infectious ectromelia

Summary

Summary: A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.

Top Publications

  1. Fang M, Cheng H, Dai Z, Bu Z, Sigal L. Immunization with a single extracellular enveloped virus protein produced in bacteria provides partial protection from a lethal orthopoxvirus infection in a natural host. Virology. 2006;345:231-43 pubmed
    ..coli protects susceptible mice from a lethal ectromelia virus infection. This is the first report that a subunit vaccine can provide protection to a lethal Orthopoxvirus infection in its natural host...
  2. Panchanathan V, Chaudhri G, Karupiah G. Protective immunity against secondary poxvirus infection is dependent on antibody but not on CD4 or CD8 T-cell function. J Virol. 2006;80:6333-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, antibody is essential, but CD4 or CD8 T cells are not required for recovery from secondary poxvirus infection...
  3. Xiao Y, Aldaz Carroll L, Ortiz A, Whitbeck J, Alexander E, Lou H, et al. A protein-based smallpox vaccine protects mice from vaccinia and ectromelia virus challenges when given as a prime and single boost. Vaccine. 2007;25:1214-24 pubmed
    ..Long-term partial protection was also seen in mice challenged with vaccinia virus 6 months after initial vaccinations. Thus, this work represents a step toward the development of a practical subunit smallpox vaccine...
  4. Regner M, Pavlinovic L, Koskinen A, Young N, Trapani J, Mullbacher A. Cutting edge: rapid and efficient in vivo cytotoxicity by cytotoxic T cells is independent of granzymes A and B. J Immunol. 2009;183:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific target cell elimination occurred with similar kinetics in both spleen and lymph nodes. Thus, neither gzmA nor gzmB are required for rapid and efficient in vivo cytotoxicity by Tc cells...
  5. Bhatt P, Jacoby R, Gras L. Mousepox in inbred mice innately resistant or susceptible to lethal infection with ectromelia virus. IV. Studies with the Moscow strain. Arch Virol. 1988;100:221-30 pubmed
    ..These findings support the concept that mousepox can be contained by husbandry practices that minimize or eliminate the spread of infection by direct contact or fomites...
  6. Parker A, Parker S, Yokoyama W, Corbett J, Buller R. Induction of natural killer cell responses by ectromelia virus controls infection. J Virol. 2007;81:4070-9 pubmed
    ..These results confirm a crucial role for NK cells in controlling an ECTV infection...
  7. Karupiah G, Buller R, van Rooijen N, Duarte C, Chen J. Different roles for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophage subsets in the control of a generalized virus infection. J Virol. 1996;70:8301-9 pubmed
  8. Xu R, Cohen M, Tang Y, Lazear E, Whitbeck J, Eisenberg R, et al. The orthopoxvirus type I IFN binding protein is essential for virulence and an effective target for vaccination. J Exp Med. 2008;205:981-92 pubmed publisher
  9. Chaudhri G, Panchanathan V, Bluethmann H, Karupiah G. Obligatory requirement for antibody in recovery from a primary poxvirus infection. J Virol. 2006;80:6339-44 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, our results show that antibody prevents virus from seeding the skin and forming pock lesions, which are important for virus transmission between hosts...

More Information

Publications76

  1. Mullbacher A, Waring P, Tha Hla R, Tran T, Chin S, Stehle T, et al. Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13950-5 pubmed
    ..These results establish that both gzmA and gzmB are indispensable effector molecules acting in concert with perforin in granule exocytosis-mediated host defense against natural viral pathogens...
  2. Karupiah G. Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in antiviral defense. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;63:105-9 pubmed
    ..IFN-gamma gene knock out mice on a B6 background were as susceptible to EV as the BALB/c and A strain mice...
  3. Fang M, Sigal L. Direct CD28 costimulation is required for CD8+ T cell-mediated resistance to an acute viral disease in a natural host. J Immunol. 2006;177:8027-36 pubmed
  4. Brownstein D, Gras L. Differential pathogenesis of lethal mousepox in congenic DBA/2 mice implicates natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1 in necrotizing hepatitis and the fifth component of complement in recruitment of circulating leukocytes to spleen. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:1407-20 pubmed
  5. Xu R, Fang M, Klein Szanto A, Sigal L. Memory CD8+ T cells are gatekeepers of the lymph node draining the site of viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10992-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our work provides the basis for a model where lymph nodes are not just organs where lymphocytes become activated and proliferate but also the sites where a major fight against virus spread takes place...
  6. Karupiah G, Fredrickson T, Holmes K, Khairallah L, Buller R. Importance of interferons in recovery from mousepox. J Virol. 1993;67:4214-26 pubmed
  7. Fang M, Sigal L. Antibodies and CD8+ T cells are complementary and essential for natural resistance to a highly lethal cytopathic virus. J Immunol. 2005;175:6829-36 pubmed
    ..This results in delayed disease and inexorably leads to death. Therefore, CD8+ T lymphocytes and Abs are not redundant but complementary and essential to survive infections with a highly pathogenic viruses in the natural host...
  8. Jacoby R, Bhatt P, Brownstein D. Evidence that NK cells and interferon are required for genetic resistance to lethal infection with ectromelia virus. Arch Virol. 1989;108:49-58 pubmed
    ..The results strongly suggest that genetic resistance to lethal ectromelia virus infection requires non-specific host defenses such as NK cells and IFN alpha, beta that are activated during the first 3 to 4 days of infection...
  9. Chaudhri G, Panchanathan V, Buller R, van den Eertwegh A, Claassen E, Zhou J, et al. Polarized type 1 cytokine response and cell-mediated immunity determine genetic resistance to mousepox. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9057-62 pubmed
    ..This finding in the mousepox model raises the possibility that inappropriate cytokine responses may result in increased susceptibility to smallpox in humans...
  10. Fang M, Sigal L. Studying NK cell responses to ectromelia virus infections in mice. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;612:411-28 pubmed publisher
  11. Niemiałtowski M, Spohr de Faundez I, Gierynska M, Malicka E, Toka F, Schollenberger A, et al. The inflammatory and immune response to mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus. Acta Virol. 1994;38:299-307 pubmed
    ..g., IFN-gamma in EV clearance at all stages of infection, and (3) induction of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which is necessary for a substantial antiviral activity of IFN-gamma, have been demonstrated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  12. Delano M, Brownstein D. Innate resistance to lethal mousepox is genetically linked to the NK gene complex on chromosome 6 and correlates with early restriction of virus replication by cells with an NK phenotype. J Virol. 1995;69:5875-7 pubmed
    ..1-) mice depleted of asialo GM1+ cells. These results suggest that a gene or genes within the natural killer gene complex, adjacent to the Prp locus, determine strain variations in resistance to lethal ectromelia virus infection...
  13. Wallich R, Simon M, Mullbacher A. Virulence of mousepox virus is independent of serpin-mediated control of cellular cytotoxicity. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:71-81 pubmed
  14. Krzyzowska M, Schollenberger A, Skierski J, Niemialtowski M. Apoptosis during ectromelia orthopoxvirus infection is DEVDase dependent: in vitro and in vivo studies. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:599-611 pubmed
    ..i. was caspase independent. Therefore, we conclude that DEVDase- (caspase-3- and caspase-7-) dependent apoptosis is an important mechanism regulating the resolution of EV infection...
  15. Chen N, Danila M, Feng Z, Buller R, Wang C, Han X, et al. The genomic sequence of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. Virology. 2003;317:165-86 pubmed
  16. Mullbacher A, Hla R, Museteanu C, Simon M. Perforin is essential for control of ectromelia virus but not related poxviruses in mice. J Virol. 1999;73:1665-7 pubmed
    ..An additional lack of granzyme A which together with perforin is a constituent of cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic T cells increases the virulence of cowpox virus...
  17. Esteban D, Buller R. Ectromelia virus: the causative agent of mousepox. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2645-59 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the pathogenesis of mousepox, modulation of the immune response by the virus and the cytokine and cellular components of the skin and systemic immune system that are critical to recovery from infection...
  18. Labelle P, Hahn N, Fraser J, Kendall L, Ziman M, James E, et al. Mousepox detected in a research facility: case report and failure of mouse antibody production testing to identify Ectromelia virus in contaminated mouse serum. Comp Med. 2009;59:180-6 pubmed
    ..Mouse antibody production, a tool commonly used to screen biologic materials for viral contamination, failed to detect active Ectromelia contamination in mouse serum...
  19. Karupiah G, Panchanathan V, Sakala I, Chaudhri G. Genetic resistance to smallpox: lessons from mousepox. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;281:129-36; discussion 136-40, 208-9 pubmed
    ..Here we present data on one virus-encoded immune modifier and its effect on the functions of two host genetic loci associ ated with resistance. ..
  20. Fang M, Roscoe F, Sigal L. Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2369-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Toka F, De Faundez I, Gierynska M, Niemiałtowski M. The cytosolic free Ca2+ in ectromelia (mousepox) virus stimulated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Viral Immunol. 1996;9:159-167 pubmed
    ..Association of the level of intracellular [Ca2+]i in EV-specific CTL and the percentage of their cytotoxicity was found. These results show partial dependence of EV-specific CTL killing on extracellular calcium. ..
  22. Parker S, Siddiqui A, Oberle C, Hembrador E, Lanier R, Painter G, et al. Mousepox in the C57BL/6 strain provides an improved model for evaluating anti-poxvirus therapies. Virology. 2009;385:11-21 pubmed publisher
  23. Gieryńska M, Pawlak E, Schollenberger A, Cespedes I. Dendritic epidermal T cells: their role in the early phase of ectromelia virus infection. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2009;63:369-76 pubmed
    ..DETCs from mice infected with ECTV-Mos were rapidly induced to cascade the secretion of mediators that contribute to both immune protection and the control of skin integrity. ..
  24. Fenner F. Classic paper: Fenner on the exanthemata. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:353-63 pubmed
  25. Atrasheuskaya A, Bukin E, Fredeking T, Ignatyev G. Protective effect of exogenous recombinant mouse interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha on ectromelia virus infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;136:207-14 pubmed
    ..The successful cytokine treatment schemes in this orthopoxvirus model system may have important implications in the treatment of viral diseases in humans and, in particular, of variola virus infection. ..
  26. Yang G, Pevear D, Davies M, Collett M, Bailey T, Rippen S, et al. An orally bioavailable antipoxvirus compound (ST-246) inhibits extracellular virus formation and protects mice from lethal orthopoxvirus Challenge. J Virol. 2005;79:13139-49 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results validate F13L as an antiviral target and demonstrate that an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation can protect mice from orthopoxvirus-induced disease...
  27. Gierynska M, Toka F, Cespedes I, Schollenberger A, Malicka E, Popis A, et al. Homing studies on distribution of ectromelia (mousepox) virus-specific T cells adoptively transferred into syngeneic H-2d mice: paradigm of lymphocyte migration. Viral Immunol. 2000;13:107-23 pubmed
    Mousepox (infectious ectromelia) may be used as a model for studies on the cellular immune response and pathogenesis of generalized viral infections. Ectromelia virus (EV) initially replicates in the footpad (f.p...
  28. Ruby J, Bluethmann H, Peschon J. Antiviral activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is mediated via p55 and p75 TNF receptors. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1591-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the antiviral activity of TNF is mediated via both TNFRs in vivo. Furthermore, these studies establish that TNF is an important component of the host response to a natural virus infection. ..
  29. O Neill H, Brenan M. A role for early cytotoxic T cells in resistance to ectromelia virus infection in mice. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 10):2669-73 pubmed
    ..This TC cell-mediated immune response early after infection could account for the barrier to virus dissemination known to operate 1 to 2 days after infection to slow virus passage into the lymphoreticular system. ..
  30. Pao L, Sumaria N, Kelly J, van Dommelen S, Cretney E, Wallace M, et al. Functional analysis of granzyme M and its role in immunity to infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:3235-43 pubmed
    ..These data confirm a role for GrzM in the host response to MCMV infection, but suggest that GrzM is not critical for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. ..
  31. O Gorman W, Sampath P, Simonds E, Sikorski R, O Malley M, Krutzik P, et al. Alternate mechanisms of initial pattern recognition drive differential immune responses to related poxviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data link early immune signaling events to infection outcome and suggest that activation of different pattern-recognition receptors early after infection may be important in determining vaccine efficacy...
  32. Wang Y, Chaudhri G, Jackson R, Karupiah G. IL-12p40 and IL-18 play pivotal roles in orchestrating the cell-mediated immune response to a poxvirus infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:3324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that IL-12p40 and IL-18 act in concert and play an important antiviral role through the up-regulation of IFN-gamma production and cell-mediated immune responses...
  33. Xu D, Regner M, Smith D, Ruby J, Johnstone R, Mullbacher A. The multidrug resistance gene mdr1a influences resistance to ectromelia virus infection by mechanisms other than conventional immunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:462-70 pubmed
    ..Only dendritic cells from mdr1a-/- mice showed impaired migration to the draining lymph nodes compared to wt mice. Our data show that P-gp plays an important role in EV infection by as yet undefined mechanisms...
  34. Bai H, Buller R, Chen N, Green M, Nuara A. Biosynthesis of the IFN-gamma binding protein of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. Virology. 2005;334:41-50 pubmed
    ..Glycosylation at position 149 is not required for secretion, and the lack of glycosylation at this site does not diminish ligand binding as measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA...
  35. Brownstein D, Bhatt P, Jacoby R. Mousepox in inbred mice innately resistant or susceptible to lethal infection with ectromelia virus. V. Genetics of resistance to the Moscow strain. Arch Virol. 1989;107:35-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, additional resistance genes, not expressed in backcross mice, were apparently expressed in F2 mice and RI strains...
  36. Lipman N, Perkins S, Nguyen H, Pfeffer M, Meyer H. Mousepox resulting from use of ectromelia virus-contaminated, imported mouse serum. Comp Med. 2000;50:426-35 pubmed
  37. Pardo J, Gálvez E, Koskinen A, Simon M, Lobigs M, Regner M, et al. Caspase-dependent inhibition of mousepox replication by gzmB. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7512 pubmed publisher
  38. Parker S, Schriewer J, Oberle C, Robertson A, Lanier R, Painter G, et al. Using biomarkers to stage disease progression in a lethal mousepox model treated with CMX001. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:863-73 pubmed
    ..To address this we have evaluated several biomarkers of disease in a lethal mousepox model...
  39. Moulton E, Atkinson J, Buller R. Surviving mousepox infection requires the complement system. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000249 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the complement system acts in the first few minutes, hours, and days to control this poxviral infection until the adaptive immune response can react, and loss of this system results in lethal infection...
  40. Boratynska A, Martyniszyn L, Szulc L, Krzyzowska M, Szczepanowska J, Niemialtowski M. Contribution of rearranged actin structures to the spread of Ectromelia virus infection in vitro. Acta Virol. 2010;54:41-8 pubmed
    ..i.). These results provided a basis for the further analysis of ECTV motion in the infected cells as well as for impact of ECTV infection on the cytoskeletal proteins...
  41. Mahalingam S, Karupiah G, Takeda K, Akira S, Matthaei K, Foster P. Enhanced resistance in STAT6-deficient mice to infection with ectromelia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6812-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in the absence of this transcription factor, the immune system defaults toward a protective Th1-like response, conferring pronounced resistance to EV infection and disease progression...
  42. Krzyzowska M, Cymerys J, Winnicka A, Niemiałtowski M. Involvement of Fas and FasL in Ectromelia virus-induced apoptosis in mouse brain. Virus Res. 2006;115:141-9 pubmed
    ..Taking together we may conclude that ECTV-MOS infection of microglia and astrocytes leads to local inflammation resulting in Fas/FasL up-regulation and apoptosis, which limits mouse central nervous system infection with ECTV-MOS...
  43. Krzyzowska M, Polanczyk M, Bas M, Cymerys J, Schollenberger A, Chiodi F, et al. Mousepox conjunctivitis: the role of Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis of epithelial cells in virus dissemination. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2007-18 pubmed
  44. Fenner F. Wallace P. Rowe lecture. Poxviruses of laboratory animals. Lab Anim Sci. 1990;40:469-80 pubmed
  45. Hostetler K, Beadle J, Trahan J, Aldern K, Owens G, Schriewer J, et al. Oral 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-cidofovir targets the lung and is effective against a lethal respiratory challenge with ectromelia virus in mice. Antiviral Res. 2007;73:212-8 pubmed
  46. Brownstein D, Bhatt P, Gras L, Budris T. Serial backcross analysis of genetic resistance to mousepox, using marker loci for Rmp-2 and Rmp-3. J Virol. 1992;66:7073-9 pubmed
  47. Rolph M, Ramshaw I, Rockett K, Ruby J, Cowden W. Nitric oxide production is increased during murine vaccinia virus infection, but may not be essential for virus clearance. Virology. 1996;217:470-7 pubmed
    ..Treatment of VV-infected mice with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine did not alter the course of infection, suggesting that NO may not be essential for the clearance of this virus...
  48. Robbins S, Jackson R, Fenner F, Beaton S, Medveczky J, Ramshaw I, et al. The efficacy of cidofovir treatment of mice infected with ectromelia (mousepox) virus encoding interleukin-4. Antiviral Res. 2005;66:1-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, ECTV-IL-4-mediated immune suppression was not accompanied by a reduction in systemic IFN-gamma expression, suggestive of an alternative or highly localized suppressive mechanism...
  49. Day S, Ramshaw I, Ramsay A, Ranasinghe C. Differential effects of the type I interferons alpha4, beta, and epsilon on antiviral activity and vaccine efficacy. J Immunol. 2008;180:7158-66 pubmed
    ..Our data also indicate that while IFN-epsilon exhibits certain biological traits similar to other type I IFNs, it may also have a specific role in mucosal immune regulation that is quite distinct...
  50. van Buuren N, Couturier B, Xiong Y, Barry M. Ectromelia virus encodes a novel family of F-box proteins that interact with the SCF complex. J Virol. 2008;82:9917-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ectromelia virus has evolved multiple proteins that interact with the SCF complex...
  51. Brownstein D, Bhatt P, Gras L, Jacoby R. Chromosomal locations and gonadal dependence of genes that mediate resistance to ectromelia (mousepox) virus-induced mortality. J Virol. 1991;65:1946-51 pubmed
  52. Spohr de Faundez I, Niemialtowski M, Malicka E, Malicki K, Gierynska M, Popis A. Electron microscopy, plaque assay and preliminary serological characterization of three ectromelia virus strains isolated in Poland in the period 1986-1988. Arch Virol. 1990;114:285-91 pubmed
    ..The mean diameter of plaques produced by EV strains was 0.76 mm (range 0.5-1.0 mm). The neutralizing properties of the tested sera were evaluated by seroneutralization (SN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) tests...
  53. Chaudhri G, Quah B, Wang Y, Tan A, Zhou J, Karupiah G, et al. T cell receptor sharing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes facilitates efficient virus control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14984-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such receptor sharing allows rapid, proliferation-independent expansion of virus-specific T cell clones of low frequency and plays a highly significant antiviral role that can protect the host from an otherwise lethal infection...
  54. Wallace G, Buller R, Morse H. Genetic determinants of resistance to ectromelia (mousepox) virus-induced mortality. J Virol. 1985;55:890-1 pubmed
    ..A sexual dimorphism in resistance to disease was also observed...
  55. Dick E, Kittell C, Meyer H, Farrar P, Ropp S, Esposito J, et al. Mousepox outbreak in a laboratory mouse colony. Lab Anim Sci. 1996;46:602-11 pubmed
    ..The most relevant concern may be the unknown location of the source of the virus and the presence of a reservoir for this virus within the United States...
  56. Bennett M, Crouch A, Begon M, Duffy B, Feore S, Gaskell R, et al. Cowpox in British voles and mice. J Comp Pathol. 1997;116:35-44 pubmed
    ..However, further investigation of the pathogenesis of cowpox in these species is needed to understand better the epidemiology of the disease...
  57. Alsharifi M, Regner M, Blanden R, Lobigs M, Lee E, Koskinen A, et al. Exhaustion of type I interferon response following an acute viral infection. J Immunol. 2006;177:3235-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, transient immunosuppression through exhaustion of IFN-I production during an acute viral infection creates a time period of enhanced susceptibility to secondary infection...
  58. Karupiah G, Xie Q, Buller R, Nathan C, Duarte C, MacMicking J. Inhibition of viral replication by interferon-gamma-induced nitric oxide synthase. Science. 1993;261:1445-8 pubmed
    ..In mice, an inhibitor of NO synthase converted resolving ectromelia virus infection into fulminant mousepox. Thus, induction of NO synthase can be necessary and sufficient for a substantial antiviral effect of IFN-gamma...
  59. Parker S, Touchette E, Oberle C, Almond M, Robertson A, Trost L, et al. Efficacy of therapeutic intervention with an oral ether-lipid analogue of cidofovir (CMX001) in a lethal mousepox model. Antiviral Res. 2008;77:39-49 pubmed
    ..This therapeutic window would be equivalent to intervening during the rash stage of ordinary smallpox...
  60. Bhatt P, Jacoby R. Effect of vaccination on the clinical response, pathogenesis and transmission of mousepox. Lab Anim Sci. 1987;37:610-4 pubmed
    ..Inoculated feet of previously vaccinated mice contained infectious ectromelia virus for at least 28 days...
  61. Toka F, Niemiałtowski M, Spohr de Faundez I, Gierynska M. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte control during ectromelia (mousepox) virus infection: interaction between MHC-restricted cells analyzed by non-radioactive fluorometry. Acta Virol. 1996;40:239-44 pubmed
    ..Also an alternative method for determining CMC, employing a bisbenzamide dye for labelling target cells, is described. Coefficient variations of relative fluorescence were below 6%, that makes the method sensitive and reliable...
  62. Neubauer H, Pfeffer M, Meyer H. Specific detection of mousepox virus by polymerase chain reaction. Lab Anim. 1997;31:201-5 pubmed
    ..Amplification of mousepox virus specific sequences was also possible from infected mouse lung tissue and serum...
  63. Navarini A, Krzyzowska M, Lang K, Horvath E, Hengartner H, Niemialtowski M, et al. Long-lasting immunity by early infection of maternal-antibody-protected infants. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that both the absence of exposure to infection during early infancy or of effective vaccination renders the population highly susceptible to new or old re-emerging pathogens...
  64. Chen N, Buller R, Wall E, Upton C. Analysis of host response modifier ORFs of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. Virus Res. 2000;66:155-73 pubmed
    ..A novel similarity between the C-terminal domain of poxvirus TNF binding proteins and several other poxvirus proteins is also presented. The results are discussed in the context of ectromelia virus pathogenesis of mice...
  65. O Neill H. Resistance to ectromelia virus infection in mice. Analysis of H-2-linked gene effects. Arch Virol. 1991;118:253-9 pubmed
    ..The early activation of T cells appears to be under H-2 gene control and activated T cells may play an "early" role in controlling viral replication within the lymphoid system...
  66. Jackson R, Ramsay A, Christensen C, Beaton S, Hall D, Ramshaw I. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. J Virol. 2001;75:1205-10 pubmed
    ..These data therefore suggest that virus-encoded IL-4 not only suppresses primary antiviral cell-mediated immune responses but also can inhibit the expression of immune memory responses...
  67. Brownstein D, Gras L. Chromosome mapping of Rmp-4, a gonad-dependent gene encoding host resistance to mousepox. J Virol. 1995;69:6958-64 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that resistance in D2.R4 mice is determined by a gonad-dependent gene on distal chromosome 1, provisionally named Rmp-4, and by an ovary-dependent factor that is not genetically linked to Rmp-4...