poxviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Seet B, Johnston J, Brunetti C, Barrett J, Everett H, Cameron C, et al. Poxviruses and immune evasion. Annu Rev Immunol. 2003;21:377-423 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, because of their anti-inflammatory nature, many of these poxvirus proteins hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. ..
  2. Oguzoglu T, Alkan F, Ozkul A, Vural S, Güngör A, Burgu I. A sheeppox virus outbreak in Central Turkey in 2003: isolation and identification of capripoxvirus ovis. Vet Res Commun. 2006;30:965-71 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the aetiological agent was isolated from a sheep and identified using EM and PCR...
  3. Smee D, Sidwell R. A review of compounds exhibiting anti-orthopoxvirus activity in animal models. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:41-52 pubmed
  4. Gallardo Romero N, Velasco Villa A, Weiss S, Emerson G, Carroll D, Hughes C, et al. Detection of North American orthopoxviruses by real time-PCR. Virol J. 2011;8:313 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our assay is a promising tool for highly sensitive and specific detection of North American orthopoxviruses in the United States and abroad. ..
  5. Gubser C, Goodbody R, Ecker A, Brady G, O Neill L, Jacobs N, et al. Camelpox virus encodes a schlafen-like protein that affects orthopoxvirus virulence. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1667-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, v-slfn is an orthopoxvirus virulence factor that affects the host immune response to infection...
  6. Lamien C, Le Goff C, Silber R, Wallace D, Gulyaz V, Tuppurainen E, et al. Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical PCR method to differentiate Goat poxvirus from Sheep poxvirus. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:30-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Kritas S, Dovas C, Fortomaris P, Petridou E, Farsang A, Koptopoulos G. A pathogenic myxoma virus in vaccinated and non-vaccinated commercial rabbits. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:622-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The simultaneous occurrence of myxomatosis in the vaccinated and non-vaccinated rabbits of both farms, suggests that the supplier was possibly the source of a viral isolate with increased virulence. ..
  8. Terasaki T, Kaneko M, Mase M. Avian poxvirus infection in flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in a zoo in Japan. Avian Dis. 2010;54:955-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the virus isolated from these flamingos was genetically close to those isolated from pigeons, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission...
  9. Nollens H, Hernandez J, Jacobson E, Haulena M, Gulland F. Risk factors associated with development of poxvirus lesions in hospitalized California sea lions. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:467-73 pubmed
    ..To identify risk factors that may predispose California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to development of cutaneous poxvirus nodules during hospitalization in a rehabilitation center...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Cameron C, Barrett J, Liu L, Lucas A, McFadden G. Myxoma virus M141R expresses a viral CD200 (vOX-2) that is responsible for down-regulation of macrophage and T-cell activation in vivo. J Virol. 2005;79:6052-67 pubmed
  2. Grosenbach D, Berhanu A, King D, Mosier S, Jones K, Jordan R, et al. Efficacy of ST-246 versus lethal poxvirus challenge in immunodeficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ST-246 may be effective in controlling smallpox or other pathogenic orthopoxviruses in some immunodeficient human populations for whom the vaccine is contraindicated...
  3. Root J, McLean R, Slate D, MacCarthy K, Osorio J. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:57 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful V-RG vaccination in raccoons is the focus of this study...
  4. Nollens H, Jacobson E, Gulland F, Beusse D, Bossart G, Hernandez J, et al. Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:23-32 pubmed
  5. Lewis Jones S. Zoonotic poxvirus infections in humans. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:81-9 pubmed
    ..More research into therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of poxvirus infections is required. ..
  6. Kim T, Tripathy D. Evaluation of pathogenicity of avian poxvirus isolates from endangered Hawaiian wild birds in chickens. Avian Dis. 2006;50:288-91 pubmed
    ..The level of immune responses, however, increased in birds of all groups following subsequent challenge...
  7. Van Bressem M, Gaspar R, Aznar F. Epidemiology of tattoo skin disease in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the Sado estuary, Portugal. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;56:171-9 pubmed
    ..The contribution of tattoo disease to the decline of this community should be investigated. Three of the 5 dolphins that died during this study had T++ and T+ lesions. ..
  8. Li Y, Meyer H, Zhao H, Damon I. GC content-based pan-pox universal PCR assays for poxvirus detection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The pan-pox assays represent an important advance for the screening and diagnosis of human and animal poxvirus infections, and the technology used is accessible to many laboratories worldwide...
  9. Enserink M. Infectious diseases. U.S. monkeypox outbreak traced to Wisconsin pet dealer. Science. 2003;300:1639 pubmed
  10. Baker R, Bray M, Huggins J. Potential antiviral therapeutics for smallpox, monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:13-23 pubmed
    ..Preliminary data indicate that nearly all isolates appear to have similar drug sensitivities. These findings are currently being verified and expanded...
  11. Smith S, Self J, Weiss S, Carroll D, Braden Z, Regnery R, et al. Effective antiviral treatment of systemic orthopoxvirus disease: ST-246 treatment of prairie dogs infected with monkeypox virus. J Virol. 2011;85:9176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals treated after rash onset manifested illness, but all recovered. Our results indicate that ST-246 can be used therapeutically, following onset of rash illness, to treat systemic orthopoxvirus infections...
  12. Illera J, Emerson B, Richardson D. Genetic characterization, distribution and prevalence of avian pox and avian malaria in the Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) in Macaronesia. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1435-43 pubmed publisher
  13. Bhanuprakash V, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Venkatesan G, Chauhan B, Srinivasan V, et al. Isolation and characterization of Indian isolates of camel pox virus. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, phylogenetic analysis of partial C18L gene sequences have showed that Indian CMLV are clustered together with other reported isolates/strains...
  14. Grove D, Zajac A, Spahr J, Duncan R, Sleeman J. Combined infection by avian poxvirus and Collyriclum faba in an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:111-4 pubmed
    ..The flukes were identified using light microscopy of organisms obtained by antemortem wedge biopsy. Intraepithelial cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with poxvirus infection were seen on histopathologic examination of the mass...
  15. Yan X, Chu Y, Wu G, Zhao Z, Li J, Zhu H, et al. An outbreak of sheep pox associated with goat poxvirus in Gansu province of China. Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:425-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results characterized the isolated viruses as GTPV. It is the first report of an outbreak of sheep pox associated with GTPV in China...
  16. McFadden G. Poxvirus tropism. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:201-13 pubmed
  17. Lierz M, Bergmann V, Isa G, Czerny C, Lueschow D, Mwanzia J, et al. Avipoxvirus infection in a collection of captive stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus). J Avian Med Surg. 2007;21:50-5 pubmed
    ..This is the first clinical description of an avipoxvirus infection in stone curlews...
  18. Shivaprasad H, Kim T, Tripathy D, Woolcock P, Uzal F. Unusual pathology of canary poxvirus infection associated with high mortality in young and adult breeder canaries (Serinus canaria). Avian Pathol. 2009;38:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the birds also had concurrent bacterial, mycotic and polyomavirus infections. Poxvirus was isolated from lungs and skin in chicken embryo liver cells and confirmed as avian poxvirus by polymerase chain reaction...
  19. Rushton S, Lurz P, Gurnell J, Nettleton P, Bruemmer C, Shirley M, et al. Disease threats posed by alien species: the role of a poxvirus in the decline of the native red squirrel in Britain. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:521-33 pubmed
    ..The model predicted that a grey squirrel population control of >60% effective kill was needed to stop the decline in red squirrel populations in Cumbria...
  20. Bhanuprakash V, Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Yogisharadhya R, Chauhan R, et al. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India...
  21. Zhou T, Jia H, Chen G, He X, Fang Y, Wang X, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Chinese sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates. Virol J. 2012;9:25 pubmed publisher
    ..We described the sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, GPCR gene and RPO30 gene of the SPPVs and GTPVs to reveal their genetic relatedness...
  22. Moss B. Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:8-26 pubmed publisher
  23. Nitsche A, Büttner M, Wilhelm S, Pauli G, Meyer H. Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA. Clin Chem. 2006;52:316-9 pubmed
    ..To date, however, no real-time PCR assay for the detection of parapoxviruses has been reported...
  24. Nollens H, Gulland F, Jacobson E, Hernandez J, Klein P, Walsh M, et al. Parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions make up a distinct subclade within the genus Parapoxvirus. Virology. 2006;349:316-24 pubmed
    ..However, one strain was detected in two otariid species, suggesting that pinniped parapoxviruses are capable of infecting multiple species within a phylogenetic family...
  25. Clark C, McIntyre P, Evans A, McInnes C, Lewis Jones S. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic. Br J Dermatol. 2005;152:791-3 pubmed
    ..This is the first report providing unequivocal evidence that sealpox may be transmitted to humans and causes lesions very similar to orf...
  26. Lüschow D, Hoffmann T, Hafez H. Differentiation of avian poxvirus strains on the basis of nucleotide sequences of 4b gene fragment. Avian Dis. 2004;48:453-62 pubmed
    ..PCR in combination with REA and sequencing of the amplified fragments is a rapid and effective diagnostic system, and it is a new approach to refine epidemiologic studies of APV infections...
  27. Hosamani M, Mondal B, Tembhurne P, Bandyopadhyay S, Singh R, Rasool T. Differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and PCR-RFLP of P32 gene. Virus Genes. 2004;29:73-80 pubmed
    ..Using this information, a PCR-RFLP method has been developed for unequivocal genomic differentiation of SPV and GPV...
  28. Bailey T, Silvanose C, Manvell R, Gough R, Kinne J, Combreau O, et al. Medical dilemmas associated with rehabilitating confiscated houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) after avian pox and paramyxovirus type 1 infection. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:518-32 pubmed
    ..Additionally, health monitoring of confiscated birds should continue after birds are integrated into captive flocks...
  29. Babiuk S, Wallace D, Smith S, Bowden T, Dalman B, Parkyn G, et al. Detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses using an inactivated sheeppox virus ELISA. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009;56:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-virulent capripoxvirus isolates, in contrast, did not elicit positive (>or=1.5 Log10 neutralization index) antibody responses...
  30. Quenelle D, Buller R, Parker S, Keith K, Hruby D, Jordan R, et al. Efficacy of delayed treatment with ST-246 given orally against systemic orthopoxvirus infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:689-95 pubmed
    ..Viral replication in target organs of ECTV-infected mice was also reduced...
  31. Alley M, Hale K, Cash W, Ha H, Howe L. Concurrent avian malaria and avipox virus infection in translocated South Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus). N Z Vet J. 2010;58:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Both outbreaks were associated with a severe decrease in numbers of saddlebacks of up to 60% of approximately 200 birds...
  32. Thomas K, Tompkins D, Sainsbury A, Wood A, Dalziel R, Nettleton P, et al. A novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3337-41 pubmed
    ..Comparative sequence analysis of two other genes, conserved across the eight recognized chordopoxvirus genera, suggests that the squirrel virus represents a previously unrecognized genus of the chordopoxvirus...
  33. Singh R, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Bhanuprakash V, Rasool T, Yadav M. Buffalopox: an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis. Anim Health Res Rev. 2007;8:105-14 pubmed
    ..The review discusses the epidemiology, novel diagnostic methods for the disease, and molecular biology of the virus, and infers genetic relationships of BPXV with other members of the genus...
  34. Verma S, Verma L, Gupta V, Katoch V, Dogra V, Pal B, et al. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India...
  35. Manarolla G, Pisoni G, Sironi G, Rampin T. Molecular biological characterization of avian poxvirus strains isolated from different avian species. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underline the importance to undertake similar studies on higher numbers of Avipoxvirus isolates and on wider genomic regions of this large viral group...
  36. Alda F, Gaitero T, Suarez M, Doadrio I. Molecular characterisation and recent evolution of myxoma virus in Spain. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1659-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, virus evolution deviated from neutrality and did not conform to a strict molecular clock, probably due to the existence of a strong selective pressure that acts differently across the viral genome...
  37. Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Singh R, Bhanuprakash V. Goat pox virus isolated from an outbreak at Akola, Maharashtra (India) phylogenetically related to Chinese strain. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1053-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, sequence analysis of P32 envelope protein gene revealed that this isolate phylogenetically related closely to Chinese strain...
  38. Aruch S, Atkinson C, Savage A, Lapointe D. Prevalence and distribution of pox-like lesions, avian malaria, and mosquito vectors in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, Hawai'i, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:567-75 pubmed
    ..Mosquito populations in the valley are low, and they are probably influenced by periods of high rainfall that flush stream systems...
  39. Yang G, Pevear D, Davies M, Collett M, Bailey T, Rippen S, et al. An orally bioavailable antipoxvirus compound (ST-246) inhibits extracellular virus formation and protects mice from lethal orthopoxvirus Challenge. J Virol. 2005;79:13139-49 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results validate F13L as an antiviral target and demonstrate that an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation can protect mice from orthopoxvirus-induced disease...
  40. Tryland M, Klein J, Nordøy E, Blix A. Isolation and partial characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a Weddell seal. Virus Res. 2005;108:83-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first verified case of parapoxvirus infection in a Weddell seal, and also the first report of any such infections in the Antarctic...
  41. Buenestado F, Gortazar C, Millan J, Hofle U, Villafuerte R. Descriptive study of an avian pox outbreak in wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:369-74 pubmed
    ..Also the need for early detection of diseases for the management of game species is emphasized...
  42. Carroll B, Russell P, Gurnell J, Nettleton P, Sainsbury A. Epidemics of squirrelpox virus disease in red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris): temporal and serological findings. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..SQPV disease places the conservation of the red squirrel in jeopardy in the United Kingdom unless practical disease control methods can be identified...
  43. Shivaprasad H, Kim T, Woolcock P, Tripathy D. Genetic and antigenic characterization of a poxvirus isolate from ostriches. Avian Dis. 2002;46:429-36 pubmed
    ..Further, susceptible chickens immunized with the PVO were protected when challenged with a virulent strain of FPV. Thus, the poxvirus isolated from ostriches had similar antigenic, genetic, and biological properties to FPV...
  44. Adams M, van Leeuwen B, Kerr P. Construction and evaluation of live attenuated myxoma virus vaccines with targeted virulence gene deletions. Vaccine. 2008;26:5843-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The triple gene knock-out virus (DeltaM007/M010/M011) termed Ur-TKO was very well tolerated by adult and juvenile rabbits. The low pathogenicity of Ur-TKO was confirmed by pathogenesis studies in domestic and wild rabbits...
  45. Li Y, Ropp S, Zhao H, Damon I, Esposito J. Orthopoxvirus pan-genomic DNA assay. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:154-65 pubmed
  46. Sainsbury A, Deaville R, Lawson B, Cooley W, Farelly S, Stack M, et al. Poxviral disease in red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris in the UK: spatial and temporal trends of an emerging threat. Ecohealth. 2008;5:305-16 pubmed publisher
  47. Johnston J, McFadden G. Poxvirus immunomodulatory strategies: current perspectives. J Virol. 2003;77:6093-100 pubmed
  48. Hutson C, Olson V, Carroll D, Abel J, Hughes C, Braden Z, et al. A prairie dog animal model of systemic orthopoxvirus disease using West African and Congo Basin strains of monkeypox virus. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the model closely mimics human systemic orthopoxvirus disease and may serve as a valuable non-human surrogate for investigations of antivirals and next generation orthopoxvirus vaccines...
  49. Le Goff C, Lamien C, Fakhfakh E, Chadeyras A, Aba Adulugba E, Libeau G, et al. Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1967-77 pubmed publisher
  50. Saito K, Kodama A, Yamaguchi T, Gotoh Y, Sakai H, Fukushi H, et al. Avian poxvirus infection in a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply that it is a novel avian poxvirus. To our knowledge this is the first report of avian poxvirus infection in white-tailed sea eagles...
  51. Hawranek T, Tritscher M, Muss W, Jecel J, Nowotny N, Kolodziejek J, et al. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:513-8 pubmed
    ..Concern has been raised as to whether discontinuation of smallpox vaccine would cause an increase in Orthopoxvirus infection, but this has not yet shown to be the case...
  52. Weli S, Okeke M, Tryland M, Nilssen O, Traavik T. Characterization of avipoxviruses from wild birds in Norway. Can J Vet Res. 2004;68:140-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, chickens experimentally infected with pigeon poxvirus had higher antibody titers and extensive lesions compared to other isolates. This may suggest that pigeon poxvirus is more virulent than the other isolates...
  53. Tadese T, Potter E, Reed W. Development of a mixed antigen agar gel enzyme assay (AGEA) for the detection of antibodies to poxvirus in chicken and turkey sera. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:255-8 pubmed
    ..001). When antibodies were detected in turkey sera using the mixed antigens, the AGEA had a sensitivity of 66.4% while that of AGPT was 25% (P<0.001)...
  54. Brower A, Cigel F, Radi C, Toohey Kurth K. Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to describe avian pox lesions associated with the application of beak-bits and the resulting beak and oral pathology...
  55. De Clercq E. Cidofovir in the treatment of poxvirus infections. Antiviral Res. 2002;55:1-13 pubmed
  56. Bhanuprakash V, Indrani B, Hosamani M, Singh R. The current status of sheep pox disease. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:27-60 pubmed
    ..This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem...
  57. Nollens H, Gulland F, Hernandez J, Condit R, Klein P, Walsh M, et al. Seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging California sea lions Zalophus californianus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;69:153-61 pubmed
  58. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Boyle D, Wallace D, Kitching R. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents...
  59. Palade E, Biró N, Dobos Kovacs M, Demeter Z, Mandoki M, Rusvai M. Poxvirus infection in Hungarian great tits (Parus major): case report. Acta Vet Hung. 2008;56:539-46 pubmed publisher
  60. Balinsky C, Delhon G, Smoliga G, Prarat M, French R, Geary S, et al. Rapid preclinical detection of sheeppox virus by a real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:438-42 pubmed
    ..This single-tube diagnostic assay can be performed in 2 h or less and can detect viral DNA in preclinical, clinical, and postmortem samples...
  61. Van Bressem M, Van Waerebeek K, Aznar F, Raga J, Jepson P, Duignan P, et al. Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health...
  62. Inoshima Y, Murakami K, Wu D, Sentsui H. Characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:583-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that parapoxvirus infection in Japanese serows might be mainly caused by ORFV and accidentally by BPSV. The envelope gene sequenced here seems to be conserved in Japanese ORFVs...
  63. Prukner Radovcić E, Lüschow D, Ciglar Grozdanić I, Tisljar M, Mazija H, Vranesic D, et al. Isolation and molecular biological investigations of avian poxviruses from chickens, a turkey, and a pigeon in Croatia. Avian Dis. 2006;50:440-4 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study indicate the reemergence of fowlpox in Croatia, where infections have not been recorded since 1963 and never confirmed etiologically...
  64. Thiel T, Whiteman N, Tirape A, Baquero M, Cedeno V, Walsh T, et al. Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:342-53 pubmed
    ..This indicates that recombination between poxvirus strains in combination with mutation led to the canarypox-like viruses that are now prevalent in the Galápagos...
  65. McInnes C, Coulter L, Dagleish M, Fiegna C, Gilray J, Willoughby K, et al. First cases of squirrelpox in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Scotland. Vet Rec. 2009;164:528-31 pubmed
    ..Four squirrels were examined. They all had gross external lesions and histological lesions typical of squirrelpox disease, but no significant internal lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR, electron microscopy and serology...
  66. Chapman J, Nichols D, Martinez M, Raymond J. Animal models of orthopoxvirus infection. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:852-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a brief review of the Orthopoxvirus diseases of humans and the key pathologic features of animal models of Orthopoxvirus infections...
  67. Camus Bouclainville C, Fiette L, Bouchiha S, Pignolet B, Counor D, Filipe C, et al. A virulence factor of myxoma virus colocalizes with NF-kappaB in the nucleus and interferes with inflammation. J Virol. 2004;78:2510-6 pubmed
    ..Because MNF has homologs in other poxviruses, such as vaccinia, cowpox, and variola viruses, this protein is probably part of a key mechanism that contributes to the immunogenic and pathogenic properties of these viruses...
  68. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Parkyn G, Dalman B, Hoa D, Long N, et al. Yemen and Vietnam capripoxviruses demonstrate a distinct host preference for goats compared with sheep. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited DNA sequencing revealed ORF 074 of the Vietnam isolate to be identical to that of several goatpox virus isolates from China, suggesting a possible Chinese origin...
  69. Ueda N, Inder M, Wise L, Fleming S, Mercer A. Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand encodes a variant of viral vascular endothelial growth factor. Virus Res. 2007;124:50-8 pubmed
    ..Our data also reveal that all members of the genus encode a VEGF and that an extraordinary degree of inter-species sequence variation is a general feature of the parapoxvirus VEGFs...
  70. MacNeil A, Lederman E, Reynolds M, Ragade N, Talken R, Friedman D, et al. Diagnosis of bovine-associated parapoxvirus infections in humans: molecular and epidemiological evidence. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:e161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases underscore the utility of modern diagnostic tools, along with species-specific contact information in acquiring a definitive diagnosis, in the case of suspected parapoxvirus infection...
  71. McInnes C, Wood A, Thomas K, Sainsbury A, Gurnell J, Dein F, et al. Genomic characterization of a novel poxvirus contributing to the decline of the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in the UK. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2115-25 pubmed
    ..Analysis of serum from British woodland rodents failed to find any evidence of SQPV infection in wood mice or bank voles, but for the first time serum samples from grey squirrels in the USA were found to contain antibody against SQPV...
  72. Regnery R. Poxviruses and the passive quest for novel hosts. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;315:345-61 pubmed
    ..The remaining bulk of the discussion involves examples of members of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which are known to be (have been) involved with human disease, and their zoonotic origins...
  73. Kulich P, Roubalova E, Dubska L, Sychra O, Šmíd B, Literak I. Avipoxvirus in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Avian Pathol. 2008;37:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our avipoxvirus sequence was proven to be significantly more closely related to canarypoxviruses than to fowlpoxviruses also by phylogenetic analysis...
  74. Zimmermann D, Anderson M, Lane E, van Wilpe E, Carulei O, Douglass N, et al. Avian poxvirus epizootic in a breeding population of Lesser Flamingos (Phoenicopterus minor) at Kamfers Dam, Kimberley, South Africa. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:989-93 pubmed
    ..The avipoxvirus detected was very similar to that previously detected in albatross and falcons...
  75. Stubbs S, Oura C, Henstock M, Bowden T, King D, Tuppurainen E. Validation of a high-throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of capripoxviral DNA. J Virol Methods. 2012;179:419-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This laboratory-based assay provides a rapid and robust method to detect capripoxviruses following suspicion of disease in endemic or disease-free countries...
  76. Becher P, Konig M, Muller G, Siebert U, Thiel H. Characterization of sealpox virus, a separate member of the parapoxviruses. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1133-40 pubmed
    ..The results of our analysis provide evidence for inclusion of the seal parapoxvirus as member of a separate species within the genus Parapoxvirus...
  77. Staib C, Suezer Y, Kisling S, Kalinke U, Sutter G. Short-term, but not post-exposure, protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge after immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2917-21 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to conventional vaccination, MVA may serve for potent emergency prophylaxis against orthopoxvirus infection...