herpes zoster ophthalmicus


Summary: Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.

Top Publications

  1. Lau C, Missotten T, Salzmann J, Lightman S. Acute retinal necrosis features, management, and outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:756-62 pubmed
    ..Despite the guarded visual prognosis, RD repair may result in improved visual outcomes. ..
  2. Badilla J, Dolman P. Orbital myositis involving the oblique muscles associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23:411-3 pubmed
    An 81-year-old woman with right orbital inflammation and acute retinal necrosis following Herpes zoster ophthalmicus was evaluated and treated...
  3. Margolis T, Milner M, Shama A, Hodge W, Seiff S. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:285-91 pubmed
    To investigate the ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  4. Tyring S, Engst R, Corriveau C, Robillard N, Trottier S, Van Slycken S, et al. Famciclovir for ophthalmic zoster: a randomised aciclovir controlled study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:576-81 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of famciclovir with aciclovir for the treatment of ophthalmic zoster...
  5. Gross G, Schöfer H, Wassilew S, Friese K, Timm A, Guthoff R, et al. Herpes zoster guideline of the German Dermatology Society (DDG). J Clin Virol. 2003;26:277-89; discussion 291-3 pubmed
    ..Thus early presentation to a pain therapist is recommended in specific cases...
  6. Jude E, Chakraborty A. Images in clinical medicine. Left sixth cranial nerve palsy with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:e14 pubmed
  7. Sodhi P, Goel J. Presentations of cranial nerve involvement in two patients with Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. J Commun Dis. 2001;33:130-5 pubmed
    Two cases of Herpes zoster ophthalmicus complicated by motor nerve palsies are being reported. The investigations ruled out other diseases which can affect ocular motor nerves, e.g., diabetes, hypertension, syphilis and malignancy...
  8. Shaikh S, Ta C. Evaluation and management of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66:1723-30 pubmed
    b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the varicella-zoster virus is reactivated in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus represents up to one fourth of all cases of herpes zoster...
  9. Hodges S. Physical signs for the general dental practitioner: case 34, Herpes zoster (Dent Update 2006; 33: 252). Dent Update. 2006;33:378 pubmed

More Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gelb L. Preventing herpes zoster through vaccination. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:S35-8 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccine in the prevention of herpes zoster and its sequelae, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Wide administration of the herpes zoster vaccine in accordance with the recommendations of the Centers ..
  2. Furuta Y, Ohtani F, Mesuda Y, Fukuda S, Inuyama Y. Early diagnosis of zoster sine herpete and antiviral therapy for the treatment of facial palsy. Neurology. 2000;55:708-10 pubmed
    ..PCR-based early diagnosis of ZSH and antiviral therapy elicited an excellent outcome for recovery from facial palsy due to ZSH. ..
  3. Godecke Koch T, Schlimme J, Rada D, Emrich H. [Charles Bonnet syndrome in an elderly patient with bilateral vision loss, hyperthyroidism and relative digitalis overdose]. Nervenarzt. 2002;73:471-4 pubmed
    ..A brief review of this organic hallucinosis, differential diagnosis, especially hyperthyroidism-induced psychosis, and digitoxin-induced psychosis is given and current therapeutic strategies are suggested. ..
  4. Kezuka T, Sakai J, Usui N, Streilein J, Usui M. Evidence for antigen-specific immune deviation in patients with acute retinal necrosis. 2001. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:241-8 pubmed
  5. de Juan V, Martin R, Rodriguez G. Bitoric rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting for the management of a corneal scar caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Clin Exp Optom. 2012;95:229-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of a bitoric rigid gas permeable contact lens for the management of a scarred irregular cornea caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus is described...
  6. Cohen E. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ocular Disease. Cornea. 2015;34 Suppl 10:S3-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the first division of cranial nerve V is involved...
  7. Takei H, Ohno Matsui K, Hayano M, Mochizuki M. Indocyanine green angiographic findings in acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2002;46:330-5 pubmed
    ..The information obtained by IA might be useful to detect retinal vasculitis with prominent inflammation and to determine the extent of choroidal inflammation in patients with ARN. ..
  8. Chan C, Shen D, Tuo J. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of uveitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:41-55 pubmed
  9. Cheung M, Viney M. A unique case of recurrent asystole secondary to paroxysmal pain of acute herpetic ophthalmicus. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1127-9, table of contents pubmed
    ..Her severe paroxysmal pain and asystole were eventually managed with oxycontin, amitriptyline, gabapentin, and intranasal fentanyl spray. ..
  10. Nwosu N. HIV/AIDS in ophthalmic patients: The Guinness Eye Centre Onitsha experience. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2008;15:24-7 pubmed
    ..Herpetic eye disease constituted 50% of the cases with herpes zoster ophthalmicus accounting for 48%...
  11. Tugal Tutkun I, Otük Yasar B, Altinkurt E. Clinical features and prognosis of herpetic anterior uveitis: a retrospective study of 111 cases. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Three atopic patients had bilateral involvement. Twelve patients had active or a past episode of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Ocular findings were granulamatous anterior uveitis (93%), active keratitis or corneal scars (57%), ..
  12. Temple J. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: how is it identified and treated?. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2002;14:297-303; quiz 304-6 pubmed
    To describe herpes zoster ophthalmicus in relation to the anatomy, pathophysiology, course, diagnostic considerations, and management for the primary care provider...
  13. Al Abdulla N, Rismondo V, Minkowski J, Miller N. Herpes zoster vasculitis presenting as giant cell arteritis with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:912-4 pubmed
    ..woman presented with sudden onset of diplopia associated with temple headaches and a previous history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. A temporal artery biopsy was obtained and in-situ hybridization performed for herpes zoster DNA...
  14. Maichuk I. [Clinical forms and treatment of keratitis caused by varicella-zoster virus]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2003;119:35-8 pubmed
  15. Reinhard T, Roggendorf M, Fengler I, Sundmacher R. PCR for varicella zoster virus genome negative in corneal epithelial cells of patients with Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:304-5 pubmed
    ..All samples were negative with regard to varicella zoster virus genome. This result suggests that varicella zoster virus is most probably not the causative agent of Thygeson's superficial punctate keratitis. ..
  16. Sanjay S, Chan E, Gopal L, Hegde S, Chang B. Complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29:325-37 pubmed publisher
    Based on a review of 20 well-documented cases reported in the English literature between 1968 and 2008, herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) may rarely be associated with complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia, defined here as impaired ocular ..
  17. Chouliaras G, Spoulou V, Quinlivan M, Breuer J, Theodoridou M. Vaccine-associated herpes zoster ophthalmicus [correction of opthalmicus] and encephalitis in an immunocompetent child. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e969-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular analysis confirmed the vaccine strain as the causative agent. After an intravenous course with acyclovir, the child made a full recovery with no neurologic sequelae...
  18. Chern K, Conrad D, Holland G, Holsclaw D, Schwartz L, Margolis T. Chronic varicella-zoster virus epithelial keratitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:1011-7 pubmed
    ..The keratitis is characterized by dendriform lesions, prolonged course, and frequently by extreme pain. It can occur without an associated dermatitis. ..
  19. Thean J, Hall A, Stawell R. Uveitis in Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:406-10 pubmed
    b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a common condition occurring mostly in healthy people. Approximately 50% of HZO patients develop ocular complications, with iridocyclitis occurring in about 43%...
  20. Buckingham E, Foley M, Grose C, Syed N, Smith M, Margolis T, et al. Identification of Herpes Zoster-Associated Temporal Arteritis Among Cases of Giant Cell Arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018;187:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the 3 positive cases was noteworthy because the patient had had herpes zoster ophthalmicus diagnosed 3 weeks before the onset of GCA symptoms...
  21. Pinter E, Pek L. Dys- and paraproteinaemias in patients suffering from ophthalmic herpes zoster. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1994;3:116-9 pubmed
    ..These alterations were comparable with the extent and severity of the pathological processes. Para-proteins were detected in 12% of the patients. In contrast they were not present in the control group. ..
  22. Bhat G, Mathur D, Saxena G, Jain S, Singh A, Bhaduria D. Granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system associated with herpes zoster. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002;50:977-8 pubmed
    ..We describe a case which presented with right sided hemiplegia with aphasia, after herpes zoster ophthalmicus. CT scan and MRI brain showed a large left sided infarct in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) ..
  23. Yamada S, Atsuta N, Tokunaga S, Motegi Y. Ipsilateral truncal sensory deficit in a patient with ophthalmic zoster sine herpete. Neurology. 2003;60:1049-50 pubmed
  24. Sawyer A, Williams G. Misdiagnosis of burns: herpes zoster ophthalmicus. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27:914-6 pubmed
    Many conditions can mimic the presentation of burns. We present an interesting case in which the initial diagnosis of a chemical burn was later confirmed to be herpes zoster ophthalmicus.
  25. Richards J, Maartens G, Davidse A. Course and complications of varicella zoster ophthalmicus in a high HIV seroprevalence population (Cape Town, South Africa). Eye (Lond). 2009;23:376-81 pubmed
    ..All VZO patients should receive antiviral therapy at the first doctor's visit even if they present >72 h after onset of the rash. ..
  26. Parra A, Miyazaki F, Ribeiro R, Gehlen M, Skare T. [Analysis of 29 cases of scleritis. Experience of a Rheumato-Ophthalmology Service]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010;73:250-3 pubmed
    ..Patients with scleritis have a high rate of infectious and rheumatic diseases. Cooperation of rheumatologists and ophthalmologists was useful for the etiologic identification of patients with scleritis. ..
  27. Jarade E, Tabbara K. Presumed reactivation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus following laser in situ keratomileusis. J Refract Surg. 2002;18:79-80 pubmed
    To report a case of herpes zoster ophthalmicus reactivation following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. A 54-year-old healthy male underwent uneventful bilateral LASIK for the correction of myopia and astigmatism (-5.75 -3...
  28. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Nakar S, Vinker S. Herpetic eye disease in diabetic patients. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:2184-8 pubmed
    ..Ocular surface HED is significantly more common among patients with diabetes mellitus. Poor glycemic control correlates with increased consumption of ocular acyclovir in diabetic patients. ..
  29. Kaufman S. Anterior segment complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:S24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) can result in a myriad of chronic and recurrent complications that may be sight threatening...
  30. Labetoulle M. [Zona ophthalmica. Part I]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2008;31:457-8 pubmed
  31. Khalafallah A, Woodgate M, Koshy K, Patrick A. Ophthalmic manifestations of herpes zoster virus in patients with multiple myeloma following bone marrow transplantation. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013: pubmed publisher
    ..Two patients progressed to have chronic HZ ophthalmicus and postherpetic neuralgia requiring ongoing antiviral therapy and neuroepileptic medications for the neuropathic pain. ..
  32. Borkar D, Gonzales J, Tham V, Esterberg E, Vinoya A, Parker J, et al. Association between atopy and herpetic eye disease: results from the pacific ocular inflammation study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..between atopy and herpetic eye disease, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular disease and herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO)...
  33. Al Muammar A, Jackson W. Management of ophthalmic zoster mucous plaque keratopathy: report of three cases. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:74-6 pubmed
  34. Kaneko H, Matsuzaki S, Okazaki Y, Kudo D. Polymerase chain reaction during the treatment of acute retinal necrosis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:63-4 pubmed
  35. Magone M, Nasser R, Cevallos A, Margolis T. Chronic recurrent varicella-zoster virus keratitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:1135-6 pubmed
    ..Varicella virus epithelial keratitis in children can be a recurrent chronic condition requiring prolonged treatment. ..
  36. Opstelten W, Eekhof J, Neven A, Verheij T. Treatment of herpes zoster. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54:373-7 pubmed
    ..Oral antiviral drugs should be prescribed to elderly HZ patients with high risk of PHN. Moreover, these drugs should be prescribed to all patients at the first signs of ophthalmic HZ, irrespective of age or severity of symptoms. ..
  37. Hazirolan D, Sungur G, Demir N, Kasim R, Duman S. Focal posterior pole viral retinitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:925-30 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features of an atypical form of viral retinitis in immunocompetent patients...
  38. Papeix C, Dumurgier J, Milea D, Pierrot D. [Complete ophthalmoplegia complicating ophthalmic herpes zoster]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2005;161:590-2 pubmed
    ..MRI showed an associated ipsilateral temporal meningioma with cavernous sinus extension. We discuss the possible responsibility of these two conditions in the ocular motor signs. ..
  39. Usui Y, Goto H. Overview and diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Semin Ophthalmol. 2008;23:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge can help in both the diagnosis and design of therapeutic strategy for ARN syndrome. Here we review the clinical presentation and the current advances in the diagnosis of ARN syndrome...
  40. Puri L, Shrestha G, Shah D, Chaudhary M, Thakur A. Ocular manifestations in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2011;3:165-71 pubmed publisher
    Ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) may lead to substantial visual disability, severe post-herpetic neuralgia and rarely fatal cerebral complications...
  41. Wang T, Hu C, Lin H. Increased risk of anterior uveitis following herpes zoster: a nationwide population-based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:451-5 pubmed publisher
    ..06 (P < .001) when compared with patients without HZ. The risk of anterior uveitis increased in the year following a diagnosis of HZ. We suggest that patient eye condition be evaluated following diagnosis with HZ. ..
  42. Hoeksema L, Jansonius N, Los L. Risk Factors for Secondary Glaucoma in Herpetic Anterior Uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A risk factor for the development of glaucoma was the number of endured IOP peaks. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether early and prolonged use of antiviral and IOP-lowering medication may prevent glaucoma. ..
  43. Sharma S. Keratitis. Biosci Rep. 2001;21:419-44 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, noninfectious ulcerative keratitis can be related to a variety of systemic or local causes, predominantly of autoimmune origin. ..
  44. Emerson G, Smith J, Wilson D, Rosenbaum J, Flaxel C. Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2259-61 pubmed
    ..To explore the possibility of oral antiviral therapy in lieu of intravenous acyclovir for treating acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 or by varicella zoster virus...
  45. Weinberg J. Herpes zoster: epidemiology, natural history, and common complications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:S130-5 pubmed
    ..The zoster vaccine may help prevent the onset of herpes zoster in the target population of those age 60 years and older. This summary reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and common symptoms of zoster disease. ..
  46. Broderick K, Raymond W, Boden J. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and strabismus: a unique cause of secondary Brown syndrome. J AAPOS. 2017;21:335-337 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus can be associated with a variety of ocular and visual sequelae, including isolated or even multiple cranial neuropathies, potentially affecting the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves...
  47. Werner R, Steinhorst N, Nast A, Pleyer U. [Diagnostics and management of herpes zoster ophthalmicus]. Ophthalmologe. 2017;114:959-972 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article provides an overview of the contents of the current consensus-based European guidelines on the management of HZ with a specific focus on HZO. ..
  48. Meyer D. Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS. SADJ. 2005;60:386-7 pubmed
    ..Only the most frequently occurring manifestations will be highlighted. ..
  49. Srinivasan S, Ahn G, Anderson A. Meningoencephalitis-complicating herpes zoster ophthalmicus infection. J Hosp Med. 2009;4:E19-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a known complication of herpes zoster and the most common manifestation of cranial zoster, accounting for a significant number of zoster cases...
  50. Shin H, Lew H, Yun Y. A case of complete ophthalmoplegia in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2005;19:302-4 pubmed
    To report a case with complete ophthalmoplegia after herpes zoster ophthalmicus.
  51. Seiff S, Margolis T, Graham S, O Donnell J. Use of intravenous acyclovir for treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients at risk for AIDS. Ann Ophthalmol. 1988;20:480-2 pubmed
    ..We present two cases which emphasize the serious complications of Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in such patients...
  52. Verjans G, Feron E, Dings M, Cornelissen J, Van der Lelij A, Baarsma G, et al. T cells specific for the triggering virus infiltrate the eye in patients with herpes simplex virus-mediated acute retinal necrosis. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:27-34 pubmed
    ..67-0.73 HSV-1 map units. The data presented suggest the contribution of T cells, specific for the triggering virus, to the pathogenesis of ARN...
  53. Gnann J, Whitley R. Clinical practice. Herpes zoster. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:340-6 pubmed
  54. Opstelten W, Mauritz J, de Wit N, van Wijck A, Stalman W, van Essen G. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: incidence and risk indicators using a general practice research database. Fam Pract. 2002;19:471-5 pubmed
    ..From the point of view of possible prevention and early treatment, it is important to identify HZ patients who have an increased risk of developing PHN...
  55. Obata H, Yamagami S, Saito S, Sakai O, Tsuru T. A case of acute dacryoadenitis associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:107-9 pubmed
    ..Acute dacryoadenitis is an uncommon disease...
  56. Takei Y, Usui N, Dobashi N, Hagino T, Okawa Y, Takahara S, et al. [Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with malignant lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2004;45:250-1 pubmed
    ..Vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade saved his final visual acuity. This unusual event might be related to rituximab causing deterioration of humoral immunity...
  57. Gandhewar J, Birchall W, Kwartz J. Ophthalmic herpes zoster in an 18-month-old child. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2005;42:57-8 pubmed
    We present a case of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 18-month-old child. Early exposure to varicella zoster virus while being breast-fed appears to account for this clinical presentation...
  58. Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto T. [Case of Horner's syndrome associated with ophthalmic herpes zoster]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2007;47:105-8 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of herpes zoster ophthalmicus was made and he was started on acyclovir 750 mg/day...
  59. Shaw M, Handley S, Porooshani H. A case of internal ophthalmoplegia associated with varicella zoster. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012;49 Online:e44-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The internal ophthalmoplegia showed a potential mild improvement with oral acyclovir. Consideration should be given to starting treatment on presentation in such cases...
  60. Zaal M, Völker Dieben H, D Amaro J. Risk and prognostic factors of postherpetic neuralgia and focal sensory denervation: a prospective evaluation in acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Clin J Pain. 2000;16:345-51 pubmed
    ..To determine the general risk and the prognostic factors of postherpetic neuralgia and focal sensory denervation in ophthalmic zoster disease...
  61. McKelvie P, Francis I, Watson S, Nuovo G. Multifocal chorioretinal atrophy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:429-32 pubmed
    ..woman developed multiple depigmented lesions in the fundus 4-6 months after an episode of acute Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Post-mortem examination of the globe 15 years after this acute episode confirmed multiple old ..
  62. Starr C, Pavan Langston D. Varicella-zoster virus: mechanisms of pathogenicity and corneal disease. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2002;15:7-15, v pubmed
    ..b>Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is discussed with special attention to the cornea and mechanisms of viral keratitis.
  63. Vij O, Bornfeld N, Roggendorf M, Fiedler M, Schilling H. [Brivudine as an alternative systemic therapy to aciclovir and ganciclovir in acute retinal necrosis syndrome due to varicella-zoster virus]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2003;220:710-5 pubmed
    ..VZV-DNA was detected in vitreous biopsies by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR). The course of retinal necrosis was decisively improved by changing antiviral therapy from aciclovir and/or ganciclovir to brivudine...
  64. Evans R, Lee A. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ophthalmoplegia, and trauma. Headache. 2004;44:286-8 pubmed
  65. Dediulescu L. [The Bioptron light therapy]. Oftalmologia. 2004;48:70-6 pubmed
  66. Muthiah M, Michaelides M, Child C, Mitchell S. Acute retinal necrosis: a national population-based study to assess the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes in the UK. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1452-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes for acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in the UK...
  67. Liesegang T. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus natural history, risk factors, clinical presentation, and morbidity. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:S3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence and morbidity of herpes zoster (HZ) and HZ ophthalmicus (HZO), and the potential impact of varicella vaccine on their epidemiology...
  68. Kaufman S. Use of photorefractive keratectomy in a patient with a corneal scar secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:S33-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of LASIK surgery to correct vision in a patient with postzoster corneal scarring...
  69. Zaal M, Maudgal P, Rietveld E, Suir E. Chronic ocular zoster. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:125-30 pubmed
    In a prospective open trial 40 patients suffering from acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus were treated with systemic acyclovir...
  70. Sehgal V, Kumart S, Jain S, Bhattacharya S. Typical varicella zoster (ophthalmicus) in an HIV-infected person. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14:59-60 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was substantiated by demonstration of swollen epidermal (balloon) cells with a nucleus/several nuclei containing inclusion bodies. Reticular degeneration was apparent...
  71. Liesegang T. Herpes zoster virus infection. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2004;15:531-6 pubmed
    ..Infection with VZV has different ramifications for people of different ages and immune status. The various aspects of VZV disease make it difficult to treat. Selected aspects of VZV disease that pertain to ocular disease are presented...
  72. Dawodu O, Osahon A, Alikah A, Bakare C. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus. S Afr Med J. 2005;95:30-1 pubmed
  73. Aizman A, Johnson M, Elner S. Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:307-12 pubmed
    ..We investigated the use of the oral antiviral medications valacyclovir and famciclovir as the sole treatment for patients with newly diagnosed ARN syndrome...
  74. Ghaznawi N, Virdi A, Dayan A, Hammersmith K, Rapuano C, Laibson P, et al. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: comparison of disease in patients 60 years and older versus younger than 60 years. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2242-50 pubmed publisher
    To study the clinical course of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and to compare the demographics, treatments, and outcomes in patients aged <60 years versus patients aged ?60 years at the time of diagnosis.
  75. Kosker M, Duman F, Suri K, Hammersmith K, Nagra P, Rapuano C. Long-term results of keratoplasty in patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Cornea. 2013;32:982-6 pubmed publisher
    To report the long-term results of keratoplasty in patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO).
  76. Foster R, Petersen M, Neuss M, Osher R. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome in a lymphoma patient with good visual outcome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:117-20 pubmed
    ..To report an HIV-negative lymphoma patient who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome and who had a good visual outcome after treatment with two-drug antiviral therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin...
  77. Goddard R. The reawakening of a sleeping little giant. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:384-6 pubmed
    ..Incorrect diagnosis leads to delay in providing effective treatment and could result in failure to identify potentially hazardous ocular complications and to prevent chronic post-herpetic pain...
  78. Ofek Shlomai N, Averbuch D, Wolf D, Engelhard D. Varicella zoster virus encephalitis in a previously healthy five-year-old child with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:476-7 pubmed
  79. Zwick O, Fischer D, Flanagan J. "Ecstasy" induced immunosuppression and herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:923-4 pubmed
  80. Hillenkamp J, Nölle B, Bruns C, Rautenberg P, Fickenscher H, Roider J. Acute retinal necrosis: clinical features, early vitrectomy, and outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1971-5.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the viral diagnosis and the outcome of eyes with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) treated with intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone alone or combined with early vitrectomy and intravitreal acyclovir lavage...
  81. Liesegang T. Varicella zoster virus vaccines: effective, but concerns linger. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 vaccines are intertwined in the future epidemiology of VZV disease...
  82. Watkinson S, Seewoodhary R. Managing the care of patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Nurs Stand. 2011;25:35-40 pubmed
    ..When the eye is involved, the virus is referred to as herpes zoster ophthalmicus. This article discusses the role of the nurse in managing the care of patients with herpes zoster ..
  83. Watkinson S. Assessment and management of patients with acute red eye. Nurs Older People. 2013;25:27-34; quiz 35 pubmed
    ..The conditions discussed are acute closed angle glaucoma, acute iritis, acute conjunctivitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and bacterial corneal ulcer.
  84. Chess J, Marcus D. Zoster-related bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome as presenting sign in AIDS. Ann Ophthalmol. 1988;20:431-5, 438 pubmed
    ..We report the development of bilateral ARN (BARN) after unilateral Herpes zoster ophthalmicus as the presenting sign of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a previously healthy man...
  85. Biswas J, Deka S, Padmaja S, Madhavan H, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Central retinal vein occlusion due to herpes zoster as the initial presenting sign in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:125-30 pubmed
    ..This case report is about a 40-year-old man with herpes zoster ophthalmicus and central retinal vein occlusion of the right eye who is HIV-positive...
  86. Ramsay A, Young S, Lightman S. Failure of antiretroviral therapy to control Varicella zoster retinitis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2001;29:433-4 pubmed
    ..Patients with VZR and AIDS should therefore be monitored for reactivation of retinal disease despite HAART-induced remission...
  87. Nogueira R, Sheen V. Images in clinical medicine. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus followed by contralateral hemiparesis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1127 pubmed
  88. Aslanides I, De Souza S, Wong D, Giavedoni L, Altomare F, Detorakis E, et al. Oral valacyclovir in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Retina. 2002;22:352-4 pubmed
  89. Pervez H, Potti A, Mehdi S. Concomitant bilateral herpes zoster opthalmicus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:699 pubmed
  90. Severson E, Baratz K, Hodge D, Burke J. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in olmsted county, Minnesota: have systemic antivirals made a difference?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:386-90 pubmed
    To determine the frequency of complications and adverse outcomes due to herpes zoster ophthalmicus before and after the introduction of oral antiviral medications in a community-based setting.
  91. Omoti A, Omoti C. Maxillary herpes zoster with corneal involvement in a HIV positive pregnant woman. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11:133-6 pubmed
    ..She was HIV positive and was on treatment with the highly active antiretroviral therapy. She was treated with topical and systemic acyclovir with rapid resolution of the ocular features...
  92. Semionov V, Shvartzman P. Post herpetic itching--a treatment dilemma. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:366-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To present a case of severe disabling postherpetic itching (PHI) and discuss possible mechanisms and management...