Summary: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.

Top Publications

  1. Dotta L, Tassone L, Badolato R. Clinical and genetic features of Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:317-25 pubmed
    ..The acronym WHIM resumes the main features of the syndrome: Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis, which is abnormal retention of mature neutrophils in the ..
  2. Schroeter C, Kaas L, Waterval J, Bos P, Neumann H. Successful treatment of periungual warts using photodynamic therapy: a pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1170-4 pubmed
    The aim of this pilot study was an investigation on photodynamic therapy (PDT) whether it is a good alternative for treating periungual and subungual warts of the hands.
  3. Imagawa I, Suzuki H. Successful treatment of refractory warts with topical vitamin D3 derivative (maxacalcitol, 1alpha, 25-dihydroxy-22-oxacalcitriol) in 17 patients. J Dermatol. 2007;34:264-6 pubmed
  4. Kuykendall Ivy T, Johnson S. Evidence-based review of management of nongenital cutaneous warts. Cutis. 2003;71:213-22 pubmed
    ..Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumors of the skin are often varied in clinical presentation, ranging from benign warts to malignant neoplasms...
  5. Grussendorf Conen E, Jacobs S. Efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of recalcitrant warts in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:263-6 pubmed
    Long-lasting cutaneous warts are a therapeutic challenge, especially widespread or symptomatic recalcitrant warts in children...
  6. Stender I, Borgbjerg F, Villumsen J, Lock Andersen J, Wulf H. Pain induced by photodynamic therapy of warts. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2006;22:304-9 pubmed
    ..Pain during and after light exposure is a well-known adverse advent that may be a limiting factor for treatment, particularly, in viral warts.
  7. Bachelerie F. CXCL12/CXCR4-axis dysfunctions: Markers of the rare immunodeficiency disorder WHIM syndrome. Dis Markers. 2010;29:189-98 pubmed publisher
    The WHIM syndrome features susceptibility to human Papillomavirus infection-induced warts and carcinomas, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, B and T-cell lymphopenia, and neutropenia associated with retention of ..
  8. Park H, Choi W. Pulsed dye laser treatment for viral warts: a study of 120 patients. J Dermatol. 2008;35:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..with pulsed dye laser was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed dye laser treatment for viral warts and to demonstrate the proper application and effective technique of this method...
  9. Dalmau J, Abellaneda C, Puig S, Zaballos P, Malvehy J. Acral melanoma simulating warts: dermoscopic clues to prevent missing a melanoma. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:1072-8 pubmed
    ..In the Caucasian population health care providers often misdiagnose acral melanoma, and this is the cause of inadequate treatments. Clinical and dermoscopic clues can be easily recognized, which help to prevent missing a melanoma...

More Information


  1. Chow K, Brotin E, Ben Khalifa Y, Carthagena L, Teissier S, Danckaert A, et al. A pivotal role for CXCL12 signaling in HPV-mediated transformation of keratinocytes: clues to understanding HPV-pathogenesis in WHIM syndrome. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:523-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a pivotal role for CXCL12 signaling in HPV-mediated transformation and provide a mechanistic basis for understanding HPV pathogenesis in WHIM syndrome...
  2. Hagan J, Nguyen P. WHIM syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:1031 pubmed
  3. Kumar R, Zawar V. Threading warts: a beauty parlor dermatosis. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:279-82 pubmed
    ..Appearance of warts at the site of threading is an unusual phenomenon...
  4. Yang Y, Cheng Y, Lai C, Chen W. Prevalence of childhood acne, ephelides, warts, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, alopecia areata and keloid in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan: a community-based clinical survey. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:643-9 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological study on childhood dermatoses performed by direct inspection of dermatologists is limited...
  5. Cockayne S, Hewitt C, Hicks K, Jayakody S, Kang ombe A, Stamuli E, et al. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;342:d3271 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts.
  6. Raza N, Khan D. Zinc deficiency in patients with persistent viral warts. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:83-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine the association of low serum zinc levels with persistent, progressive or recurrent viral warts.
  7. Shivakumar V, Okade R, Rajkumar V. Autoimplantation therapy for multiple warts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:593-5 pubmed publisher
    In the treatment of multiple warts, there is no single treatment that is 100% effective and different modalities of treatment need to be combined.
  8. Lagane B, Chow K, Balabanian K, Levoye A, Harriague J, Planchenault T, et al. CXCR4 dimerization and beta-arrestin-mediated signaling account for the enhanced chemotaxis to CXCL12 in WHIM syndrome. Blood. 2008;112:34-44 pubmed publisher
    WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome is an immune deficiency linked in many cases to heterozygous mutations causing truncations in the cytoplasmic tail of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)...
  9. Kwok C, Gibbs S, Bennett C, Holland R, Abbott R. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD001781 pubmed publisher
    Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available.
  10. Sharquie K, Al Rawi J, Al Nuaimy A, Radhy S. Bacille Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy of viral warts. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:589-93 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin BCG vaccine in the treatment of viral warts.
  11. Alapi K, Erdos M, Kovács G, Marodi L. Recurrent CXCR4 sequence variation in a girl with WHIM syndrome. Eur J Haematol. 2007;78:86-8 pubmed
    WHIM (warts-hypogammaglobulinemia-infections-myelokathexis) syndrome is a recently described primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by mutation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor gene. We report here of a 6...
  12. Kawai T, Choi U, Cardwell L, DeRavin S, Naumann N, Whiting Theobald N, et al. WHIM syndrome myelokathexis reproduced in the NOD/SCID mouse xenotransplant model engrafted with healthy human stem cells transduced with C-terminus-truncated CXCR4. Blood. 2007;109:78-84 pubmed
    WHIM(warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infection, and myelokathexis) syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency caused in many cases by autosomal dominant C-terminal truncation mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4...
  13. Jones V, Smith S, Omar H. Nonsexual transmission of anogenital warts in children: a retrospective analysis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2007;7:1896-9 pubmed
    ..patients who were referred to a pediatric gynecologist for evaluation based on the clinical findings of anogenital warts. A retrospective analysis was performed on 131 patients between the ages 6 month and 9 years referred to a ..
  14. Howley P. Warts, cancer and ubiquitylation: lessons from the papillomaviruses. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2006;117:113-26; discussion 126-7 pubmed
    ..E6AP is an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase and is not normally involved in the regulation of p53 stability in the absence of E6. E6AP is the prototype for the HECT domain family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases...
  15. Luu H, Amirian E, Chan W, Beasley R, Piller L, Scheurer M. CD4+ cell count and HIV load as predictors of size of anal warts over time in HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether CD4(+) count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort.
  16. Tatti S, Stockfleth E, Beutner K, Tawfik H, Elsasser U, Weyrauch P, et al. Polyphenon E: a new treatment for external anogenital warts. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:176-84 pubmed publisher
    Background External genital warts (EGWs, condylomata acuminata) are a common, highly contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), predominantly HPV 6 and HPV 11...
  17. Kawai T, Malech H. WHIM syndrome: congenital immune deficiency disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009;16:20-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is characterized by susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection-induced warts and carcinomas; neutropenia, B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinema-..
  18. Siedlar M, Rudzki Z, Strach M, Trzyna E, Pituch Noworolska A, Błaut Szlósarczyk A, et al. Familial occurrence of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2008;56:419-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency disorder with an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance and low fatality rate but significant lifelong morbidity.
  19. Kohler A, Meyer T, Stockfleth E, Nindl I. High viral load of human wart-associated papillomaviruses (PV) but not beta-PV in cutaneous warts independent of immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:528-35 pubmed publisher
    A broad spectrum of human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been detected in warts from immunocompetent patients and a much more diverse range from immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients (OTR).
  20. Cac N, Ballas Z. Recalcitrant warts, associated with natural killer cell dysfunction, treated with systemic IFN-alpha. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:526-8 pubmed
  21. Bruggink S, Gussekloo J, Berger M, Zaaijer K, Assendelft W, de Waal M, et al. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2010;182:1624-30 pubmed publisher
    Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach.
  22. Wang Y, Tay Y, Kwok C, Tan E. Photodynamic therapy with 20% aminolevulinic acid for the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts in an Asian population. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1180-4 pubmed
    ..It is well established for the treatment of actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers. Some studies have reported good efficacy when using PDT to treat viral warts in the Western population.
  23. Balabanian K, Levoye A, Klemm L, Lagane B, Hermine O, Harriague J, et al. Leukocyte analysis from WHIM syndrome patients reveals a pivotal role for GRK3 in CXCR4 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    Leukocytes from individuals with warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, a rare immunodeficiency, and bearing a wild-type CXCR4 ORF (WHIM(WT)) display impaired CXCR4 internalization and ..
  24. Ohtsuki A, Hasegawa T, Hirasawa Y, Tsuchihashi H, Ikeda S. Photodynamic therapy using light-emitting diodes for the treatment of viral warts. J Dermatol. 2009;36:525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, some studies have reported good efficacy when using photodynamic therapy to treat viral warts. The light-emitting diode is an incoherent, narrow-spectrum light source...
  25. Bruggink S, Waagmeester S, Gussekloo J, Assendelft W, Eekhof J. Current choices in the treatment of cutaneous warts: a survey among Dutch GP. Fam Pract. 2010;27:549-53 pubmed publisher
    GPs apply several treatments for patients with cutaneous warts. Available evidence recommends salicylic acid application.
  26. Hatama S, Ishihara R, Ueda Y, Kanno T, Uchida I. Detection of a novel bovine papillomavirus type 11 (BPV-11) using xipapillomavirus consensus polymerase chain reaction primers. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods were used to detect the partial L1 nucleotide sequence of BPV types from 167 cutaneous warts in cattle. Three potentially new viruses were detected using subBup/subBdw primer sets...
  27. Feller L, Khammissa R, Wood N, Marnewick J, Meyerov R, Lemmer J. HPV-associated oral warts. SADJ. 2011;66:82-5 pubmed
    ..papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously...
  28. Schöfer H, van Ophoven A, Henke U, Lenz T, Eul A. Randomized, comparative trial on the sustained efficacy of topical imiquimod 5% cream versus conventional ablative methods in external anogenital warts. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16:642-8 pubmed
    Conventional ablative treatments for external anogenital warts are affected by high recurrence rates. This study compared sustained clearance after ablation vs. treatment with imiquimod 5% cream vs. the combination of both methods...
  29. Sharquie K, Khorsheed A, Al Nuaimy A. Topical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral warts. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:1418-21 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy and safety of topical zinc sulphate solution in the treatment of plane and common warts.
  30. van Haalen F, Bruggink S, Gussekloo J, Assendelft W, Eekhof J. Warts in primary schoolchildren: prevalence and relation with environmental factors. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:148-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Warts are very common in primary schoolchildren. However, knowledge on wart epidemiology and causes of wart transmission is scarce.
  31. Dale D, Bolyard A, Kelley M, Westrup E, Makaryan V, Aprikyan A, et al. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor is a potential therapy for myelokathexis, WHIM syndrome. Blood. 2011;118:4963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..08 mg/kg dose. None of the patients experienced any significant adverse effects. Plerixafor is a promising therapy for this condition. ..
  32. Paul J, Carlson J. Lymphangiectases are common underlying warts and in normal peritumoral skin: histologic evidence of decreased immune surveillance. Am J Dermatopathol. 2011;33:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphangiectases are a histologic sign of lymphostasis, which is associated with decreased immune cell trafficking and cell-mediated immunity...
  33. McDermott D, Liu Q, Ulrick J, Kwatemaa N, Anaya O Brien S, Penzak S, et al. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor corrects panleukopenia in patients with WHIM syndrome. Blood. 2011;118:4957-62 pubmed publisher
    WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disorder characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (neutropenia because of impaired egress from the BM); most patients also have severe panleukopenia...
  34. Vinurel H, Freymond N, Pacheco Y, Devouassoux G. [The Whim syndrome: a rare cause of diffuse bronchiectasis. Immune defect of CXCR4 and chronic bronchial suppuration]. Rev Mal Respir. 2008;25:614-8 pubmed
    Whim syndrome, an association of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and the retention of mature polymorphonuclear cells within the bone marrow is an orphan disease...
  35. Leiding J, Holland S. Warts and all: human papillomavirus in primary immunodeficiencies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:1030-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. ..
  36. Sanmun D, Garwicz D, Smith C, Palmblad J, Fadeel B. Stromal-derived factor-1 abolishes constitutive apoptosis of WHIM syndrome neutrophils harbouring a truncating CXCR4 mutation. Br J Haematol. 2006;134:640-4 pubmed
    b>Warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is an inherited immune disorder associated with CXCR4 gene mutations...
  37. Mertz K, Pfaltz M, Junt T, Schmid M, Fernandez Figueras M, Pfaltz K, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus is present in common warts and carcinoma in situ of the skin. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..anatomical locations tested positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences by PCR, including all of his common warts (4/4), half of his carcinoma in situ lesions (3/6), and 2 of his 3 seborrheic keratoses...
  38. Liu Q, Chen H, Ojode T, Gao X, Anaya O Brien S, Turner N, et al. WHIM syndrome caused by a single amino acid substitution in the carboxy-tail of chemokine receptor CXCR4. Blood. 2012;120:181-9 pubmed publisher
    WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, immunodeficiency disorder so-named because it is characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (defective neutrophil egress from the BM)...
  39. Kalil C, Salenave P, Cignachi S. Hand warts successfully treated with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and intense pulsed light. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;18:207-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Cipriani N, Blair E, Taxy J. WHIM syndrome and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:105-8 pubmed publisher
    WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease related to a mutation in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 resulting in altered immune function...
  41. Diaz G. CXCR4 mutations in WHIM syndrome: a misguided immune system?. Immunol Rev. 2005;203:235-43 pubmed
    ..The clinical features and potential mechanism of immunodeficiency in WHIM syndrome patients are discussed in this review. ..
  42. Greenspan D, Canchola A, MacPhail L, Cheikh B, Greenspan J. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on frequency of oral warts. Lancet. 2001;357:1411-2 pubmed
    ..There was an increase in salivary-gland disease and a striking increase in warts: three-fold for patients on antiretroviral therapy and six-fold for those on HAART (p=0.01)...
  43. Berman B. Imiquimod: a new immune response modifier for the treatment of external genital warts and other diseases in dermatology. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41 Suppl 1:7-11 pubmed
  44. Diaz G, Gulino A. WHIM syndrome: a defect in CXCR4 signaling. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2005;5:350-5 pubmed
    ..The first example of a human immunologic disease caused by mutation of a chemokine receptor was provided by WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome, a rare, combined immunodeficiency featuring an ..
  45. Kocjan B, Poljak M, Seme K, Potocnik M, Fujs K, Babic D. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in plucked eyebrow hairs from Slovenian males with genital warts. Infect Genet Evol. 2005;5:255-9 pubmed
    ..human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in the plucked eyebrow hairs obtained from 49 Slovenian male patients with genital warts were investigated...
  46. Badia X, Colombo J, Lara N, Llorens M, Olmos L, Sainz de los Terreros M, et al. Combination of qualitative and quantitative methods for developing a new Health Related Quality of Life measure for patients with anogenital warts. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2005;3:24 pubmed
    Anogenital warts are the most easily recognized sign of genital Human Papilloma Virus infection...
  47. Al Gurairi F, Al Waiz M, Sharquie K. Oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:423-31 pubmed
    Viral warts are common dermatological diseases; although the rate of spontaneous recovery is high, it usually takes a long time, and some patients might not show this spontaneous healing...
  48. Latger Cannard V, Bensoussan D, Bordigoni P. The WHIM syndrome shows a peculiar dysgranulopoiesis: myelokathexis. Br J Haematol. 2006;132:669 pubmed
  49. Gibbs S, Harvey I, Sterling J, Stark R. Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review. BMJ. 2002;325:461 pubmed
    To assess the evidence for the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous warts. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Total clearance of warts and adverse effects such as irritation, pain, and blistering...
  50. Gelmetti C, Cerri D, Schiuma A, Menni S. Treatment of extensive warts with etretinate: a clinical trial in 20 children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1987;4:254-8 pubmed
    ..clinical-effectiveness of etretinate in the treatment of papilloma virus infections, 20 children with extensive warts were given this oral retinoid for a period not exceeding three months at a dosage of 1 mg per kg per day...
  51. Harwood C, Spink P, Surentheran T, Leigh I, de Villiers E, McGregor J, et al. Degenerate and nested PCR: a highly sensitive and specific method for detection of human papillomavirus infection in cutaneous warts. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3545-55 pubmed
    ..Immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients have an increased incidence of viral warts and nonmelanoma skin cancer, and the presence of HPV DNA in these lesions, especially types associated with the ..
  52. Sterling J, Handfield Jones S, Hudson P. Guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:4-11 pubmed
    These guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts have been prepared for dermatologists on behalf of the British Association of Dermatologists...
  53. Hagiwara K, Uezato H, Arakaki H, Nonaka S, Nonaka K, Nonaka H, et al. A genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis in a large sample of common warts in Japan. J Med Virol. 2005;77:107-12 pubmed
    ..There have been no large-scale epidemiological studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution of common warts in Japan...
  54. Spelten B, Grussendorf Conen E, Rübben A. Human leukocyte antigen class II alleles and natural history of HPV 2/27/57-induced common warts. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;296:105-11 pubmed
    ..cervical cancer, we wanted to elucidate the role of HLA-class II allele polymorphisms in the persistence of common warts induced by HPV 2, HPV 27 or HPV 57...
  55. Horn M. Bleomycin treatment of warts. Cutis. 2005;76:25; author reply 25-6 pubmed
  56. Kawai T, Choi U, Whiting Theobald N, Linton G, Brenner S, Sechler J, et al. Enhanced function with decreased internalization of carboxy-terminus truncated CXCR4 responsible for WHIM syndrome. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:460-8 pubmed
    WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infection, myelokathexis) syndrome is an autosomal dominant immune deficiency with severe chronic neutropenia and marrow neutrophil apoptosis...
  57. Chae K, Ertle J, Tharp M. B-cell lymphoma in a patient with WHIM syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:124-8 pubmed
    WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital familial syndrome consisting of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis. We describe a 30-year-old man with WHIM syndrome, in whom red dermal facial nodules developed...
  58. Gibbs S, Harvey I. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;:CD001781 pubmed
    Viral warts are common and usually harmless but very troublesome. A very wide range of local treatments are used.
  59. Kopera D. Verrucae vulgares: flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser treatment in 134 patients. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:905-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, a study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser (FPDL) in the treatment of verrucae vulgares...
  60. O Mahony C, Law C, Gollnick H, Marini M. New patient-applied therapy for anogenital warts is rated favourably by patients. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12:565-70 pubmed
    Our objective was to determine patient attitudes to having genital warts, and their perceptions of their treatment with imiquimod and other therapies...
  61. Yoo H, Won S, Choi H, Yoon T, Ye S, Park T, et al. Detection and identification of human papillomavirus types isolated from Korean patients with flat warts. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49:633-8 pubmed
    Flat warts, also called verruca planna (VP) or juvenile warts, are benign epithelial proliferations of the skin caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV)...
  62. Schmook T, Nindl I, Ulrich C, Meyer T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E. Viral warts in organ transplant recipients: new aspects in therapy. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149 Suppl 66:20-4 pubmed
    ..The majority of transplant recipients will develop warts induced by human papillomavirus (HPV)...
  63. Blokx W, Smit J, de Jong E, Link M, van de Kerkhof P, Ruiter D. Retinoids strongly and selectively correlate with keratin 13 and not keratin 19 expression in cutaneous warts of renal transplant recipients. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:61-5 pubmed
    To compare the expression of keratin (K) 13 and K19 in cutaneous warts of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and immunocompetent individuals (ICIs).