herpes zoster

Summary

Summary: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Vella M, Mastrocinque G, Romeo S, Giammanco G, Melloni D. [S1 Herpes zoster localization: acute urinary retention in woman]. Urologia. 2011;78:145-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Herpes zoster has been reported to affect, although rarely, lower urinary tract innervations, and acute urinary retention ..
  2. Ernst P, Dell Aniello S, Mikaeloff Y, Suissa S. Risk of herpes zoster in patients prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: a cohort study. BMC Pulm Med. 2011;11:59 pubmed publisher
    Little is known concerning risk factors for herpes zoster in the general population...
  3. Wu M, Hsu Y, Su C, Lin Y, Lin H. Risk of herpes zoster in CKD: a matched-cohort study based on administrative data. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60:548-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although decreased cellular immunity increases susceptibility to herpes zoster, the risk of herpes zoster in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear...
  4. Shapiro M, Kvern B, Watson P, Guenther L, McElhaney J, Mcgeer A. Update on herpes zoster vaccination: a family practitioner's guide. Can Fam Physician. 2011;57:1127-31 pubmed
    To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine...
  5. Lee K, Zhou W, Scott McKean J, Emmerling K, Cai G, Krah D, et al. Human sensory neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells support varicella-zoster virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53010 pubmed publisher
    ..Since limited neuronal populations are capable of supporting the entire VZV and HSV life cycles, our iPS-derived sensory neuron model may prove useful for studying alphaherpesvirus latency and reactivation. ..
  6. Aldaz P, Diaz J, Loayssa J, Dronda M, Oscariz M, Castilla J. [Herpes zoster incidence in diabetic patients]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2013;36:57-62 pubmed
    To assess the risk of herpes zoster in people with diabetes mellitus in comparison with the general population...
  7. Guzzetta G, Poletti P, Del Fava E, Ajelli M, Scalia Tomba G, Merler S, et al. Hope-Simpson's progressive immunity hypothesis as a possible explanation for herpes zoster incidence data. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177:1134-42 pubmed publisher
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ) (shingles)...
  8. Chao D, Chien Y, Yeh Y, Hsu P, Lian I. The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Taiwan during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 2000-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However the vaccine's long-term impact on the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) has attracted attention...
  9. Liu Y, Yang Y, Hsiao H, Yang W, Liu T, Chang C, et al. Herpes zoster is associated with an increased risk of subsequent lymphoid malignancies - a nationwide population-based matched-control study in Taiwan. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:503 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Herpes zoster infection, commonly seen in immunocompromised persons, has been reported to be associated with lymphoid ..

More Information

Publications86

  1. Bilcke J, Ogunjimi B, Hulstaert F, Van Damme P, Hens N, Beutels P. Estimating the age-specific duration of herpes zoster vaccine protection: a matter of model choice?. Vaccine. 2012;30:2795-800 pubmed publisher
    The estimation of herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine efficacy by time since vaccination and age at vaccination is crucial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HZ vaccination...
  2. Chi C, Chu C, Liu J, Lin C, Ho M, Lo W, et al. Anti-IFN-? autoantibodies in adults with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are associated with HLA-DRB1*16:02 and HLA-DQB1*05:02 and the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus infection. Blood. 2013;121:1357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to dNTM infection, 35% and 71% of our patients also suffered from salmonellosis and herpes zoster, respectively...
  3. Blank L, Polydefkis M, Moore R, Gebo K. Herpes zoster among persons living with HIV in the current antiretroviral therapy era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;61:203-7 pubmed
    Previously, herpes zoster (HZ) was found to occur at a higher rate in the HIV population than the general population...
  4. Gil Prieto R, Walter S, Gonzalez Escalada A, García García L, Marín García P, Gil de Miguel A. Different vaccination strategies in Spain and its impact on severe varicella and zoster. Vaccine. 2014;32:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..varicella zoster virus infections through the analysis of the hospital discharges related to varicella and herpes zoster in the general population from 2005 to 2010 in Spain...
  5. Andrei G, Snoeck R. Emerging drugs for varicella-zoster virus infections. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2011;16:507-35 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of two distinct diseases, varicella (chickenpox) and shingles (herpes zoster)...
  6. Poletti P, Melegaro A, Ajelli M, Del Fava E, Guzzetta G, Faustini L, et al. Perspectives on the impact of varicella immunization on herpes zoster. A model-based evaluation from three European countries. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60732 pubmed publisher
    ..delayed in many European countries because of, among other factors, the possibility of a large increase in Herpes Zoster (HZ) incidence in the first decades after the initiation of vaccination, due to the expected decline of the ..
  7. Long M, Martin C, Sandler R, Kappelman M. Increased risk of herpes zoster among 108 604 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;37:420-9 pubmed publisher
    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on certain immunosuppressants have increased herpes zoster (HZ) risk. To determine the risk of HZ in IBD and how antitumour necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) agents affect this risk...
  8. Habel L, Ray G, Silverberg M, Horberg M, Yawn B, Castillo A, et al. The epidemiology of herpes zoster in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:82-90 pubmed publisher
    Given the limited literature, we conducted a study to examine the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) among newly diagnosed cancer patients...
  9. Roycroft E, Rose L, Scallan M, Crowley B. Molecular characterization of varicella-zoster virus clinical isolates from 2006 to 2008 in a tertiary care hospital, Dublin, Ireland, using different genotyping methods. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkable VZV heterogeneity remains prevalent in Ireland. This is the first evidence of putative VZV recombination found in Ireland. ..
  10. Winthrop K, Baddley J, Chen L, Liu L, Grijalva C, Delzell E, et al. Association between the initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and the risk of herpes zoster. JAMA. 2013;309:887-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster reactivation disproportionately affects patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is unclear whether anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy elevates herpes zoster risk...
  11. Goldman G, King P. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data. Vaccine. 2013;31:1680-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking...
  12. Yawn B, Wollan P, St Sauver J. Comparing shingles incidence and complication rates from medical record review and administrative database estimates: how close are they?. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174:1054-61 pubmed publisher
    Accurate rates of herpes zoster incidence and complication have become of greater interest as studies have suggested an increasing temporal trend in incidence rates across all age groups and long-term follow-up studies of vaccine ..
  13. Yawn B, Gilden D. The global epidemiology of herpes zoster. Neurology. 2013;81:928-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Zoster may be followed by multiple neurologic disorders (meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and vasculopathy, including VZV temporal arteritis) as well as ocular disease (acute or progressive outer retinal necrosis). ..
  14. Bilcke J, Marais C, Ogunjimi B, Willem L, Hens N, Beutels P. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster in adults aged over 60 years in Belgium. Vaccine. 2012;30:675-84 pubmed publisher
    To assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating all or subgroups of adults aged 60 to 85 years against herpes zoster. A deterministic compartmental static model was developed (in freeware R), in which cohorts can acquire herpes zoster ..
  15. Sloutskin A, Kinchington P, Goldstein R. Productive vs non-productive infection by cell-free varicella zoster virus of human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells is dependent upon infectious viral dose. Virology. 2013;443:285-93 pubmed publisher
    Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) productively infects humans causing varicella upon primary infection and herpes zoster upon reactivation from latency in neurons...
  16. Hechter R, Tartof S, Jacobsen S, Smith N, Tseng H. Trends and disparity in zoster vaccine uptake in a managed care population. Vaccine. 2013;31:4564-8 pubmed publisher
    Zoster vaccine is recommended for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older...
  17. Sreenivasan N, Basit S, Wohlfahrt J, Pasternak B, Munch T, Nielsen L, et al. The short- and long-term risk of stroke after herpes zoster - a nationwide population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69156 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study found an increased risk of stroke within one year of herpes zoster. We aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke.
  18. Klompas M, Kulldorff M, Vilk Y, Bialek S, Harpaz R. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia surveillance using structured electronic data. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:1146-53 pubmed publisher
    To develop electronic algorithms for rapid, automated surveillance for herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) using codified electronic health data.
  19. de Boer P, Pouwels K, Cox J, Hak E, Wilschut J, Postma M. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination of the elderly against herpes zoster in The Netherlands. Vaccine. 2013;31:1276-83 pubmed publisher
    Each year a substantial number of Dutch elderly suffers from herpes zoster (HZ), caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV)...
  20. Chao C, Lai C, Huang J. Risk factors for herpes zoster reactivation in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23:711-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation is common in immunocompromised patients. Advanced renal failure is also reportedly associated with impairment of cellular immunity...
  21. Wu P, Wu H, Chou T, Sung F. Varicella vaccination alters the chronological trends of herpes zoster and varicella. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77709 pubmed publisher
    Population studies on trends of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) associated with varicella zoster vaccination and climate is limited.
  22. Cebrián Cuenca A, Diez Domingo J, San Martin Rodriguez M, Puig Barbera J, Navarro Pérez J. Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among patients treated in primary care centres in the Valencian community of Spain. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:302 pubmed publisher
    Data on the epidemiology and costs related to herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in Spain are scarce; therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of HZ and its most common ..
  23. Schmader K, Oxman M, Levin M, Johnson G, Zhang J, Betts R, et al. Persistence of the efficacy of zoster vaccine in the shingles prevention study and the short-term persistence substudy. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Short-Term Persistence Substudy (STPS) was initiated after the SPS to further assess the persistence of vaccine efficacy...
  24. Xing Q, Hu D, Shi F, Chen F. Role of regulatory T cells in patients with acute herpes zoster and relationship to postherpetic neuralgia. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305:715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..is to analyze distribution of peripheral T cell subsets including regulatory T cells in patients with acute herpes zoster (AHZ) and investigate its relationship to the development of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)...
  25. Chlibek R, Bayas J, Collins H, de la Pinta M, Ledent E, Mols J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine against herpes zoster in adults >=50 years of age. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1953-61 pubmed publisher
    An adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) subunit vaccine candidate for herpes zoster is in development...
  26. Frazer I, Levin M. Paradigm shifting vaccines: prophylactic vaccines against latent varicella-zoster virus infection and against HPV-associated cancer. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Zostavax is the first vaccine licensed to prevent disease in patients already infected with a pathogen, and is contrasted with Gardasil and Cervarix, the first vaccines designed and licensed specifically to prevent cancers...
  27. Kleemann P, Distler E, Wagner E, Thomas S, Klobuch S, Aue S, et al. Varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins B and E are major targets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells reconstituting during zoster after allogeneic transplantation. Haematologica. 2012;97:874-82 pubmed publisher
    After allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation patients are at increased risk for herpes zoster as long as varicella-zoster virus specific T-cell reconstitution is impaired...
  28. Bilcke J, Ogunjimi B, Marais C, De Smet F, Callens M, Callaert K, et al. The health and economic burden of chickenpox and herpes zoster in Belgium. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2096-109 pubmed
    Varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox (CP) and after reactivation herpes zoster (HZ). Vaccines are available against both diseases warranting an assessment of the pre-vaccination burden of disease...
  29. Langan S, Smeeth L, Margolis D, Thomas S. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness against incident herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in an older US population: a cohort study. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001420 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)...
  30. Gaillat J, Gajdos V, Launay O, Malvy D, Demoures B, Lewden L, et al. Does monastic life predispose to the risk of Saint Anthony's fire (herpes zoster)?. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:405-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore compared the frequency of herpes zoster in an adult population with virtually no varicella zoster virus (VZV) exposure with that in the general ..
  31. Reda H, Greene K, Rice F, Rowbotham M, Petersen K. Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10). Pain. 2013;154:2227-33 pubmed publisher
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication after herpes zoster (HZ)...
  32. Jansen K, Haastert B, Michalik C, Guignard A, Esser S, Dupke S, et al. Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:372 pubmed publisher
    HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9-5.1/100 person-years...
  33. Lionis C, Vardavas C, Symvoulakis E, Papadakaki M, Anastasiou F, Antonopoulou M, et al. Measuring the burden of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia within primary care in rural Crete, Greece. BMC Fam Pract. 2011;12:136 pubmed publisher
    ..indicated that general practitioners (GPs) have good clinical judgment in regards to diagnosing and managing herpes zoster (HZ) within clinical practice in a country with limited resources for primary care and general practice...
  34. Chen Y, Chen Y, Keller J, Lin H. A population-based case-control analysis of the association between herpes zoster and erectile dysfunction. J Infect. 2012;65:150-6 pubmed publisher
    To date, the occurrence of erectile dysfunction (ED) associating with herpes zoster (HZ) is only based on limited case reports...
  35. Pinchinat S, Cebrián Cuenca A, Bricout H, Johnson R. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:170 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ?50 years...
  36. Moanna A, Rimland D. Decreasing incidence of herpes zoster in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:122-5 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects...
  37. Andrei G, Snoeck R. Advances in the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. Adv Pharmacol. 2013;67:107-68 pubmed publisher
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes two distinct diseases, varicella (chickenpox) and shingles (herpes zoster)...
  38. Zhang J, Delzell E, Xie F, Baddley J, Spettell C, McMahan R, et al. The use, safety, and effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination in individuals with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases: a longitudinal observational study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R174 pubmed publisher
    ..has been approved in the United States for use in older individuals to reduce the risk and severity of herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles...
  39. van Rijckevorsel G, Damen M, Sonder G, van der Loeff M, van den Hoek A. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus and predictors for seronegativity in the Amsterdam adult population. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:140 pubmed publisher
  40. Hata A, Kuniyoshi M, Ohkusa Y. Risk of Herpes zoster in patients with underlying diseases: a retrospective hospital-based cohort study. Infection. 2011;39:537-44 pubmed publisher
    To determine the incidence of Herpes zoster in patients with one of 17 specific underlying diseases compared with that in patients with other underlying diseases.
  41. Leroux Roels I, Leroux Roels G, Clement F, Vandepapeliere P, Vassilev V, Ledent E, et al. A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating safety and immunogenicity of a varicella zoster glycoprotein e subunit vaccine candidate in young and older adults. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1280-90 pubmed
    An adjuvanted recombinant varicella zoster virus (VZV) subunit vaccine is being developed for the prevention of herpes zoster and its complications.
  42. Nagel M, Choe A, Cohrs R, Traktinskiy I, Sorensen K, Mehta S, et al. Persistence of varicella zoster virus DNA in saliva after herpes zoster. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Because VZV infection can produce neurological and ocular disease without zoster rash, future studies are needed to establish whether VZV DNA can be detected in the saliva of such patients...
  43. Gilden D, Nagel M, Cohrs R, Mahalingam R. The variegate neurological manifestations of varicella zoster virus infection. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013;13:374 pubmed publisher
  44. Mols J, Ledent E, Heineman T. Sampling of herpes zoster skin lesion types and the impact on viral DNA detection. J Virol Methods. 2013;188:145-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the optimal type of lesion sample for quantitative PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in herpes zoster patients...
  45. Zhang G, Lv M, Wang S, Chen L, Qian N, Tang Y, et al. Spinal astrocytic activation is involved in a virally-induced rat model of neuropathic pain. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23059 pubmed publisher
    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most common complication of herpes zoster (HZ), plays a major role in decreased life quality of HZ patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying PHN remain unclear...
  46. Selariu A, Cheng T, Tang Q, Silver B, Yang L, Liu C, et al. ORF7 of varicella-zoster virus is a neurotropic factor. J Virol. 2012;86:8614-24 pubmed publisher
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of chickenpox and herpes zoster (shingles)...
  47. Morant Talamante N, Diez Domingo J, Martínez Úbeda S, Puig Barbera J, Alemán Sánchez S, Pérez Breva L. Herpes zoster surveillance using electronic databases in the Valencian Community (Spain). BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:463 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiologic data of Herpes Zoster (HZ) disease in Spain are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HZ in the Valencian Community (Spain), using outpatient and hospital electronic health databases.
  48. Gagliardi A, Gomes Silva B, Torloni M, Soares B. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD008858 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster or, as it is commonly called, 'shingles' is a neurocutaneous disease characterised by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the virus that causes chickenpox, which is latent in the dorsal spinal ganglia when ..
  49. Ultsch B, Köster I, Reinhold T, Siedler A, Krause G, Icks A, et al. Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Germany. Eur J Health Econ. 2013;14:1015-26 pubmed publisher
    After acquiring a varicella virus infection, the virus can reactivate and cause herpes zoster (HZ)--a painful skin rash...
  50. Tseng H, Chi M, Smith N, Marcy S, Sy L, Jacobsen S. Herpes zoster vaccine and the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster in an immunocompetent elderly population. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The study assessed the association between vaccination and the incidence of herpes zoster recurrence among persons with a recent episode of clinically diagnosed herpes zoster.
  51. Crack L, Jones L, Malavige G, Patel V, Ogg G. Human antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and human ?-defensin-2 reduce viral replication in keratinocytes infected with varicella zoster virus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012;37:534-43 pubmed publisher
    ..There are several families of antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidins and human ?-defensins. Patients with AE are more susceptible to severe cutaneous viral infections, including varicella zoster virus (VZV)...
  52. Quinlivan M, Sengupta N, Papaevangelou V, Sauerbrei A, Grillner L, Rousseva R, et al. Use of oral fluid to examine the molecular epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses from the same outbreak belonged to different clades, but no clade was associated with a severe-disease phenotype. OF is suitable and convenient for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of VZV...
  53. Zhang J, Xie F, Delzell E, Chen L, Winthrop K, Lewis J, et al. Association between vaccination for herpes zoster and risk of herpes zoster infection among older patients with selected immune-mediated diseases. JAMA. 2012;308:43-9 pubmed publisher
    Based on limited data, the live attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is contraindicated in patients taking anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies or other biologics commonly used to treat immune-mediated diseases...
  54. Bruxelle J, Pinchinat S. Effectiveness of antiviral treatment on acute phase of herpes zoster and development of post herpetic neuralgia: review of international publications. Med Mal Infect. 2012;42:53-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster is due to the reactivation of the virus causing varicella, called varicella-zoster virus. It affects peripheral nerves and causes painful skin and nerve lesions...
  55. Sloan E, Henriquez R, Kinchington P, Slobedman B, Abendroth A. Varicella-zoster virus inhibition of the NF-?B pathway during infection of human dendritic cells: role for open reading frame 61 as a modulator of NF-?B activity. J Virol. 2012;86:1193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this work identifies a mechanism by which VZV modulates host immune function...
  56. Singhal P, Makin C, Pellissier J, Sy L, White R, Saddier P. Work and productivity loss related to herpes zoster. J Med Econ. 2011;14:639-45 pubmed publisher
    To estimate absenteeism and presenteeism-related work loss due to herpes zoster (HZ) among working individuals of 50-64 years of age.
  57. Mullane K, Winston D, Wertheim M, Betts R, Poretz D, Camacho L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of heat-treated zoster vaccine (ZVHT) in immunocompromised adults. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Safety and immunogenicity of heat-treated zoster vaccine (ZVHT) were assessed in immunocompromised adults...
  58. Canniff J, Donson A, Foreman N, Weinberg A. Cytotoxicity of glioblastoma cells mediated ex vivo by varicella-zoster virus-specific T cells. J Neurovirol. 2011;17:448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective effect of prior VZV infection against the incidence of glioma may be mediated by CTL that recognizes epitopes shared by VZV and glioma cells...
  59. Weitzman D, Shavit O, Stein M, Cohen R, Chodick G, Shalev V. A population based study of the epidemiology of Herpes Zoster and its complications. J Infect. 2013;67:463-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the incidence of Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its complications in the Israeli general population and specifically in immune-compromised individuals, and to identify risk factors for developing HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN).
  60. Drolet M, Oxman M, Levin M, Schmader K, Johnson R, Patrick D, et al. Vaccination against herpes zoster in developed countries: state of the evidence. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9:1177-84 pubmed publisher
    Although progress has been made in the treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), available therapeutic options are only partially effective...
  61. Joon Lee T, Hayes S, Cummings D, Cao Q, Carpenter K, Heim L, et al. Herpes zoster knowledge, prevalence, and vaccination rate by race. J Am Board Fam Med. 2013;26:45-51 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of self-reported herpes zoster (HZ) disease and vaccination in a geriatric population and to characterize the deciding factors to receive the HZ vaccine.
  62. Salleras M, Dominguez A, Soldevila N, Prat A, Garrido P, Torner N, et al. Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster. Vaccine. 2011;29:7602-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ? 25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazón ..
  63. Carroll S, Gater A, Abetz Webb L, Smith F, Demuth D, Mannan A. Challenges in quantifying the patient-reported burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in the UK: learnings from the Zoster Quality of Life (ZQOL) study. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:486 pubmed publisher
    Acute presentation of herpes zoster (HZ) and the subsequent development of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) can have a significant impact on patients' lives...
  64. Ultsch B, Siedler A, Rieck T, Reinhold T, Krause G, Wichmann O. Herpes zoster in Germany: quantifying the burden of disease. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:173 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged?50 years...
  65. Masia M, Robledano C, Ortiz de la Tabla V, Antequera P, López N, Gutierrez F. Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected patients. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64327 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the relationship of the Herpesviridiae with inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients...
  66. Yu X, Seitz S, Pointon T, Bowlin J, Cohrs R, Jonjic S, et al. Varicella zoster virus infection of highly pure terminally differentiated human neurons. J Neurovirol. 2013;19:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..VZV infection of highly pure terminally differentiated human neurons provides a unique in vitro system to study the VZV-neuronal relationship and the potential to investigate mechanisms of VZV reactivation...
  67. Joesoef R, Harpaz R, Leung J, Bialek S. Chronic medical conditions as risk factors for herpes zoster. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87:961-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the degree to which chronic conditions might contribute to the unexplained burden of herpes zoster.
  68. Lasserre A, Blaizeau F, Gorwood P, Bloch K, Chauvin P, Liard F, et al. Herpes zoster: family history and psychological stress-case-control study. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:153-7 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have reported risk factors for herpes zoster (HZ), but their results remain controversial and difficult to compare because of their limitations regarding sampling and design.
  69. Mahamud A, Marin M, Nickell S, Shoemaker T, Zhang J, Bialek S. Herpes zoster-related deaths in the United States: validity of death certificates and mortality rates, 1979-2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:960-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine was recommended in the United States to reduce HZ-associated morbidity. Vaccination may reduce HZ-associated mortality, but no strategy exists to monitor mortality trends.
  70. Bouhassira D, Chassany O, Gaillat J, Hanslik T, Launay O, Mann C, et al. Patient perspective on herpes zoster and its complications: an observational prospective study in patients aged over 50 years in general practice. Pain. 2012;153:342-9 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the effect of herpes zoster and zoster-related pain should inform care to improve health-related quality of life in elderly patients...
  71. Tseng H, Liu A, Sy L, Marcy S, Fireman B, Weintraub E, et al. Safety of zoster vaccine in adults from a large managed-care cohort: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study. J Intern Med. 2012;271:510-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine a large cohort of adults who received the zoster vaccine for evidence of an increased risk of prespecified adverse events requiring medical attention...
  72. Zerboni L, Sobel R, Lai M, Triglia R, Steain M, Abendroth A, et al. Apparent expression of varicella-zoster virus proteins in latency resulting from reactivity of murine and rabbit antibodies with human blood group a determinants in sensory neurons. J Virol. 2012;86:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal-derived antibodies must be screened for anti-blood type A reactivity to avoid misidentification of viral proteins in the neurons of the 30 to 40% of individuals who are blood type A...
  73. Irwin M, Levin M, Laudenslager M, Olmstead R, Lucko A, Lang N, et al. Varicella zoster virus-specific immune responses to a herpes zoster vaccine in elderly recipients with major depression and the impact of antidepressant medications. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..zoster vaccine), which boosts cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to VZV and decreases the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ)...
  74. Szucs T, Pfeil A. A systematic review of the cost effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination. Pharmacoeconomics. 2013;31:125-36 pubmed publisher
    The varicella zoster virus (VZV) can cause two infections: chickenpox or herpes zoster (HZ)...
  75. Buntinx F, Bartholomeeusen S, Belmans A, Mathei C, Opdenakker G, Sweldens K, et al. Association between recent herpes zoster but not herpes simplex infection and subsequent risk of malignancy in women: a retrospective cohort study. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:1008-17 pubmed publisher
    The association between herpes zoster and subsequent cancer risk is still unclear. Consequently, doubts remain regarding the need for investigation of herpes patients for co-existing or subsequent malignancy...
  76. Levin M. Immune senescence and vaccines to prevent herpes zoster in older persons. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012;24:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..immunity (VZV-CMI) in older persons prevents latent VZV in sensory neurons from reactivating to cause herpes zoster. VZV-CMI declines greatly with aging, but can be restored by the licensed zoster vaccine...
  77. Zerboni L, Sen N, Oliver S, Arvin A. Molecular mechanisms of varicella zoster virus pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014;12:197-210 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss how these models have improved our understanding of VZV pathogenesis. ..