoxviruses among residents of Likouala region, Republic of Congo: evidence for monkeypox virus exposure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:1150-6 pubmed
    b>Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX) of west and central sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Likouala region, Republic of Congo to assess exposure to OPX...
  13. Digiulio D, Eckburg P. Monkeypox in the Western hemisphere. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1790-1; author reply 1790-1 pubmed
  14. Bayer Garner I. Monkeypox virus: histologic, immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic findings. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:28-34 pubmed
    Human monkeypox, an emerging viral zoonosis first recognized in Africa, has recently emerged in the mid-western US. Initially, it presents with skin eruptions and fevers with diaphoresis and rigors...
  15. MacNeil A, Reynolds M, Braden Z, Carroll D, Bostik V, Karem K, et al. Transmission of atypical varicella-zoster virus infections involving palm and sole manifestations in an area with monkeypox endemicity. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:e6-8 pubmed publisher
    During a suspected monkeypox outbreak in the Republic of Congo, we documented transmission of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with palm and sole manifestations among 5 family members...
  16. Estep R, Messaoudi I, O Connor M, Li H, Sprague J, Barron A, et al. Deletion of the monkeypox virus inhibitor of complement enzymes locus impacts the adaptive immune response to monkeypox virus in a nonhuman primate model of infection. J Virol. 2011;85:9527-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus closely related to variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Human MPXV infection results in a disease that is similar to smallpox and can also be fatal...
  17. Hooper J, Thompson E, Wilhelmsen C, Zimmerman M, Ichou M, Steffen S, et al. Smallpox DNA vaccine protects nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox. J Virol. 2004;78:4433-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, sporadic outbreaks of human monkeypox in Africa and a recent outbreak of human monkeypox in the U.S...
  18. Dubois M, Hammarlund E, Slifka M. Optimization of peptide-based ELISA for serological diagnostics: a retrospective study of human monkeypox infection. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:400-9 pubmed publisher
    Although smallpox has been eradicated, other diseases caused by virulent orthopoxviruses such as monkeypox virus (MPV) remain endemic in remote areas of western and central sub-Saharan Africa, and represent a potential biothreat due to ..
  19. Xiao S, Sbrana E, Watts D, Siirin M, Da Rosa A, Tesh R. Experimental infection of prairie dogs with monkeypox virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:539-45 pubmed
    Studies of experimental infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with monkeypox virus are described. After intraperitoneal infection, all of the animals died within 11 days...
  20. Stabenow J, Buller R, Schriewer J, West C, Sagartz J, Parker S. A mouse model of lethal infection for evaluating prophylactics and therapeutics against Monkeypox virus. J Virol. 2010;84:3909-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus closely related to variola, the etiological agent of smallpox. In humans, MPXV causes a disease similar to smallpox and is considered to be an emerging infectious disease...
  21. Heraud J, Edghill Smith Y, Ayala V, Kalisz I, Parrino J, Kalyanaraman V, et al. Subunit recombinant vaccine protects against monkeypox. J Immunol. 2006;177:2552-64 pubmed
    The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, a live vaccinia virus (VACV), protects against smallpox and monkeypox, but is contraindicated in immunocompromised individuals...
  22. Karem K, Reynolds M, Olson V, Li Y, Damon I. Monkeypox outbreak diagnostics and implications for vaccine protective effect. Nat Med. 2006;12:495-6; author reply 496-7 pubmed
  23. Sejvar J, Chowdary Y, Schomogyi M, Stevens J, Patel J, Karem K, et al. Human monkeypox infection: a family cluster in the midwestern United States. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1833-40 pubmed
    The outbreak of monkeypox in the Midwestern United States during June 2003 marks the first documented human infection in the Western Hemisphere...
  24. Roess A, Monroe B, Kinzoni E, Gallagher S, Ibata S, Badinga N, et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a community intervention for monkeypox prevention in the Congo basin. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1356 pubmed publisher
    ..This is particularly true for zoonotic diseases such as monkeypox that principally affect people living in remote areas with few health services...
  25. Frey S, Belshe R. Poxvirus zoonoses--putting pocks into context. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:324-7 pubmed
  26. Earl P, Americo J, Wyatt L, Eller L, Whitbeck J, Cohen G, et al. Immunogenicity of a highly attenuated MVA smallpox vaccine and protection against monkeypox. Nature. 2004;428:182-5 pubmed
    ..After challenge with monkeypox virus, unimmunized animals developed more than 500 pustular skin lesions and became gravely ill or died, whereas ..
  27. Goff A, Chapman J, Foster C, Wlazlowski C, Shamblin J, Lin K, et al. A novel respiratory model of infection with monkeypox virus in cynomolgus macaques. J Virol. 2011;85:4898-909 pubmed publisher
    Variola, the causative agent of smallpox, and the related monkeypox virus are both select agents that, if purposefully released, would cause public panic and social disruption...
  28. Kindrachuk J, Arsenault R, Kusalik A, Kindrachuk K, Trost B, Napper S, et al. Systems kinomics demonstrates Congo Basin monkeypox virus infection selectively modulates host cell signaling responses as compared to West African monkeypox virus. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.015701 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is comprised of two clades: Congo Basin MPXV, with an associated case fatality rate of 10%, and Western African MPXV, which is associated with less severe infection and minimal lethality...
  29. Stittelaar K, van Amerongen G, Kondova I, Kuiken T, van Lavieren R, Pistoor F, et al. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus. J Virol. 2005;79:7845-51 pubmed
    ..compare the efficacies of MVA alone and in combination with classical VV-based vaccines in a cynomolgus macaque monkeypox model...
  30. Rubins K, Hensley L, Bell G, Wang C, Lefkowitz E, Brown P, et al. Comparative analysis of viral gene expression programs during poxvirus infection: a transcriptional map of the vaccinia and monkeypox genomes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2628 pubmed publisher
    ..Poxviruses engage in a complex and intricate dialogue with host cells as part of their strategy for replication. However, relatively little molecular detail is available with which to understand the mechanisms behind this dialogue...
  31. Reynolds M, Yorita K, Kuehnert M, Davidson W, Huhn G, Holman R, et al. Clinical manifestations of human monkeypox influenced by route of infection. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:773-80 pubmed
    In April 2003, an outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the United States following the importation of monkeypox virus (MPXV)-infected animals in a consignment of exotic pets from West Africa...
  32. Kulesh D, Loveless B, Norwood D, Garrison J, Whitehouse C, Hartmann C, et al. Monkeypox virus detection in rodents using real-time 3'-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the Roche LightCycler. Lab Invest. 2004;84:1200-8 pubmed
    During the summer of 2003, an outbreak of human monkeypox occurred in the Midwest region of the United States...
  33. Alkhalil A, Hammamieh R, Hardick J, Ichou M, Jett M, Ibrahim S. Gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions. Virol J. 2010;7:173 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus and a potential biothreat agent that causes human disease with varying morbidity and mortality...
  34. Formenty P, Muntasir M, Damon I, Chowdhary V, Opoka M, Monimart C, et al. Human monkeypox outbreak caused by novel virus belonging to Congo Basin clade, Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1539-45 pubmed publisher
    To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a retrospective investigation. MPXV was identified in a sub-Sahelian savannah environment...
  35. Edghill Smith Y, Bray M, Whitehouse C, Miller D, Mucker E, Manischewitz J, et al. Smallpox vaccine does not protect macaques with AIDS from a lethal monkeypox virus challenge. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:372-81 pubmed
    ..preceded by immunization with highly attenuated vaccinia strains, the macaques were not protected against lethal monkeypox virus challenge if their CD4(+) cell count was <300 cells/mm(3)...
  36. Fleischauer A, Kile J, Davidson M, Fischer M, Karem K, Teclaw R, et al. Evaluation of human-to-human transmission of monkeypox from infected patients to health care workers. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:689-94 pubmed
    In 2003, human monkeypox was first identified in the United States. The outbreak was associated with exposure to infected prairie dogs, but the potential for person-to-person transmission was a concern...
  37. Damon I. Status of human monkeypox: clinical disease, epidemiology and research. Vaccine. 2011;29 Suppl 4:D54-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox, a vesiculo-pustular rash illness, was initially discovered to cause human infection in 1970 through the World Health Organization (WHO)-sponsored efforts of the Commission to Certify Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa and ..
  38. Hirao L, Draghia Akli R, Prigge J, Yang M, Satishchandran A, Wu L, et al. Multivalent smallpox DNA vaccine delivered by intradermal electroporation drives protective immunity in nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox challenge. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:95-102 pubmed publisher
    The threat of a smallpox-based bioterrorist event or a human monkeypox outbreak has heightened the importance of new, safe vaccine approaches for these pathogens to complement older poxviral vaccine platforms...
  39. Stittelaar K, Neyts J, Naesens L, van Amerongen G, van Lavieren R, Holy A, et al. Antiviral treatment is more effective than smallpox vaccination upon lethal monkeypox virus infection. Nature. 2006;439:745-8 pubmed
    ..analogue (HPMPO-DAPy) after lethal intratracheal infection of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with monkeypox virus (MPXV)...
  40. Dyall J, Johnson R, Chen D, Huzella L, Ragland D, Mollura D, et al. Evaluation of monkeypox disease progression by molecular imaging. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1902-11 pubmed publisher
    Infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with monkeypox virus (MPXV) is currently being developed as an animal model of variola infection in humans...
  41. Bernard S, Anderson S. Qualitative assessment of risk for monkeypox associated with domestic trade in certain animal species, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1827-33 pubmed
    In 2003, US officials identified several human monkeypox cases and traced the virus exposure to infected captive prairie dogs...
  42. Sbrana E, Xiao S, Newman P, Tesh R. Comparative pathology of North American and central African strains of monkeypox virus in a ground squirrel model of the disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:155-64 pubmed
    The first human cases of monkeypox (MPX) were recognized in central Africa in 1970. Since then, sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred in central and west Africa...
  43. Johnson R, Dyall J, Ragland D, Huzella L, Byrum R, Jett C, et al. Comparative analysis of monkeypox virus infection of cynomolgus macaques by the intravenous or intrabronchial inoculation route. J Virol. 2011;85:2112-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection has recently expanded in geographic distribution and can be fatal in up to 10% of cases. The intravenous (i.v...
  44. Zielinski R, Smedley J, Perera P, Silvera P, Waldmann T, Capala J, et al. Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys. Vaccine. 2010;28:7081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccinated with vaccinia viruses with integrated IL-15, when challenged 3 years later with a lethal dose of monkeypox virus displayed milder clinical manifestations with complete recovery supporting the utility of Wyeth/IL-15 for ..
  45. Nakazawa Y, Emerson G, Carroll D, Zhao H, Li Y, Reynolds M, et al. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:237-45 pubmed publisher
    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa...
  46. Song H, Janosko K, Johnson R, Qin J, Josleyn N, Jett C, et al. Poxvirus antigen staining of immune cells as a biomarker to predict disease outcome in monkeypox and cowpox virus infection in non-human primates. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60533 pubmed publisher
    Infection of non-human primates (NHPs) such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with monkeypox virus (MPXV) or cowpox virus (CPXV) serve as models to study poxvirus pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccines and anti-orthopox therapeutics...
  47. Marriott K, Parkinson C, Morefield S, Davenport R, Nichols R, Monath T. Clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture fully protects monkeys from lethal monkeypox challenge. Vaccine. 2008;26:581-8 pubmed
    ..or ACAM2000 diluent (control) were challenged 2 months post-vaccination with a lethal, intravenous dose of monkeypox virus...
  48. Parker S, Nuara A, Buller R, Schultz D. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonotic disease. Future Microbiol. 2007;2:17-34 pubmed
    Zoonotic monkeypox virus is maintained in a large number of rodent and, to a lesser extent, nonhuman primate species in West and central Africa...
  49. Chen N, Li G, Liszewski M, Atkinson J, Jahrling P, Feng Z, et al. Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin. Virology. 2005;340:46-63 pubmed
    Studies indicate that West African and Congo basin isolates of monkeypox virus (MPXV) are genetically distinct...
  50. Damon I, Roth C, Chowdhary V. Discovery of monkeypox in Sudan. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:962-3 pubmed
  51. Lewis M, Graham M, Hammarlund E, Hanifin J, Slifka M. Monkeypox without exanthem. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2112-4 pubmed
  52. Schultz D, Sagartz J, Huso D, Buller R. Experimental infection of an African dormouse (Graphiurus kelleni) with monkeypox virus. Virology. 2009;383:86-92 pubmed publisher
    Suitable animal models are needed to study monkeypox virus (MPXV) as human monkeypox clinically resembles smallpox and MPXV is a zoonotic and potential bioterroristic agent...
  53. MacNeil A, Reynolds M, Carroll D, Karem K, Braden Z, Lash R, et al. Monkeypox or varicella? Lessons from a rash outbreak investigation in the Republic of the Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:503-7 pubmed
    b>Monkeypox virus and varicellazoster virus (VZV) cause visually similar rash illnesses. Monkeypox is more virulent, with fatality rates up to 10%...
  54. Smith S, Olson V, Karem K, Jordan R, Hruby D, Damon I. In vitro efficacy of ST246 against smallpox and monkeypox. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..susceptible to infection with orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) and monkeypox virus, has grown substantially...
  55. Fuller T, Thomassen H, Mulembakani P, Johnston S, Lloyd Smith J, Kisalu N, et al. Using remote sensing to map the risk of human monkeypox virus in the Congo Basin. Ecohealth. 2011;8:14-25 pubmed publisher
    Although the incidence of human monkeypox has greatly increased in Central Africa over the last decade, resources for surveillance remain extremely limited...
  56. Saijo M, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Nagata N, Iwata N, Hasegawa H, et al. Diagnosis and assessment of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection by quantitative PCR assay: differentiation of Congo Basin and West African MPXV strains. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:140-2 pubmed
    Human monkeypox, an infectious disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), is endemic to western and central Africa...
  57. Rimoin A, Kisalu N, Kebela Ilunga B, Mukaba T, Wright L, Formenty P, et al. Endemic human monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001-2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:934-7 pubmed
    By analyzing vesicle fluids and crusted scabs from 136 persons with suspected monkeypox, we identified 51 cases of monkeypox by PCR, sequenced the hemagglutinin gene, and confirmed 94% of cases by virus culture...
  58. Jordan R, Goff A, Frimm A, Corrado M, Hensley L, Byrd C, et al. ST-246 antiviral efficacy in a nonhuman primate monkeypox model: determination of the minimal effective dose and human dose justification. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of nonhuman primates (NHP) by the intravenous injection of monkeypox virus has been used to evaluate a promising therapeutic drug candidate, ST-246...
  59. Tesh R, Watts D, Sbrana E, Siirin M, Popov V, Xiao S. Experimental infection of ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) with monkeypox virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1563-7 pubmed
    ..ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) were infected intraperitoneally and intranasally with monkeypox virus (MPXV). A fulminant illness developed in all animals, and they died 6-9 days after infection...
  60. Edghill Smith Y, Golding H, Manischewitz J, King L, Scott D, Bray M, et al. Smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus. Nat Med. 2005;11:740-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that vaccinia-specific B-cell responses are essential for protection of macaques from monkeypox virus, a variola virus ortholog...
  61. Kile J, Fleischauer A, Beard B, Kuehnert M, Kanwal R, Pontones P, et al. Transmission of monkeypox among persons exposed to infected prairie dogs in Indiana in 2003. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:1022-5 pubmed
    To describe a cluster of human monkeypox cases associated with exposure to ill prairie dogs in a home child care.
  62. Hammarlund E, Lewis M, Carter S, Amanna I, Hansen S, Strelow L, et al. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox. Nat Med. 2005;11:1005-11 pubmed
    ..The US monkeypox outbreak of 2003 provided the opportunity to examine this issue...
  63. Nakazawa Y, Lash R, Carroll D, Damon I, Karem K, Reynolds M, et al. Mapping monkeypox transmission risk through time and space in the Congo Basin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74816 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox is a major public health concern in the Congo Basin area, with changing patterns of human case occurrences reported in recent years...
  64. Guarner J, Johnson B, Paddock C, Shieh W, Goldsmith C, Reynolds M, et al. Monkeypox transmission and pathogenesis in prairie dogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:426-31 pubmed
    During May and June 2003, the first cluster of human monkeypox cases in the United States was reported. Most patients with this febrile vesicular rash illness presumably acquired the infection from prairie dogs...
  65. Huggins J, Goff A, Hensley L, Mucker E, Shamblin J, Wlazlowski C, et al. Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..this report, the antiviral efficacy of ST-246 in treatment of nonhuman primates infected with variola virus or monkeypox virus was assessed...
  66. Earl P, Americo J, Moss B. Lethal monkeypox virus infection of CAST/EiJ mice is associated with a deficient gamma interferon response. J Virol. 2012;86:9105-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is endemic in Africa, where it causes disease in humans resembling smallpox. A recent importation of MPXV-infected animals into the United States raises the possibility of global spread...
  67. Huhn G, Bauer A, Yorita K, Graham M, Sejvar J, Likos A, et al. Clinical characteristics of human monkeypox, and risk factors for severe disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1742-51 pubmed
    Human monkeypox is an emerging smallpox-like illness that was identified for the first time in the United States during an outbreak in 2003...
  68. Rimoin A, Mulembakani P, Johnston S, Lloyd Smith J, Kisalu N, Kinkela T, et al. Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16262-7 pubmed publisher
    Studies on the burden of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were last conducted from 1981 to 1986...
  69. Shao L, Huang D, Wei H, Wang R, Chen C, Shen L, et al. Expansion, reexpansion, and recall-like expansion of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells in smallpox vaccination and monkeypox virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:11959-65 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the in vivo kinetics of T-cell responses in smallpox/monkeypox. We showed that macaque Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells underwent 3-week-long expansion after smallpox vaccine immunization and displayed simple reexpansion in ..
  70. Hutson C, Lee K, Abel J, Carroll D, Montgomery J, Olson V, et al. Monkeypox zoonotic associations: insights from laboratory evaluation of animals associated with the multi-state US outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:757-68 pubmed
    At the onset of the 2003 US monkeypox outbreak, virologic data were unavailable regarding which animal species were involved with virus importation and/or subsequent transmission to humans and whether there was a risk for establishment ..
  71. Cunha B. Monkeypox in the United States: an occupational health look at the first cases. AAOHN J. 2004;52:164-8 pubmed
    Between May 15 and June 20, 2003, 71 suspected cases of monkeypox were investigated and 37 individuals in the United States developed laboratory confirmed monkeypox...