marek disease

Summary

Summary: A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.

Top Publications

  1. Baigent S, Petherbridge L, Smith L, Zhao Y, Chesters P, Nair V. Herpesvirus of turkey reconstituted from bacterial artificial chromosome clones induces protection against Marek's disease. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:769-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the availability of the BAC clones enables use of HVT as a vector for expressing foreign genes...
  2. Suchodolski P, Izumiya Y, Lupiani B, Ajithdoss D, Gilad O, Lee L, et al. Homodimerization of Marek's disease virus-encoded Meq protein is not sufficient for transformation of lymphocytes in chickens. J Virol. 2009;83:859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The rMd5-MeqGCN virus replicated in vitro and in vivo but was unable to transform T cells in infected chickens. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that Meq homodimers are not sufficient for MDV-induced transformation...
  3. Niikura M, Kim T, Hunt H, Burnside J, Morgan R, Dodgson J, et al. Marek's disease virus up-regulates major histocompatibility complex class II cell surface expression in infected cells. Virology. 2007;359:212-9 pubmed
  4. Gimeno I. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 3:C31-41 pubmed
    ..Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper...
  5. Luo J, Mitra A, Tian F, Chang S, Zhang H, Cui K, et al. Histone methylation analysis and pathway predictions in chickens after MDV infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41849 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, dynamic line-specific histone modifications in response to MDV infection suggested that intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in MD-resistance and -susceptibility. ..
  6. Abdul Careem M, Haq K, Shanmuganathan S, Read L, Schat K, Heidari M, et al. Induction of innate host responses in the lungs of chickens following infection with a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2009;393:250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study demonstrates induction of innate host responses to MDV infection in the respiratory system. Further studies are needed to characterize other host responses generated in the lungs following MDV infection. ..
  7. Thanthrige Don N, Parvizi P, Sarson A, Shack L, Burgess S, Sharif S. Proteomic analysis of host responses to Marek's disease virus infection in spleens of genetically resistant and susceptible chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed light on some of the underlying processes of genetic resistance or susceptibility to MD. ..
  8. Blondeau C, Chbab N, Beaumont C, Courvoisier K, Osterrieder N, Vautherot J, et al. A full UL13 open reading frame in Marek's disease virus (MDV) is dispensable for tumor formation and feather follicle tropism and cannot restore horizontal virus transmission of rRB-1B in vivo. Vet Res. 2007;38:419-33 pubmed
    ..This finding also shows for the first time that a full UL13 ORF is dispensable for MDV tumor formation and feather follicle tropism. ..
  9. Abdul Careem M, Hunter D, Shanmuganathan S, Haghighi H, Read L, Heidari M, et al. Cellular and cytokine responses in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126:362-6 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications100

  1. Liu J, Kung H. Marek's disease herpesvirus transforming protein MEQ: a c-Jun analogue with an alternative life style. Virus Genes. 2000;21:51-64 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will attempt to summarize the past research progress on MDV meq, with a focused on the similarities and differences between MEQ and cellular proteins, and between MEQ and other viral oncoproteins...
  2. Islam A, Cheetham B, Mahony T, Young P, Walkden Brown S. Absolute quantitation of Marek's disease virus and Herpesvirus of turkeys in chicken lymphocyte, feather tip and dust samples using real-time PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006;132:127-34 pubmed
    ..These methods should prove useful for the reliable differentiation and absolute quantitation of MDV1 and HVT viruses in a wide range of samples...
  3. Heidari M, Sarson A, Huebner M, Sharif S, Kireev D, Zhou H. Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression: array analysis of chicken immune response gene expression profiling. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These chicken arrays are valuable tools in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind viral pathogenesis and chicken gene expression patterns, and associated biological pathways in response to MDV infection. ..
  4. Li X, Jarosinski K, Schat K. Expression of Marek's disease virus phosphorylated polypeptide pp38 produces splice variants and enhances metabolic activity. Vet Microbiol. 2006;117:154-68 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that pp38 and the two newly described splice variants may influence metabolic activity, which may have important consequences for the understanding of latency and tumor development. ..
  5. Kamil J, Tischer B, Trapp S, Nair V, Osterrieder N, Kung H. vLIP, a viral lipase homologue, is a virulence factor of Marek's disease virus. J Virol. 2005;79:6984-96 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that this particular example of lipase homology may represent the repurposing of an alpha/beta hydrolase fold toward a nonenzymatic role, possibly in lipid bonding. ..
  6. Yao Y, Zhao Y, Smith L, Lawrie C, Saunders N, Watson M, et al. Differential expression of microRNAs in Marek's disease virus-transformed T-lymphoma cell lines. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the functional targets of these miRNAs would contribute to the understanding of the molecular pathways of MD oncogenicity. ..
  7. Jarosinski K, Margulis N, Kamil J, Spatz S, Nair V, Osterrieder N. Horizontal transmission of Marek's disease virus requires US2, the UL13 protein kinase, and gC. J Virol. 2007;81:10575-87 pubmed
    ..The experiments clearly showed that US2, UL13, and gC in combination are essential for horizontal transmission of MDV and that none of the genes alone is able to restore this phenotype. ..
  8. Buza J, Burgess S. Modeling the proteome of a Marek's disease transformed cell line: a natural animal model for CD30 overexpressing lymphomas. Proteomics. 2007;7:1316-26 pubmed
    ..The cytokines, cytokine receptors, and their related proteins suggest that UA-01 has a regulatory T-cell phenotype. ..
  9. Kaufer B, Arndt S, Trapp S, Osterrieder N, Jarosinski K. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR) with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002333 pubmed publisher
  10. Sung H. Recent increase of Marek's disease in Korea related to the virulence increase of the virus. Avian Dis. 2002;46:517-24 pubmed
    ..Serotype 1 vaccine could dramatically decrease the mortality due to MD, and the best results were obtained from the flocks vaccinated with bivalent vaccine of Rispens and HVT...
  11. Jarosinski K, Arndt S, Kaufer B, Osterrieder N. Fluorescently tagged pUL47 of Marek's disease virus reveals differential tissue expression of the tegument protein in vivo. J Virol. 2012;86:2428-36 pubmed publisher
  12. Li Y, Reddy K, Reid S, Cox W, Brown I, Britton P, et al. Recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys as a vector-based vaccine against highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza and Marek's disease. Vaccine. 2011;29:8257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek's disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine...
  13. Parvizi P, Read L, Abdul Careem M, Sarson A, Lusty C, Lambourne M, et al. Cytokine gene expression in splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets of genetically resistant and susceptible chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;132:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..However, an association between cytokine gene expression in T cell subsets and resistance or susceptibility to MD was not established. ..
  14. Jarosinski K. Marek's disease virus late protein expression in feather follicle epithelial cells as early as 8 days postinfection. Avian Dis. 2012;56:725-31 pubmed
    ..In summary, though viral DNA can be detected as early as 6 days p.i., late viral protein expression, indicative of infectious virus production, occurs 2-3 days after DNA detection, but earlier than previously thought. ..
  15. Engel A, Selvaraj R, Kamil J, Osterrieder N, Kaufer B. Marek's disease viral interleukin-8 promotes lymphoma formation through targeted recruitment of B cells and CD4+ CD25+ T cells. J Virol. 2012;86:8536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence that vIL-8 attracts B and CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells to recruit targets for both lytic and latent infection. ..
  16. Abdul Careem M, Read L, Parvizi P, Thanthrige Don N, Sharif S. Marek's disease virus-induced expression of cytokine genes in feathers of genetically defined chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply the usefulness of genetic control approach in reducing virulent MDV transmission...
  17. Burgess S, Basaran B, Davison T. Resistance to Marek's disease herpesvirus-induced lymphoma is multiphasic and dependent on host genotype. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:129-42 pubmed
    ..The rank order, determined by clinical signs and pathology, for MD susceptibility (highest to lowest) was 7(2) > 15I > 6(1) > N...
  18. Gimeno I, Witter R, Hunt H, Lee L, Reddy S, Neumann U. Marek's disease virus infection in the brain: virus replication, cellular infiltration, and major histocompatibility complex antigen expression. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:491-503 pubmed
    ..These results enhance our understanding of the nature and pattern of MDV infection in the brain and help to explain the neurovirulence associated with highly virulent MDV. ..
  19. Praslickova D, Sharif S, Sarson A, Abdul Careem M, Zadworny D, Kulenkamp A, et al. Association of a marker in the vitamin D receptor gene with Marek's disease resistance in poultry. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1112-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Cheng H, Niikura M, Kim T, Mao W, MacLea K, Hunt H, et al. Using integrative genomics to elucidate genetic resistance to Marek's disease in chickens. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;132:365-72 pubmed
    ..This integrative genomics strategy can be applied to other infectious diseases. The impact of the genome sequence and other technological advancements are also discussed...
  21. Schat K, Xing Z. Specific and nonspecific immune responses to Marek's disease virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2000;24:201-21 pubmed
    ..A proposed model for the interactions of cytokines and immune responses as part of the pathogenesis of MD is discussed...
  22. Reddy S, Lupiani B, Gimeno I, Silva R, Lee L, Witter R. Rescue of a pathogenic Marek's disease virus with overlapping cosmid DNAs: use of a pp38 mutant to validate the technology for the study of gene function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7054-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, because Marek's disease is a major oncogenic system, the knowledge obtained from these studies may shed light on the oncogenic mechanisms of other herpesviruses. ..
  23. Silva R, Dunn J, Cheng H, Niikura M. A MEQ-deleted Marek's disease virus cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome is a highly efficacious vaccine. Avian Dis. 2010;54:862-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, BACdelMEQ has the potential to be a superior MD vaccine as well as a vector to deliver various foreign genes to poultry. ..
  24. Zelnik V. Marek's disease virus research in the post-sequencing era: new tools for the study of gene functions and virus-host interactions. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:323-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have shown that MDV BAC DNA can be used as a polynucleotide vaccine to protect against Marek's disease, thus opening a new chapter in strategies for control of this disease. ..
  25. Thanthrige Don N, Abdul Careem M, Shack L, Burgess S, Sharif S. Analyses of the spleen proteome of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2009;390:356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings provide a basis for further studies aimed at elucidation of the role of these proteins in MDV interactions with its host. ..
  26. Teng L, Wei P, Song Z, He J, Cui Z. Molecular epidemiological investigation of Marek's disease virus from Guangxi, China. Arch Virol. 2011;156:203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences may be partly responsible for the most recent outbreaks in Guangxi. ..
  27. Dunn J, Witter R, Silva R, Lee L, Finlay J, Marker B, et al. The effect of the time interval between exposures on the susceptibility of chickens to superinfection with Marek's disease virus. Avian Dis. 2010;54:1038-49 pubmed
    ..This model system should be useful to elucidate this important phenomenon further. ..
  28. Shack L, Buza J, Burgess S. The neoplastically transformed (CD30hi) Marek's disease lymphoma cell phenotype most closely resembles T-regulatory cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008;57:1253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequences that could be bound by the MD virus putative oncoprotein Meq in each of these genes' promoters suggests that the MD herpesvirus may play a direct role in maintaining this T-reg-like phenotype. ..
  29. Jarosinski K, Tischer B, Trapp S, Osterrieder N. Marek's disease virus: lytic replication, oncogenesis and control. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:761-72 pubmed
  30. Spatz S, Rue C, Schumacher D, Osterrieder N. Clustering of mutations within the inverted repeat regions of a serially passaged attenuated gallid herpesvirus type 2 strain. Virus Genes. 2008;37:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequencing of the attenuated strain 584Ap80 and comparison to that of the virulent parent 584A passage 9 (584Ap9) has provided a wealth of information regarding genetic changes which have occurred during the attenuation process...
  31. Spatz S, Rue C. Sequence determination of a mildly virulent strain (CU-2) of Gallid herpesvirus type 2 using 454 pyrosequencing. Virus Genes. 2008;36:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most occur in proteins of unknown function, a significant percentage is in proteins involved in virion assembly...
  32. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Sarson A, Parvizi P, Haghighi H, Read L, et al. Host responses are induced in feathers of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2008;370:323-32 pubmed
    ..The finding that host responses are generated in the feather may be exploited for developing strategies to control MDV infection in the FFE, thus preventing horizontal virus transmission...
  33. Xu S, Xue C, Li J, Bi Y, Cao Y. Marek's disease virus type 1 microRNA miR-M3 suppresses cisplatin-induced apoptosis by targeting Smad2 of the transforming growth factor beta signal pathway. J Virol. 2011;85:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the knowledge of the apoptosis resistance conferred by viral miRNAs has great practical implications for improving the efficacy of chemotherapies for treating cancers, especially those induced by oncogenic viruses...
  34. Chen C, Li H, Xie Q, Shang H, Ji J, Bai S, et al. Transcriptional profiling of host gene expression in chicken liver tissues infected with oncogenic Marek's disease virus. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2724-33 pubmed publisher
  35. Denesvre C. Marek's disease virus morphogenesis. Avian Dis. 2013;57:340-50 pubmed
    ..An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed...
  36. Lipkin E, Fulton J, Cheng H, Yonash N, Soller M. Quantitative trait locus mapping in chickens by selective DNA pooling with dinucleotide microsatellite markers by using purified DNA and fresh or frozen red blood cells as applied to marker-assisted selection. Poult Sci. 2002;81:283-92 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that use of selective DNA pooling can provide relatively low-cost mapping and use in marker-assisted selection of QTL that affect production traits in chickens...
  37. Wakenell P, O Connell P, Blackmore C, Mondal S, Schat K. Role of Marek's disease herpesvirus in the induction of tumours in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) by methylcholanthrene. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MDV transcripts were present in 13/18 tumours examined in the JM16+MCA group. In conclusion, MDV did not affect tumour development but did influence tumour aggression and histological type...
  38. Sarson A, Abdul Careem M, Zhou H, Sharif S. Transcriptional analysis of host responses to Marek's disease viral infection. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:747-58 pubmed
    ..Identification of genetic mechanisms initiated by in vivo infection with MDV expands the current understanding of immune response to the virus in addition to host response elements associated with viral pathogenesis...
  39. Tan J, Cooke J, Clarke N, Tannock G. Optimization of methods for the isolation of Marek's disease viruses in primary chicken cell cultures. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:312-8 pubmed
    ..Significant improvements were obtained in the isolation rate of strains capable of growing to high titre (>10(4) plaque-forming units/mL) for use in challenge studies...
  40. Singh S, Baigent S, Petherbridge L, Smith L, Nair V. Comparative efficacy of BAC-derived recombinant SB-1 vaccine and the parent wild type strain in preventing replication, shedding and disease induced by virulent Marek's disease virus. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine viruses derived from each of these clones demonstrated protective efficacies at levels similar to those produced by the respective parent viruses, demonstrating their suitability to be used as vaccine candidates...
  41. Jarosinski K, Hunt H, Osterrieder N. Down-regulation of MHC class I by the Marek's disease virus (MDV) UL49.5 gene product mildly affects virulence in a haplotype-specific fashion. Virology. 2010;405:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the pathogenic effect of MHC class I down-regulation mediated by pUL49.5 is small because virus immune evasion possibly requires more than one viral protein...
  42. Shamblin C, Greene N, Arumugaswami V, Dienglewicz R, Parcells M. Comparative analysis of Marek's disease virus (MDV) glycoprotein-, lytic antigen pp38- and transformation antigen Meq-encoding genes: association of meq mutations with MDVs of high virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:147-67 pubmed
  43. Keles H, Fidan A, Cigerci I, Kucukkurt I, Karadas E, Dundar Y. Increased DNA damage and oxidative stress in chickens with natural Marek's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:51-8 pubmed publisher
  44. Li Y, Sun A, Su S, Zhao P, Cui Z, Zhu H. Deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic Marek's disease virus. Virol J. 2011;8:2 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens...
  45. Zheng Y, Cui Z, Zhao P, Li H, Liu C, Tian Z, et al. Effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus and Marek's disease virus infection and co-infection on IFN-gamma production in SPF chickens. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:213-6 pubmed
    ..For REV- or MDV-infected chickens, the IFN-gamma levels decreased slightly after adding ConA. This is the first report of IFN-gamma production in SPF chickens infected with REV and MDV measured by directly quantitative method...
  46. Baaten B, Butter C, Davison T. Study of host-pathogen interactions to identify sustainable vaccine strategies to Marek's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;100:165-77 pubmed
    ..Resistance conferred by vaccination and the implications of targeting replicative stages of the virus will also be examined...
  47. Xiang J, Ma G, Zhang S, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, et al. Expression and intracellular localization of duck enteritis virus pUL38 protein. Virol J. 2010;7:162 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, pUL38 was found in purified virus. These results provide the first evidence of the kinetics of expression and intracellular localization of DEV pUL38...
  48. Quere P, Rivas C, Ester K, Novak R, Ragland W. Abundance of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA in blood of resistant and susceptible chickens infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) or vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus; and MDV inhibition of subsequent induction of IFN gene transcription. Arch Virol. 2005;150:507-19 pubmed
  49. Witter R, Calnek B, Buscaglia C, Gimeno I, Schat K. Classification of Marek's disease viruses according to pathotype: philosophy and methodology. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:75-90 pubmed
    ..A variety of other alternative criteria (see earlier) are also evaluated both for primary pathotyping and as adjuncts to other pathotyping methods. Advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods are presented...
  50. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Lee L, Fairbrother J, Haghighi H, Read L, et al. Host responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with virulent Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2008;379:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a role for these cells and cytokines in MDV-induced responses in the bursa of Fabricius...
  51. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Parvizi P, Haghighi H, Thanthrige Don N, Sharif S. Cytokine gene expression patterns associated with immunization against Marek's disease in chickens. Vaccine. 2007;25:424-32 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, vaccination with a bivalent MD vaccine was associated with distinct cytokine expression patterns in spleen and modulation of cytokine responses by the vaccine may play a role in mediation of protection...
  52. Silva R, Gimeno I. Oncogenic Marek's disease viruses lacking the 132 base pair repeats can still be attenuated by serial in vitro cell culture passages. Virus Genes. 2007;34:87-90 pubmed
    ..Whatever process is involved in the cell culture attenuation of MDV, the mechanism does not involve the 132 bp repeat region...
  53. Davidson I, Borenshtain R. In vivo events of retroviral long terminal repeat integration into Marek's disease virus in commercial poultry: detection of chimeric molecules as a marker. Avian Dis. 2001;45:102-21 pubmed
    ..Our biochemical data imply that a recent integration occurred in the birds. The viability of recombinant viruses represented by the chimeric molecules will be further approached...
  54. Woźniakowski G, Samorek Salamonowicz E, Kozdruń W. Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)...
  55. Schumacher D, Tischer B, Teifke J, Wink K, Osterrieder N. Generation of a permanent cell line that supports efficient growth of Marek's disease virus (MDV) by constitutive expression of MDV glycoprotein E. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1987-92 pubmed
  56. Petherbridge L, Xu H, Zhao Y, Smith L, Simpson J, Baigent S, et al. Cloning of Gallid herpesvirus 3 (Marek's disease virus serotype-2) genome as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes for analysis of viral gene functions. J Virol Methods. 2009;158:11-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Zhao Y, Petherbridge L, Smith L, Baigent S, Nair V. Self-excision of the BAC sequences from the recombinant Marek's disease virus genome increases replication and pathogenicity. Virol J. 2008;5:19 pubmed publisher
  58. Liu A, Liu C, Zhang Y, Li J, Shi W, Yan F, et al. [Mutational analysis of Meq, RLORF4, RLORF12 and 132bpr genes of epidemic Marek's disease virus strains highly passaged on chicken embryo fibroblast]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:368-75 pubmed
    ..All of above results indicated that deletion and/or insertion mutation occurred in Meq, RLORF4, RLORF12 and 132bpr after serial passage of these four Chinese epidemic MDV strains on CEF...
  59. Brown A, Smith L, Kgosana L, Baigent S, Nair V, Allday M. Homodimerization of the Meq viral oncoprotein is necessary for induction of T-cell lymphoma by Marek's disease virus. J Virol. 2009;83:11142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it appears that the ability to form homodimers is an absolute requirement and the ability to bind c-Jun alone is insufficient for the T-cell lymphomagenesis associated with virulent MDV...
  60. Trapp S, Parcells M, Kamil J, Schumacher D, Tischer B, Kumar P, et al. A virus-encoded telomerase RNA promotes malignant T cell lymphomagenesis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1307-17 pubmed
    ..We concluded that vTR plays a critical role in MDV-induced T cell lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, our results provide the first description of tumor-promoting effects of TR in a natural virus-host infection model...
  61. Dorange F, Tischer B, Vautherot J, Osterrieder N. Characterization of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) deletion mutants that lack UL46 to UL49 genes: MDV-1 UL49, encoding VP22, is indispensable for virus growth. J Virol. 2002;76:1959-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that an alphaherpesvirus UL49-homologous gene is essential for virus growth in cell culture...
  62. Spatz S, Silva R. Polymorphisms in the repeat long regions of oncogenic and attenuated pathotypes of Marek's disease virus 1. Virus Genes. 2007;35:41-53 pubmed
  63. Burgess S, Young J, Baaten B, Hunt L, Ross L, Parcells M, et al. Marek's disease is a natural model for lymphomas overexpressing Hodgkin's disease antigen (CD30). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13879-84 pubmed
    ..Specific anti-CD30 Igs occurred after infection of genetically MD-resistant chickens with oncogenic MDV, suggesting immunity to CD30 could play a role in MD lymphoma regression...
  64. Markowski Grimsrud C, Schat K. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to Marek's disease herpesvirus-encoded glycoproteins. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;90:133-44 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that late viral glycoproteins are relevant for the induction of cell-mediated immunity during MDV infection...
  65. Parvizi P, Read L, Abdul Careem M, Lusty C, Sharif S. Cytokine gene expression in splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..p.i. Our study indicates that MDV-associated cytokine profiles vary in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets, and that cytokines including IFN-gamma, IL-18, IL-6, and IL-10 may play a role in the elicitation of an immune response to MDV...
  66. Nair V. Evolution of Marek's disease -- a paradigm for incessant race between the pathogen and the host. Vet J. 2005;170:175-83 pubmed
    ..However, the virus has countered each new vaccine with ever more virulent strains. This continuous race between the virus and the host is making the control of this poultry health problem a major challenge for the future...
  67. Geerligs H, Quanz S, Suurland B, Spijkers I, Rodenberg J, Davelaar F, et al. Efficacy and safety of cell associated vaccines against Marek's disease virus grown in a continuous cell line from chickens. Vaccine. 2008;26:5595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..No signs of MD were noticed during the study and no other signs attributable to the vaccine. It is concluded that the JBJ-1 cell line is a suitable substrate for the current vaccines against MD...
  68. Wu Y, Cheng A, Wang M, Yang Q, Zhu D, Jia R, et al. Complete genomic sequence of Chinese virulent duck enteritis virus. J Virol. 2012;86:5965 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, knowledge of this virus will extend our general knowledge of DEV and will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis...
  69. Gimeno I, Witter R, Neumann U. Neuropathotyping: a new system to classify Marek's disease virus. Avian Dis. 2002;46:909-18 pubmed
    ..This finding illustrates how neuropathotyping may extend important information not identified by conventional pathotyping...
  70. Parvizi P, Andrzejewski K, Read L, Behboudi S, Sharif S. Expression profiling of genes associated with regulatory functions of T-cell subsets in Marek's disease virus-infected chickens. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study provide more insight into immunomodulatory processes that occur in the lymphoid tissues of MDV-infected chickens...
  71. Yonash N, Bacon L, Witter R, Cheng H. High resolution mapping and identification of new quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting susceptibility to Marek's disease. Anim Genet. 1999;30:126-35 pubmed
    ..Markers linked to these loci may be useful for selection of MD resistant stock by the poultry industry following verification of the association within their breeding populations...
  72. Lupiani B, Lee L, Cui X, Gimeno I, Anderson A, Morgan R, et al. Marek's disease virus-encoded Meq gene is involved in transformation of lymphocytes but is dispensable for replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11815-20 pubmed
    ..A revertant virus that restored the expression of the meq gene, showed properties similar to those of the parental virus, confirming that Meq is involved in transformation but not in lytic replication in chickens...
  73. Sun A, Xu X, Petherbridge L, Zhao Y, Nair V, Cui Z. Functional evaluation of the role of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat (LTR) integrated into the genome of a field strain of Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2010;397:270-6 pubmed publisher
  74. Kano R, Konnai S, Onuma M, Ohashi K. Microarray analysis of host immune responses to Marek's disease virus infection in vaccinated chickens. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:603-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD8alpha(high) TCR1(+) cell population is probably one of the key factors involved in the protective mechanism induced by a vaccine strain, CVI988...
  75. Burnside J, Morgan R. Genomics and Marek's disease virus. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;117:376-87 pubmed
    ..The conservation of these sequences is suggestive of an important role in pathogenesis...
  76. Lee L, Lupiani B, Silva R, Kung H, Reddy S. Recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) lacking the Meq oncogene confers protection against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV. Vaccine. 2008;26:1887-92 pubmed publisher
  77. Islam A, Harrison B, Cheetham B, Mahony T, Young P, Walkden Brown S. Differential amplification and quantitation of Marek's disease viruses using real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2004;119:103-13 pubmed
    ..These qPCR assays will be useful for reliable differentiation and quantitation of MDV for a range of research and industry applications...
  78. Witter R, Kreager K. Serotype 1 viruses modified by backpassage or insertional mutagenesis: approaching the threshold of vaccine efficacy in Marek's disease. Avian Dis. 2004;48:768-82 pubmed
    ..After more than 30 years of unsuccessful endeavor by many laboratories toward this goal, it now may be useful to consider whether the efficacy of MD vaccines is limited by some type of biologic threshold...
  79. Jarosinski K, Yunis R, O Connell P, Markowski Grimsrud C, Schat K. Influence of genetic resistance of the chicken and virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) on nitric oxide responses after MDV infection. Avian Dis. 2002;46:636-49 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate NO as a factor potentially involved in increasing virulence of MDV, possibly through immune suppression...
  80. Lee S, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M. Heparin inhibits plaque formation by cell-free Marek's disease viruses in vitro. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:427-32 pubmed
    ..From these results, it was suggested that the MDV entry, at least in the case of cell-free MDV, is dependent on the presence of cell surface glycosaminoglycans, principally HS...
  81. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Sarson A, Mayameei A, Zhou H, Sharif S. Marek's disease virus-induced transient paralysis is associated with cytokine gene expression in the nervous system. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:167-76 pubmed
    ..These results suggest possible underlying immunologic mechanisms for MDV-induced TP...
  82. Burnside J, Ouyang M, Anderson A, Bernberg E, Lu C, Meyers B, et al. Deep sequencing of chicken microRNAs. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:185 pubmed publisher
    ..We have applied this approach to the identification of chicken microRNAs and to the comparison of microRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) to those present in uninfected CEF...
  83. Cheng H, Zhang Y, Muir W. Evidence for widespread epistatic interactions influencing Marek's disease virus viremia levels in chicken. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;117:313-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that resistance to MD is highly complex and will require the incorporation of epistatic interaction analyses and functional genomic approaches to reveal the underlying genetic basis...
  84. Niikura M, Liu H, Dodgson J, Cheng H. A comprehensive screen for chicken proteins that interact with proteins unique to virulent strains of Marek's disease virus. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1117-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that integrated genomic methods provide a powerful strategy to gain insights on complex biological processes and yield a manageable number of genes and pathways for further characterization...
  85. Richerioux N, Blondeau C, Wiedemann A, Remy S, Vautherot J, Denesvre C. Rho-ROCK and Rac-PAK signaling pathways have opposing effects on the cell-to-cell spread of Marek's Disease Virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44072 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the first evidence that MDV cell-to-cell spread is regulated by Rho/Rac signaling...
  86. Islam A, Walkden Brown S, Groves P, Underwood G. Effects of vaccine dose, virus challenge dose and interval from vaccination to challenge on protection of broiler chickens against Marek's disease virus challenge. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:348-55 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects of varying the doses of turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine and Marek's disease virus (MDV) challenge at two intervals after vaccination on the protection of chickens against challenge with MDV...
  87. Davidson I, Borenshtain R, Kung H, Witter R. Molecular indications for in vivo integration of the avian leukosis virus, subgroup J-long terminal repeat into the Marek's disease virus in experimentally dually-infected chickens. Virus Genes. 2002;24:173-80 pubmed
    ..Detection was by LTR amplification, sequencing and multiple alignment to the ALV-J-LTR sequence. The present study indicated that chimeric molecules were produced in vivo...
  88. Smith J, Sadeyen J, Paton I, Hocking P, Salmon N, Fife M, et al. Systems analysis of immune responses in Marek's disease virus-infected chickens identifies a gene involved in susceptibility and highlights a possible novel pathogenicity mechanism. J Virol. 2011;85:11146-58 pubmed publisher
  89. Zhang Y, Liu C, Zhang F, Shi W, Li J. Sequence analysis of the Meq gene in the predominant Marek's disease virus strains isolated in China during 2006-2008. Virus Genes. 2011;43:353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the phylogenetic relationships between Meq gene sequences, Chinese MDV isolates constituted a separate clade to MDV reference strains, demonstrating that a different genotype of MDV was prevalent in China between 2006 and 2008...
  90. Jarosinski K, Osterrieder N, Nair V, Schat K. Attenuation of Marek's disease virus by deletion of open reading frame RLORF4 but not RLORF5a. J Virol. 2005;79:11647-59 pubmed
    ..i.; however, two chickens had tumors at the termination of the experiment. The data indicate that RLORF4 is involved in attenuation of MDV, although the function of RLORF4 is still unknown...
  91. Davison F, Nair V. Use of Marek's disease vaccines: could they be driving the virus to increasing virulence?. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:77-88 pubmed
    ..The future aim must be to develop a sustainable vaccine strategy that does not drive MDV to increased virulence...