polyomavirus infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).

Top Publications

  1. Harms P, Patel R, Verhaegen M, Giordano T, Nash K, Johnson C, et al. Distinct gene expression profiles of viral- and nonviral-associated merkel cell carcinoma revealed by transcriptome analysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional and clinical validation studies are needed to determine whether this tumor-suppressor pathway represents an avenue for targeted therapy...
  2. Antonsson A, Pawlita M, Feltkamp M, Bouwes Bavinck J, Euvrard S, Harwood C, et al. Longitudinal study of seroprevalence and serostability of the human polyomaviruses JCV and BKV in organ transplant recipients. J Med Virol. 2013;85:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemical immunosuppression after organ transplantation can lead to reactivation of persistent polyomavirus infections which may cause rejection of the transplanted organ...
  3. Wojciechowski D, Chanda R, Chandran S, Lee B, Webber A, Macaraig M, et al. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients reduces BK virus infection at 3 months but not at 1 year. Transplantation. 2012;94:1117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..A strategy of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis directed specifically against BKV has not been formally tested against a control group in kidney transplant recipients...
  4. Mueller K, Schachtner T, Sattler A, Meier S, Friedrich P, Trydzenskaya H, et al. BK-VP3 as a new target of cellular immunity in BK virus infection. Transplantation. 2011;91:100-7 pubmed
    ..However, the knowledge on the BKV-T-cell response is limited: only two (VP1 and large T antigen) of six known BKV proteins were evaluated for their antigenicity so far...
  5. Randhawa P, Kant J, Shapiro R, Tan H, Basu A, Luo C. Impact of genomic sequence variability on quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of polyomavirus BK infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4072-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Physicians need to be cognizant of these effects when interpreting the results of quantitative PCR testing in transplant recipients, particularly if there is a discrepancy between the clinical impression and the measured viral load. ..
  6. Kusne S, Vilchez R, Zanwar P, Quiroz J, Mazur M, Heilman R, et al. Polyomavirus JC urinary shedding in kidney and liver transplant recipients associated with reduced creatinine clearance. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Less is known about dynamics of John Cunningham virus (JCV) in nonkidney organ transplant patients...
  7. Csoma E, Sapy T, Mészáros B, Gergely L. Novel human polyomaviruses in pregnancy: higher prevalence of BKPyV, but no WUPyV, KIPyV and HPyV9. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..There is lack of information about the prevalence of novel human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9), WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) during pregnancy...
  8. Schmitt M, Höfler D, Koleganova N, Pawlita M. Human polyomaviruses and other human viruses in neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:1558-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the human viruses tested for in this study do not play a comparable role in NETs like the polyomavirus MCV in MCC. ..
  9. Bennett S, Broekema N, Imperiale M. BK polyomavirus: emerging pathogen. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:672-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the clinical relevance, effects on the host, virus life cycle, and current treatment protocols...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Polesel J, Gheit T, Talamini R, Shahzad N, Lenardon O, Sylla B, et al. Urinary human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection and bladder cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in HPyV-positivity by sex and smoking may derive from differences in either acquisition or persistence of the infection. ..
  2. Chang Y, Moore P. Merkel cell carcinoma: a virus-induced human cancer. Annu Rev Pathol. 2012;7:123-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of this tumor virus has led to new opportunities for early diagnosis and targeted treatment of MCC. ..
  3. Schwarz A, Linnenweber Held S, Heim A, Bröcker V, Rieck D, Framke T, et al. Factors influencing viral clearing and renal function during polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2012;94:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that peak viral load, tacrolimus treatment, delayed diagnosis, and viral reduction time influence outcomes in patients with BKVN. ..
  4. Willmes C, Adam C, Alb M, Völkert L, Houben R, Becker J, et al. Type I and II IFNs inhibit Merkel cell carcinoma via modulation of the Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings show that type I IFNs have a strong antitumor effect, which is at least in part explained by modulation of the virally encoded LTA. ..
  5. Schrama D, Ugurel S, Becker J. Merkel cell carcinoma: recent insights and new treatment options. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MCC is still regarded as a very rare tumor entity, its incidence is rapidly increasing. In this regard, the American Cancer Society estimated almost 1500 new cases in the United States in 2008...
  6. Feltkamp M, Kazem S, van der Meijden E, Lauber C, Gorbalenya A. From Stockholm to Malawi: recent developments in studying human polyomaviruses. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:482-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the recent developments in studying the novel human polyomaviruses, and touches upon several aspects of polyomavirus virology, pathogenicity, epidemiology and phylogeny...
  7. Martel Jantin C, Filippone C, Cassar O, Peter M, Tomasic G, Vielh P, et al. Genetic variability and integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma. Virology. 2012;426:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In 13/19 cases, the viral junction was located within the second exon of the LTAg, after the pRB binding domain. ..
  8. Rao S, Garcea R, Robinson C, Simoes E. WU and KI polyomavirus infections in pediatric hematology/oncology patients with acute respiratory tract illness. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher viral loads for KIPyV in the immunocompromised group may suggest an increased pathogenic potential in this population. ..
  9. van der Meijden E, Kazem S, Burgers M, Janssens R, Bouwes Bavinck J, de Melker H, et al. Seroprevalence of trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In 80 renal transplant patients, seroprevalence was 89%. Infection with the new TSV polyomavirus is common and occurs primarily at a young age...
  10. Sanchez Fructuoso A, Calvo N, Perez Flores I, Valero R, Rodriguez Sanchez B, Garcia de Viedma D, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin signal inhibitors could play a role in the treatment of BK polyomavirus nephritis in renal allograft recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:584-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, target levels of immunosuppressive drugs are poorly defined, as are criteria for replacing one immunosuppressive agent with another...
  11. van Aalderen M, Heutinck K, Huisman C, Ten Berge I. BK virus infection in transplant recipients: clinical manifestations, treatment options and the immune response. Neth J Med. 2012;70:172-83 pubmed
    ..Here, we will review the current knowledge on the structure and lifecycle of BKV, characteristics of the BKV-specific immune response, its clinical manifestations and the strengths and limitations of available treatments methods...
  12. Bauman Y, Mandelboim O. MicroRNA based immunoevasion mechanism of human polyomaviruses. RNA Biol. 2011;8:591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we consider the possibility that other viral and cellular mechanisms are also involved in targeting ULBP3 and other NKG2D ligands...
  13. Butel J. Patterns of polyomavirus SV40 infections and associated cancers in humans: a model. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:508-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This model can explain inconsistencies in the published literature of SV40 infections in humans and can guide the design of future studies...
  14. Pancaldi C, Corazzari V, Maniero S, Mazzoni E, Comar M, Martini F, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA sequences in the buffy coats of healthy blood donors. Blood. 2011;117:7099-101 pubmed publisher
  15. Abedi Kiasari B, Vallely P, Klapper P. Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with respiratory disease. J Med Virol. 2011;83:2220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The viruses then establish latency and become reactivated in the event of immunosuppression...
  16. Kuypers J, Campbell A, Guthrie K, Wright N, Englund J, Corey L, et al. WU and KI polyomaviruses in respiratory samples from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no associations with polyomavirus detection and acute graft versus host disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, neutropenia, lymphopenia, hospitalization, or death...
  17. Chen T, Mattila P, Jartti T, Ruuskanen O, Soderlund Venermo M, Hedman K. Seroepidemiology of the newly found trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1523-6 pubmed publisher
    ..TSV circulates widely in the human population and primary exposure is extensive in childhood, beginning at age 1-2 years...
  18. Iyer J, Afanasiev O, McClurkan C, Paulson K, Nagase K, Jing L, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific CD8? and CD4? T-cell responses identified in Merkel cell carcinomas and blood. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:6671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to characterize T-cell responses directed against viral proteins that drive this cancer as a step toward immunotherapy...
  19. Saundh B, Baker R, Harris M, Welberry Smith M, Cherukuri A, Hale A. Early BK polyomavirus (BKV) reactivation in donor kidney is a risk factor for development of BKV-associated nephropathy. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, early testing of urine samples from renal transplant recipients may identify those at risk for BKV-associated nephropathy...
  20. Tan B, Busam K. Virus-associated Trichodysplasia spinulosa. Adv Anat Pathol. 2011;18:450-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The case of virus-associated TS exemplifies how a combination of astute clinicopathologic observation and a well-designed molecular genetic approach can provide insights into the pathogenesis of cutaneous disease...
  21. Siebrasse E, Bauer I, Holtz L, Le B, Lassa Claxton S, Canter C, et al. Human polyomaviruses in children undergoing transplantation, United States, 2008-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1676-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All were detected; several were present in previously unreported specimen types...
  22. Wieland U, Silling S, Scola N, Potthoff A, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer N, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in HIV-positive men. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA prevalence and load among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (hereafter referred to as HIV-positive men) and among healthy male control subjects...
  23. Arora R, Chang Y, Moore P. MCV and Merkel cell carcinoma: a molecular success story. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In four years, the cause, diagnosis and therapy for an intractable cancer has been changed due to the molecular discovery of MCV...
  24. Buettner M, Xu H, Böhme R, Seliger B, Jacobi J, Wiesener M, et al. Predominance of TH2 cells and plasma cells in polyoma virus nephropathy: a role for humoral immunity?. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:1453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominance of plasma cells might underline an important role of humoral immunity in BKVN. Moreover, BK virus does not seem to modulate the expression of HLA class I APM as a strategy of immune evasion...
  25. Pastrana D, Brennan D, Cuburu N, Storch G, Viscidi R, Randhawa P, et al. Neutralization serotyping of BK polyomavirus infection in kidney transplant recipients. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002650 pubmed publisher
  26. Kazem S, van der Meijden E, Kooijman S, Rosenberg A, Hughey L, Browning J, et al. Trichodysplasia spinulosa is characterized by active polyomavirus infection. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Seroepidemiological studies indicate that TSPyV is ubiquitous and latently infects 70% of the healthy individuals...
  27. Bayliss J, Karasoulos T, Bowden S, Glogowski I, McLean C. Immunosuppression increases latent infection of brain by JC polyomavirus. Pathology. 2011;43:362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased JCV reactivation in kidney, as indicated by JCV viruria is reported during immunosuppression; however, the relevance of systemic to neural reactivation remains unknown...
  28. Wanat K, Holler P, Dentchev T, Simbiri K, Robertson E, Seykora J, et al. Viral-associated trichodysplasia: characterization of a novel polyomavirus infection with therapeutic insights. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior reports have described the histopathologic characteristics on vertical sections; however, to our knowledge, immunohistochemical analysis of polyomavirus proteins has not been previously performed...
  29. Donepudi S, DeConti R, Samlowski W. Recent advances in the understanding of the genetics, etiology, and treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. Semin Oncol. 2012;39:163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular pathogenesis of viral carcinogenesis is currently being worked out in MCC. Current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are discussed, with an eye toward the future development of molecularly targeted treatments...
  30. Lee S, Paulson K, Murchison E, Afanasiev O, Alkan C, Leonard J, et al. Identification and validation of a novel mature microRNA encoded by the Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is present in approximately 80% of human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs). A previous in silico prediction suggested MCPyV encodes a microRNA (miRNA) that may regulate cellular and viral genes...
  31. Duncavage E, Pfeifer J. Human polyomaviruses 6 and 7 are not detectable in Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2011;38:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, we sought to determine if the presence of HPyV6 of HPyV7 could account for MCPyV-negative MCC...
  32. Dela Cruz F, Giannitti F, Li L, Woods L, Del Valle L, Delwart E, et al. Novel polyomavirus associated with brain tumors in free-ranging raccoons, western United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The multifunctional nuclear protein large T-antigen was detectable by immunohistochemical analyses in a subset of neoplastic cells. Raccoon polyomavirus may contribute to the development of malignant brain tumors of raccoons...
  33. Schrama D, Peitsch W, Zapatka M, Kneitz H, Houben R, Eib S, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus status is not associated with clinical course of Merkel cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, although MCV-positive and MCV-negative MCCs may have different etiologies, these tumors have comparable clinical behaviors and prognosis...
  34. Dalianis T, Hirsch H. Human polyomaviruses in disease and cancer. Virology. 2013;437:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of the new HPyVs has revived interest in the Polyomaviridae and their association to human disease and cancer. In this review, we summarize knowledge about this expanding family of human pathogens...
  35. DeCaprio J, Garcea R. A cornucopia of human polyomaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013;11:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review describes the similarities and differences among the new human polyomaviruses and discusses how these viruses might interact with their human host...
  36. Faust H, Pastrana D, Buck C, Dillner J, Ekström J. Antibodies to Merkel cell polyomavirus correlate to presence of viral DNA in the skin. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1096-100 pubmed publisher
    ..6-166.5]), with 97% of patients who tested positive for MCV DNA being MCV seropositive. VLP antibody levels correlated to neutralization titers (r=.72), and high antibody levels correlated to high MCV load (P<.01)...
  37. Trusch F, Klein M, Finsterbusch T, Kuhn J, Hofmann J, Ehlers B. Seroprevalence of human polyomavirus 9 and cross-reactivity to African green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:698-705 pubmed publisher
  38. Rollison D, Giuliano A, Messina J, Fenske N, Cherpelis B, Sondak V, et al. Case-control study of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been reported in 0% to 25% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) occurring in immunocompetent individuals. We conducted the first serologic case-control study of MCV and SCC...
  39. Kazem S, van der Meijden E, Feltkamp M. The trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus: virological background and clinical implications. APMIS. 2013;121:770-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will address virological and pathogenic properties of TSPyV, as well as epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of TSPyV infection. ..
  40. Cekmen M, Bakirdoven S, Sayan M, Yilmaz A. BK virus nephropathy developing after renal transplantation and its treatment with ciprofloxacin: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:3044-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ciprofloxacin treatment reduced the viral load and improved the clinical findings...
  41. Viscidi R, Rollison D, Sondak V, Silver B, Messina J, Giuliano A, et al. Age-specific seroprevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus, BK virus, and JC virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1737-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with results from other studies, we found an association between MCPyV seropositivity and MCC, and higher levels of serum MCPyV capsid antibodies in MCC patients than in controls...
  42. Husseiny M, Lacey S. Development of infectious recombinant BK virus. Virus Res. 2011;161:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most of these rBKV proved to have stability issues, such approaches may have utility as reporter viruses or as gene delivery vectors...
  43. Zhuang W, Lu X, Lin G, Wu Y, Lin C, Chen P, et al. WU polyomavirus infection among children in South China. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient developed encephalitis. Therefore, WUPyV infection can cause acute respiratory tract infection with atypical symptoms, including severe complications, in children...
  44. Girmanova E, Brabcova I, Bandur S, Hribova P, Skibova J, Viklicky O. A prospective longitudinal study of BK virus infection in 120 Czech renal transplant recipients. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..7 × 10(7) copies/ml in urine. In conclusion, polyoma BK viremia and viruria are frequent findings in kidney transplant recipients that warrant intensive monitoring as a means of preventing graft failure [corrected]...
  45. Rodig S, Cheng J, Wardzala J, DoRosario A, Scanlon J, Laga A, et al. Improved detection suggests all Merkel cell carcinomas harbor Merkel polyomavirus. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4645-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that MCPyV is present in MCC tumors more frequently than previously reported and that mutations in TP53 tend to occur in MCC tumors that fail to express MCPyV large T antigen...
  46. Gheit T, Munoz J, Levican J, Gonzalez C, Ampuero S, Parra B, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus in non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;93:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus a possible role of MCV in a very small subset of patients with lung cancer cannot be ruled out and warrants more investigation...
  47. Neu U, Hengel H, Blaum B, Schowalter R, Macejak D, Gilbert M, et al. Structures of Merkel cell polyomavirus VP1 complexes define a sialic acid binding site required for infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002738 pubmed publisher
    ..Since cell-surface glycans typically serve as primary attachment receptors for many viruses, we identify here a new role for glycans in mediating, and perhaps even modulating, post-attachment entry processes...
  48. Anzivino E, Bellizzi A, Mitterhofer A, Tinti F, Barile M, Colosimo M, et al. Early monitoring of the human polyomavirus BK replication and sequencing analysis in a cohort of adult kidney transplant patients treated with basiliximab. Virol J. 2011;8:407 pubmed publisher
    ..We also performed sequencing analysis to assess whether a particular BKV subtype/subgroup or transcriptional control region (TCR) variants were present...
  49. Geddes C, Gunson R, Mazonakis E, Wan R, Thomson L, Clancy M, et al. BK viremia surveillance after kidney transplant: single-center experience during a change from cyclosporine-to lower-dose tacrolimus-based primary immunosuppression regimen. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to report our experience of BK viremia surveillance after kidney transplant during a period of change from cyclosporine (CyA)-to lower-dose tacrolimus (Tac)-based primary immunosuppression regimens...
  50. Lim E, Reyes A, Antonio M, Saha D, Ikumapayi U, Adeyemi M, et al. Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative splicing. Virology. 2013;436:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of STLPyV highlights a novel alternative splicing strategy and advances our understanding of the complex evolutionary history of polyomaviruses...
  51. Nicol J, Robinot R, Carpentier A, Carandina G, Mazzoni E, Tognon M, et al. Age-specific seroprevalences of merkel cell polyomavirus, human polyomaviruses 6, 7, and 9, and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of subjects with high antibody titers was found to increase with age for MCPyV and to decrease with age for TSPyV...
  52. Nicol J, Touze A, Robinot R, Arnold F, Mazzoni E, Tognon M, et al. Seroprevalence and cross-reactivity of human polyomavirus 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) led us to compare the seroprevalence and cross-reactivity of LPyV and HpyV9. Results could indicate that humans who have antibodies against LPyV are infected by HPyV9...
  53. Korup S, Rietscher J, Calvignac Spencer S, Trusch F, Hofmann J, Moens U, et al. Identification of a novel human polyomavirus in organs of the gastrointestinal tract. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58021 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the virus naturally infects humans and that primary infection may already occur in childhood...
  54. Hu J, Zhao H, Huang Y, Zhang X, Gao H, Yang M, et al. Opportunistic posttransplantation virus infections in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:3715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This prospective study investigated the rates of JCV and CMV infections and their risk factors and correlations...
  55. Luo C, Hirsch H, Kant J, Randhawa P. VP-1 quasispecies in human infection with polyomavirus BK. J Med Virol. 2012;84:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Quasispecies occur even in healthy subjects with viruria, but evolutionary selection pressure directed at the viral capsid protein (VP-1) is seen only in patients with viremia or nephropathy...
  56. Jung H, Choi Y, Choi J, Roh J, Pyon J, Woo K, et al. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinomas and small cell carcinomas by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Histol Histopathol. 2011;26:1231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering both PCR and IHC results, MCPyV was detected in all MCCs tested. The presence of MCPyV in all MCC cases tested and in some SCC cases suggests that MCPyV may be involved in the malignant transformation...
  57. Hirsch H, Randhawa P. BK polyomavirus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13 Suppl 4:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Retransplantation after PyVAN is largely successful, but requires close monitoring for recurrent BKV viremia...
  58. Sar A, Worawichawong S, Benediktsson H, Zhang J, Yilmaz S, Trpkov K. Interobserver agreement for Polyomavirus nephropathy grading in renal allografts using the working proposal from the 10th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:2018-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed grading schema can be applied in routine allograft biopsy practice for grading the Polyomavirus nephropathy stage and the viral load level...
  59. Sharma B, Li R, Bernhoff E, Gutteberg T, Rinaldo C. Fluoroquinolones inhibit human polyomavirus BK (BKV) replication in primary human kidney cells. Antiviral Res. 2011;92:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This concentration can be achieved in urine and possibly in the kidneys. Our results support a mechanism involving inhibition of LT-ag expression or functions but also suggest inhibition of cellular enzymes...
  60. Ribeiro A, Wornle M, Motamedi N, Anders H, Gröne E, Nitschko H, et al. Activation of innate immune defense mechanisms contributes to polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2012;81:100-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PVAN activation of innate immune defense mechanisms through TLR3 is involved in the antiviral and anti-inflammatory response leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
  61. Taronna A, Mazzoni E, Corallini A, Bononi I, Pietrobon S, Guerra G, et al. Serological evidence of an early seroconversion to Simian virus 40 in healthy children and adolescents. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61182 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, our immunologic data could be due to another, as yet undiscovered, human polyomavirus closely related to SV40...
  62. Tolstov Y, Knauer A, Chen J, Kensler T, Kingsley L, Moore P, et al. Asymptomatic primary Merkel cell polyomavirus infection among adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In adults, MCV is typically an asymptomatic, common, and commensal viral infection that initiates rare cancers after virus (rather than host cell) mutations...
  63. Yamaguchi H, Kobayashi S, Ishii A, Ogawa H, Nakamura I, Moonga L, et al. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen...
  64. Scuda N, Madinda N, Akoua Koffi C, Adjogoua E, Wevers D, Hofmann J, et al. Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003429 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results support the existence of additional polyomaviruses circulating within the human population that are genetically and serologically related to existing chimpanzee polyomaviruses. ..
  65. Kuypers D. Management of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012;8:390-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, novel compounds and their in vitro actions against BKV are discussed together with future prospects for specific antiviral drug development...
  66. Imajoh M, Hashida Y, Nemoto Y, Oguri H, Maeda N, Furihata M, et al. Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas from Japanese patients. Virol J. 2012;9:154 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible presence of MCPyV in cervical SCCs from Japanese patients. Cervical adenocarcinomas (ACs) were also studied...
  67. Imajoh M, Hashida Y, Taniguchi A, Kamioka M, Daibata M. Novel human polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus and human polyomavirus 9, in Japanese chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases. J Hematol Oncol. 2012;5:25 pubmed publisher
    ..To increase the volume of relevant data, this study investigated the prevalence and DNA loads of MCPyV and human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9), another lymphotropic polyomavirus, in Japanese CLL cases...
  68. Van Ghelue M, Khan M, Ehlers B, Moens U. Genome analysis of the new human polyomaviruses. Rev Med Virol. 2012;22:354-77 pubmed publisher
  69. Sauvage V, Foulongne V, Cheval J, Ar Gouilh M, Pariente K, Dereure O, et al. Human polyomavirus related to African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1364-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide information on the viral ecology of human skin and raise new questions regarding the pathology of virus-associated skin disorders...
  70. Sihto H, Kukko H, Koljonen V, Sankila R, Bohling T, Joensuu H. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection, large T antigen, retinoblastoma protein and outcome in Merkel cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:4806-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyomaviruses repress tumor suppressor proteins, thus influencing cell-cycle progression, but the effect of MCPyV on the key cell-cycle regulating proteins is poorly understood...
  71. Sood P, Senanayake S, Sujeet K, Medipalli R, Saad E, Vasudev B, et al. Lower prevalence of BK virus infection in African American renal transplant recipients: a prospective study. Transplantation. 2012;93:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook a prospective study to evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of BKV infections using BK viruria and viremia as endpoints...
  72. Matsuda Y, Qazi Y, Iwaki Y. A rapid and efficient method BK polyomavirus genotyping by high-resolution melting analysis. J Med Virol. 2011;83:2128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The HRMA method presented here is a time-saving, reliable, and low-cost procedure that can be developed as a diagnostic tool in the detection of the specific BKV genotypes associated with BKVN...
  73. Schachtner T, Muller K, Stein M, Diezemann C, Sefrin A, Babel N, et al. BK virus-specific immunity kinetics: a predictor of recovery from polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy. Am J Transplant. 2011;11:2443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results suggest prognostic values of BKV-specific immune monitoring to identify those patients at risk of BKV-associated nephropathy and to aid in the management of therapeutic interventions...