lumpy skin disease

Summary

Summary: A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.

Top Publications

  1. Bagla V, Osuagwuh U, Annandale C, Irons P, Venter E. Elimination of toxicity and enhanced detection of lumpy skin disease virus on cell culture from experimentally infected bovine semen samples. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2006;73:263-8 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a poxvirus of the genus Capripoxvirus, is shed in the semen of infected bulls. The screening of semen for infectious virus requires a sensitive diagnostic method...
  2. Kara P, Afonso C, Wallace D, Kutish G, Abolnik C, Lu Z, et al. Comparative sequence analysis of the South African vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of Lumpy skin disease virus. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1335-56 pubmed
    The genomic sequences of 3 strains of Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) (Neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz...
  3. Tuppurainen E, Oura C. Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:40-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically devastating emerging viral disease of cattle. Lumpy skin disease is currently endemic in most African countries and has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region...
  4. Stram Y, Kuznetzova L, Friedgut O, Gelman B, Yadin H, Rubinstein Guini M. The use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:225-9 pubmed publisher
    During 2006 and 2007 there were two outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Israel. An LSD virus (LSDV)-specific PCR assay was developed that can detected specifically LSDV even though the number of tested LSDV isolates were limited...
  5. Carn V, Kitching R. An investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (Neethling). Epidemiol Infect. 1995;114:219-26 pubmed
    British cattle were infected with the South African (Neethling) strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and their clinical signs monitored over a 3-week period...
  6. Romero C, Barrett T, Kitching R, Carn V, Black D. Protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease with a recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the fusion protein gene of rinderpest virus. Vet Rec. 1994;135:152-4 pubmed
    Cattle were protected against challenge with rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses by vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing the fusion protein (F) gene of rinderpest virus...
  7. Khalafalla A, Gaffar Elamin M, Abbas Z. Lumpy skin disease: observations on the recent outbreaks of the disease in the Sudan. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1993;46:548-50 pubmed
    Outbreaks of lumpy skin disease in imported Friesian and indigenous cattle which occurred in the Khartoum State during the period of 1989-1991, are described...
  8. Romero C, Barrett T, Chamberlain R, Kitching R, Fleming M, Black D. Recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. Virology. 1994;204:425-9 pubmed
    ..The parental KS-1 virus is widely used as a vaccine against capripox viruses and so the rinderpest recombinant acts as a dual vaccine to protect cattle against both rinderpest and lumpy skin disease.
  9. Osuagwuh U, Bagla V, Venter E, Annandale C, Irons P. Absence of lumpy skin disease virus in semen of vaccinated bulls following vaccination and subsequent experimental infection. Vaccine. 2007;25:2238-43 pubmed
    ..This study confirmed the ability of LSD vaccination to prevent the excretion of LSDV in semen of vaccinated bulls...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Davies F. Lumpy skin disease, an African capripox virus disease of cattle. Br Vet J. 1991;147:489-503 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease is an infectious viral disease of cattle, which often occurs in epizootic form. The disease is characterized by the eruption of nodules in the skin, which may cover the whole of the animal's body...
  2. Lubinga J, Tuppurainen E, Stoltsz W, Ebersohn K, Coetzer J, Venter E. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013;61:129-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus...
  3. Tuppurainen E, Lubinga J, Stoltsz W, Troskie M, Carpenter S, Coetzer J, et al. Evidence of vertical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:329-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important acute or sub-acute disease of cattle that occurs across Africa and in the Middle East...
  4. Chihota C, Rennie L, Kitching R, Mellor P. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:317-21 pubmed
    Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes are capable of the mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) from infected to susceptible cattle...
  5. Tuppurainen E, Venter E, Coetzer J. The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2005;72:153-64 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a disease of cattle, primarily in Africa and Madagascar and rarely in the Middle East. It is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae...
  6. Chihota C, Rennie L, Kitching R, Mellor P. Attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects. Med Vet Entomol. 2003;17:294-300 pubmed
    ..and the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (LSD) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)...
  7. Brenner J, Bellaiche M, Gross E, Elad D, Oved Z, Haimovitz M, et al. Appearance of skin lesions in cattle populations vaccinated against lumpy skin disease: statutory challenge. Vaccine. 2009;27:1500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 33.7%, respectively). This data suggests that the potency of the vaccine need to be re-assessed for beef cattle...
  8. Yeruham I, Nir O, Braverman Y, Davidson M, Grinstein H, Haymovitch M, et al. Spread of lumpy skin disease in Israeli dairy herds. Vet Rec. 1995;137:91-3 pubmed
    Fourteen of the 17 dairy herds in Peduyim, an Israeli village, became infected with lumpy skin disease during a period of 37 days in August and September 1989...
  9. Magori Cohen R, Louzoun Y, Herziger Y, Oron E, Arazi A, Tuppurainen E, et al. Mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus. Vet Res. 2012;43:1 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe viral disease of cattle. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods...
  10. House J, Wilson T, el Nakashly S, Karim I, Ismail I, el Danaf N, et al. The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in Egypt. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1990;2:111-5 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) virus (LSDV) was isolated for the first time from cattle in Egypt in 2 disease outbreaks. Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) and LSDV were detected in a pooled sample from the first outbreak (Suez)...
  11. Tuppurainen E, Lubinga J, Stoltsz W, Troskie M, Carpenter S, Coetzer J, et al. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus male ticks. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:425-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important, acute or sub-acute, viral disease of cattle that occurs across Africa and in the Middle East...
  12. Ayelet G, Abate Y, Sisay T, Nigussie H, Gelaye E, Jemberie S, et al. Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development...
  13. Gari G, Waret Szkuta A, Grosbois V, Jacquiet P, Roger F. Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:1657-66 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia...
  14. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Parkyn G, Dalman B, Manning L, Neufeld J, et al. Quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:299-307 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease along with sheep pox and goatpox are the most serious poxvirus diseases of livestock, and are caused by viruses that belong to the genus Capripoxvirus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae...
  15. Mafirakureva P, Saidi B, Mbanga J. Incidence and molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus in Zimbabwe using the P32 gene. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49:47-54 pubmed publisher
    Between January, 2013 and December, 2014, there was a lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreak that affected cattle in different localities of Zimbabwe. The outbreak resulted in severe economic losses to the livestock industry...
  16. Agianniotaki E, Chaintoutis S, Haegeman A, Tasioudi K, De Leeuw I, Katsoulos P, et al. Development and validation of a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR method for the differentiation of wild type lumpy skin disease virus from vaccine virus strains. J Virol Methods. 2017;249:48-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary viral disease of cattle with severe economic impact...
  17. Elhaig M, Selim A, Mahmoud M. Lumpy skin disease in cattle: Frequency of occurrence in a dairy farm and a preliminary assessment of its possible impact on Egyptian buffaloes. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2017;84:e1-e6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an endemic infectious disease of cattle in Egypt...
  18. Agianniotaki E, Tasioudi K, Chaintoutis S, Iliadou P, Mangana Vougiouka O, Kirtzalidou A, et al. Lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Greece during 2015-16, implementation of emergency immunization and genetic differentiation between field isolates and vaccine virus strains. Vet Microbiol. 2017;201:78-84 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to present epizootiological data from the lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Greece during 2015-16, following the implementation of emergency vaccination and total stamping-out, along with laboratory data ..
  19. Offerman K, Deffur A, Carulei O, Wilkinson R, Douglass N, Williamson A. Six host-range restricted poxviruses from three genera induce distinct gene expression profiles in an in vivo mouse model. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:510 pubmed publisher
    ..intravenous infection (10(5) pfu/mouse) with six host-restricted poxvirus species from three genera, namely Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV), Canarypox virus (CNPV), Fowlpox virus (FWPV), modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and two novel ..
  20. Molla W, de Jong M, Gari G, Frankena K. Economic impact of lumpy skin disease and cost effectiveness of vaccination for the control of outbreaks in Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2017;147:100-107 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an infectious viral disease of cattle, causes considerable financial losses in livestock industry of affected countries...
  21. Beyene T, Eshetu A, Abdu A, Wondimu E, Beyi A, Tufa T, et al. Assisting differential clinical diagnosis of cattle diseases using smartphone-based technology in low resource settings: a pilot study. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:323 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), Fasciolosis (8.4%), Pasteurellosis (7.4%), Colibacillosis (6.4%), Lumpy skin disease (5.5%) and CBPP (5.0%) were the most commonly occurring diseases...
  22. Abera Z, Degefu H, Gari G, Kidane M. Sero-prevalence of lumpy skin disease in selected districts of West Wollega zone, Ethiopia. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11:135 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically devastating emerging viral disease of cattle caused by a virus associated with the Neethlig poxvirus in the genus Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae...
  23. Molla W, de Jong M, Frankena K. Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Ethiopia in the period 2000 to 2015. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:310 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by a virus of the genus Capripoxvirus. LSD was reported for the first time in Ethiopia in 1981 and subsequently became endemic...
  24. Sevik M, Dogan M. Epidemiological and Molecular Studies on Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreaks in Turkey during 2014-2015. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017;64:1268-1279 pubmed publisher
    This study was carried out to explore epidemiological and molecular features of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in the Aegean, Central Anatolian and Mediterranean regions of Turkey, to evaluate the risk factors associated with LSDV ..
  25. Kahsay T, Negash G, Hagos Y, Hadush B. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2015;82:E1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%)...
  26. Gari G, Abie G, Gizaw D, Wubete A, Kidane M, Asgedom H, et al. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus. Vaccine. 2015;33:3256-61 pubmed publisher
    The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in ..
  27. Agianniotaki E, Mathijs E, Vandenbussche F, Tasioudi K, Haegeman A, Iliadou P, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of the Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolated from the First Reported Case in Greece in 2015. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first LSDV isolate identified in mainland Europe...
  28. Inci A, Yildirim A, Duzlu O, Doganay M, Aksoy S. Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0005021 pubmed publisher
    ..infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
  29. Molla W, Frankena K, Gari G, de Jong M. Field study on the use of vaccination to control the occurrence of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopian cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2017;147:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of Ethiopia to assess the efficacy of Kenyan sheep pox virus strain vaccine (KS1 O-180) against natural lumpy skin disease (LSD) infection under field conditions by estimating its effect on the transmission and severity of the ..
  30. Bumbarov V, Golender N, Erster O, Khinich Y. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches. Vaccine. 2016;34:3317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes...
  31. Boshra H, Truong T, Nfon C, Bowden T, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, et al. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats. Antiviral Res. 2015;123:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox...
  32. Greth A, Gourreau J, Vassart M, Nguyen Ba Vy -, Wyers M, Lefevre P. Capripoxvirus disease in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia. J Wildl Dis. 1992;28:295-300 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the National Wildlife Research Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia...
  33. Caron A, Miguel E, Gomo C, Makaya P, Pfukenyi D, Foggin C, et al. Relationship between burden of infection in ungulate populations and wildlife/livestock interfaces. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1522-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and cattle at unfenced interfaces; bovine tuberculosis was only present in buffalo; and brucellosis and lumpy skin disease only in cattle...
  34. el Sanousi S, al Dughyem A, Ramadan R. Aetiology of an actinomycosis-like abscess in cattle. Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1991;44:159-60 pubmed
    ..Arachnia propionica was isolated from an abscess resembling actinomycosis in a four-year-old crossbred cow. The properties of the organism were described in comparison with closely related organisms...
  35. Fick W, Viljoen G. Early and late transcriptional phases in the replication of lumpy-skin-disease virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1994;61:255-61 pubmed
    ..The cloned fragments of the genome are expected to help in the identification of important promoter elements...
  36. Ngichabe C, Wamwayi H, Barrett T, Ndungu E, Black D, Bostock C. Trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in African cattle. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;118:63-70 pubmed
    ..viruses were completely protected against challenge, 1 month later, with both virulent rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses...
  37. Hunter P, Wallace D. Lumpy skin disease in southern Africa: a review of the disease and aspects of control. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2001;72:68-71 pubmed
    This article reviews some of the important aspects of lumpy skin disease (LSD) that may impact on its successful control...
  38. Irons P, Tuppurainen E, Venter E. Excretion of lumpy skin disease virus in bull semen. Theriogenology. 2005;63:1290-7 pubmed
    This work was done to establish the incidence and duration of excretion of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in semen of experimentally infected susceptible bulls...
  39. Gari G, Biteau Coroller F, LeGoff C, Caufour P, Roger F. Evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using Bayesian method. Vet Microbiol. 2008;129:269-80 pubmed publisher
    The performance of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for serological diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was evaluated using methods without gold standard...
  40. Alemayehu G, Zewde G, Admassu B. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013;45:1153-9 pubmed publisher
    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed...
  41. Gari G, Grosbois V, Waret Szkuta A, Babiuk S, Jacquiet P, Roger F. Lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia: seroprevalence study across different agro-climate zones. Acta Trop. 2012;123:101-6 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the different agro-climatic zones prevailing in Ethiopia...
  42. Lubinga J, Tuppurainen E, Coetzer J, Stoltsz W, Venter E. Transovarial passage and transmission of LSDV by Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Exp Appl Acarol. 2014;62:67-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an acute, sub-acute or inapparent disease of cattle, is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae...
  43. Abdalla M, Gawad S. Characterization of serum lysosomal enzymatic activities. II. Effect of lumpy skin disease in Egyptian cows. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1992;99:347-9 pubmed
    ..The appreciable significant increase of beta-GAL may declare the effect of anorexia on LSD. In view of these findings, it can be postulated that LSD may be diagnosed and prognosed through LYE changes in the serum...
  44. Yeruham I, Perl S, Nyska A, Abraham A, Davidson M, Haymovitch M, et al. Adverse reactions in cattle to a capripox vaccine. Vet Rec. 1994;135:330-2 pubmed
    ..All the reacting animals developed lumpy skin disease-like lesions. The incidence of skin lesions in first-lactation cows in herd A was 22...
  45. Cêtre Sossah C, Dickmu S, Kwiatek O, Albina E. A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy. J Immunol Methods. 2017;448:112-115 pubmed publisher
    ..the GPCR insertion site (rKS1-HPPR-GPCR) was generated in the backbone North African isolate KS1 strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)...
  46. Sharawi S, Abd el Rahim I. The utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt. Rev Sci Tech. 2011;30:821-30 pubmed
    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) occurred among cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt in 2006. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) were compared...
  47. Awad W, Ibrahim A, Mahran K, Fararh K, Abdel Moniem M. Evaluation of different diagnostic methods for diagnosis of Lumpy skin disease in cows. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..hybridization (DBH), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) were used for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in clinically infected, fevered, and apparently normal dairy cows...
  48. Kitching R. Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox. Dev Biol (Basel). 2003;114:161-7 pubmed
    Sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus Capripoxvirus...
  49. Gari G, Bonnet P, Roger F, Waret Szkuta A. Epidemiological aspects and financial impact of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2011;102:274-83 pubmed publisher
    The financial cost of clinical Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and the financial benefit of its control through vaccination were studied based on questionnaire survey in Oromia region of Ethiopia from the perspective of livestock farmers...
  50. Tasioudi K, Antoniou S, Iliadou P, Sachpatzidis A, Plevraki E, Agianniotaki E, et al. Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:260-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease was first reported in the EU, Greece, in August 2015. Until the end of December 2015, six regional units have been affected in northern Greece and the island of Limnos...
  51. Menasherow S, Erster O, Rubinstein Giuni M, Kovtunenko A, Eyngor E, Gelman B, et al. A high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for the differentiation between Israeli field and Neethling vaccine lumpy skin disease viruses. J Virol Methods. 2016;232:12-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a constant threat to the Middle East including the State of Israel...
  52. Awadin W, Hussein H, Elseady Y, Babiuk S, Furuoka H. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an Egyptian outbreak in 2006. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:451-7 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was reported in 2006 in Egypt affecting 16 provinces. Biopsies and post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves that showed typical clinical signs of LSD and fixed in formalin...
  53. d Offay J, Floyd J, Eberle R, Saliki J, Brock K, D Andrea G, et al. Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA in skin lesions from cattle suspected to have pseudo-lumpy skin disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222:1404-7, 1366-7 pubmed
    ..2 to 2.5 cm diameter. Because clinical signs were consistent with those expected with pseudo-lumpy skin disease (PLSD) caused by bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BHV-2), samples from 16 representative animals were submitted ..
  54. Romero C, Barrett T, Evans S, Kitching R, Gershon P, Bostock C, et al. Single capripoxvirus recombinant vaccine for the protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease. Vaccine. 1993;11:737-42 pubmed
    ..5. A vaccine prepared from this recombinant virus protected cattle against clinical rinderpest after a lethal challenge with a virulent virus isolate. In addition, the vaccine protected the cattle against lumpy skin disease.
  55. Molla W, Frankena K, de Jong M. Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2856-2863 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe disease of cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus and often caused epidemics in Ethiopia and many other countries...
  56. Rouby S, Aboulsoud E. Evidence of intrauterine transmission of lumpy skin disease virus. Vet J. 2016;209:193-5 pubmed publisher
    The current study describes the clinical, histopathological, molecular and serological diagnosis of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in a premature 1-day old calf that has been delivered from a cow that exhibited signs of LSD during the seventh ..
  57. Annandale C, Irons P, Bagla V, Osuagwuh U, Venter E. Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:250-5 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen ..
  58. Abutarbush S, Hananeh W, Ramadan W, Al Sheyab O, Alnajjar A, Al Zoubi I, et al. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:e213-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration...
  59. Carn V, Kitching R. The clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus. Arch Virol. 1995;140:503-13 pubmed
    British cattle were inoculated with lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus and their clinical signs observed over a three week period...