kaposi sarcoma

Summary

Summary: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.

Top Publications

  1. Pantanowitz L, Mullen J, Dezube B. Primary Kaposi sarcoma of the subcutaneous tissue. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:94 pubmed publisher
    Involvement of the subcutis by Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs primarily when cutaneous KS lesions evolve into deep penetrating nodular tumors...
  2. El Amari E, Toutous Trellu L, Gayet Ageron A, Baumann M, Cathomas G, Steffen I, et al. Predicting the evolution of Kaposi sarcoma, in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. AIDS. 2008;22:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    The outcome of Kaposi sarcoma varies. While many patients do well on highly active antiretroviral therapy, others have progressive disease and need chemotherapy...
  3. Franceschi S, Maso L, Rickenbach M, Polesel J, Hirschel B, Cavassini M, et al. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:800-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Five hundred and ninety-seven incident Kaposi sarcoma (KS) cases were identified of whom 52 were among HAART users...
  4. Feller L, Khammissa R, Gugushe T, Chikte U, Wood N, Meyerov R, et al. HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in African children. SADJ. 2010;65:20-2 pubmed
    HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) is common in African countries where HIV infection is pandemic and anti-retroviral medication is not readily available...
  5. Barozzi P, Bonini C, Potenza L, Masetti M, Cappelli G, Gruarin P, et al. Changes in the immune responses against human herpesvirus-8 in the disease course of posttransplant Kaposi sarcoma. Transplantation. 2008;86:738-44 pubmed publisher
    In nine patients with posttransplant Kaposi sarcoma (KS) T-cell responses to human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 latent and lytic antigens, as detected by enzyme-linked-immunospot (Elispot) assay, were absent at disease onset...
  6. Yetkin D, Kafadar A, Gazioglu N, Oz B, Kaner G, Oguz O, et al. Kaposi sarcoma related to an ectopic hypothalamic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:E110-1; discussion E111 pubmed publisher
    We aim to report a case of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with Cushing's syndrome caused by endogenic glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression.
  7. Matta H, Punj V, Schamus S, Mazzacurati L, Chen A, Song R, et al. A nuclear role for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded K13 protein in gene regulation. Oncogene. 2008;27:5243-53 pubmed publisher
  8. Sikora A, Shnayder Y, Yee H, DeLacure M. Oropharyngeal kaposi sarcoma in related persons negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:172-6 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor that can affect the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Although KS is the most common malignancy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, it is rare in immunocompetent persons...
  9. Nguyen S, Giurca C, Melliez H, Dehecq C, Baclet V, Ajana F, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected patients: when and how should we evaluate bone involvement?. AIDS. 2007;21:2251-2 pubmed

More Information

Publications79

  1. Parsons C, Adang L, Overdevest J, O Connor C, Taylor J, Camerini D, et al. KSHV targets multiple leukocyte lineages during long-term productive infection in NOD/SCID mice. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1963-73 pubmed
    To develop an animal model of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection uniquely suited to evaluate longitudinal patterns of viral gene expression, cell tropism, and immune responses, we injected NOD/SCID mice intravenously ..
  2. Martin Carbonero L, Palacios R, Valencia E, Saballs P, Sirera G, Santos I, et al. Long-term prognosis of HIV-infected patients with Kaposi sarcoma treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:410-7 pubmed publisher
    Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons has dramatically decreased in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era...
  3. Krown S, Lee J, Dittmer D. More on HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:535-6; author reply 536 pubmed publisher
  4. Martinez S, McAdams H, Youens K. Kaposi sarcoma after bilateral lung transplantation. J Thorac Imaging. 2008;23:50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in 1 patient who developed Kaposi sarcoma of the lung after bilateral lung transplantation...
  5. Lanternier F, Lebbe C, Schartz N, Farhi D, Marcelin A, Kerob D, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-negative men having sex with men. AIDS. 2008;22:1163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Its prognosis is good, as Kaposi's sarcoma is generally limited, but clinicians should be aware of the association with lymphoproliferative diseases, which may affect prognosis. ..
  6. Feller L, Anagnostopoulos C, Wood N, Bouckaert M, Raubenheimer E, Lemmer J. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a literature review and case report. J Periodontol. 2008;79:362-8 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neoplasm (HIV-KS)...
  7. Borok M, Fiorillo S, Gudza I, Putnam B, Ndemera B, White I, et al. Evaluation of plasma human herpesvirus 8 DNA as a marker of clinical outcomes during antiretroviral therapy for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:342-9 pubmed publisher
    The usefulness of plasma human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA as a marker of response to treatment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in an African setting is unknown.
  8. Letang E, Almeida J, Miro J, Ayala E, White I, Carrilho C, et al. Predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-associated with kaposi sarcoma in mozambique: a prospective study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53:589-97 pubmed publisher
    The impact and relevance of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-associated with Kaposi sarcoma (IRIS-KS) has not been assessed in sub-Saharan African countries, where the bulk of HIV-1 and KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ..
  9. Casper C, Krantz E, Corey L, Kuntz S, Wang J, Selke S, et al. Valganciclovir for suppression of human herpesvirus-8 replication: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:23-30 pubmed publisher
    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is critical in the induction and maintenance of Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and some cases of Castleman disease...
  10. Sathyakumar S, Suh J, Sharp V, Polsky B. Images in HIV/AIDS. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa secondary to Kaposi sarcoma: a rare case. AIDS Read. 2008;18:81-2 pubmed
  11. Engels E, Biggar R, Hall H, Cross H, Crutchfield A, Finch J, et al. Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Risk was elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (KS, SIR 1,300 [n = 173 cases]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 7.3 [n = 203]), cervical cancer (2...
  12. Brambilla L, Bellinvia M, Tourlaki A, Scoppio B, Gaiani F, Boneschi V. Intralesional vincristine as first-line therapy for nodular lesions in classic Kaposi sarcoma: a prospective study in 151 patients. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:854-9 pubmed publisher
    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative neoplasm with varying biological behaviour. Depending on the clinical stage, local or systemic therapy can be used...
  13. Cloutier N, Flamand L. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen inhibits interferon (IFN) beta expression by competing with IFN regulatory factor-3 for binding to IFNB promoter. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7208-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes multiple proteins expressed during the lytic replication cycle that ..
  14. Uldrick T, Wang V, O Mahony D, Aleman K, Wyvill K, Marshall V, et al. An interleukin-6-related systemic inflammatory syndrome in patients co-infected with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and HIV but without Multicentric Castleman disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:350-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients...
  15. Cianfrocca M, Lee S, Von Roenn J, Tulpule A, Dezube B, Aboulafia D, et al. Randomized trial of paclitaxel versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for advanced human immunodeficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma: evidence of symptom palliation from chemotherapy. Cancer. 2010;116:3969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..PLD) are active cytotoxic agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS)...
  16. Nsubuga M, Biggar R, Combs S, Marshall V, Mbisa G, Kambugu F, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Cancer Lett. 2008;263:182-8 pubmed publisher
    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether peripheral blood viral load is a marker of KS burden (total number of KS lesions), KS progression (the rate of eruption of new KS lesions), or both is ..
  17. Goedert J, Scoppio B, Pfeiffer R, Neve L, Federici A, Long L, et al. Treatment of classic Kaposi sarcoma with a nicotine dermal patch: a phase II clinical trial. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a malignancy of dermal endothelial cells that is caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection, is sensitive to perturbations of immunity...
  18. Mohanna S, Bravo F, Ferrufino J, Sanchez J, Gotuzzo E. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity of two HIV-negative Quechua patients. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E365-8 pubmed
    ..The awareness of oral classic KS as a diagnostic possibility is important in the work-up of vascular lesions in the oral cavity of non-immunosuppressed individuals...
  19. Nguyen H, Magaret A, Kitahata M, Van Rompaey S, Wald A, Casper C. Persistent Kaposi sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: characterizing the predictors of clinical response. AIDS. 2008;22:937-45 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy on tumor response among persons with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and identify factors associated with response in a clinic setting.
  20. Anderson L, Lauria C, Romano N, Brown E, Whitby D, Graubard B, et al. Risk factors for classical Kaposi sarcoma in a population-based case-control study in Sicily. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3435-43 pubmed publisher
    Classical Kaposi sarcoma is a rare complication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection...
  21. Naresh K, Rice A, Bower M. Lymph nodes involved by multicentric Castleman disease among HIV-positive individuals are often involved by Kaposi sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1006-12 pubmed publisher
    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), a lymphoproliferative disorder and Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor, both occur at a higher frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  22. Stebbing J, Powles T, Bower M. AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma associated with a low viral load and a high CD4 cell count. AIDS. 2008;22:551-2 pubmed publisher
  23. Nascimento M, Sumita L, Souza V, Weiss H, Oliveira J, Mascheretti M, et al. Seroprevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and other serologic markers in the Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:663-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine the presence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and other serologic markers, we tested serum specimens of 339 Amerindians, 181 rural non-Amerindians, and 1,133 urban blood donors (13 Amerindians) in the Brazilian ..
  24. Long E, Ilie M, Hofman V, Havet K, Selva E, Butori C, et al. LANA-1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and HIF-1alpha protein expression in HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma. Virchows Arch. 2009;455:159-70 pubmed publisher
    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether the tissue viral load is a marker of KS progression is still unclear...
  25. Omeis I, Siems A, Harrington W, Johnson L, Destian S, DeMattia J. Spinal Kaposi sarcoma presenting without cutaneous manifestations. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:558-61 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common tumors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which characteristically presents with cutaneous lesions...
  26. Dittmer D, Damania B. KSHV-associated disease in the AIDS patient. Cancer Treat Res. 2007;133:129-39 pubmed
  27. Silverberg M, Neuhaus J, Bower M, Gey D, Hatzakis A, Henry K, et al. Risk of cancers during interrupted antiretroviral therapy in the SMART study. AIDS. 2007;21:1957-63 pubmed
    ..To compare rates of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies between patients on a CD4 T-cell-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategy and continuous ART...
  28. Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K. HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1352-3 pubmed
  29. Douglas J, Gustin J, Dezube B, Pantanowitz J, Moses A. Kaposi's sarcoma: a model of both malignancy and chronic inflammation. Panminerva Med. 2007;49:119-38 pubmed
    ..This review details the data that support KS as a model of both oncogenesis and chronic inflammation...
  30. Pelser C, Dazzi C, Graubard B, Lauria C, Vitale F, Goedert J. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19:597-601 pubmed publisher
    Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities...
  31. Wen K, Damania B. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): molecular biology and oncogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2010;289:140-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a double-stranded DNA herpesvirus belonging to the gamma-herpesvirinae subfamily...
  32. Feller L, Khammissa R, Wood N, Jose R, Lemmer J. Facial lymphoedema as an indicator of terminal disease in oral HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma. SADJ. 2010;65:14, 16-8 pubmed
    ..progressive facial lymphoedema developing concurrently with, or immediately after rapid enlargment of oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in HIV-seropositive highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-naïve subjects, foretokens death...
  33. O Donnell P, Pantanowitz L, Grayson W. Unique histologic variants of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:244-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade angioproliferative neoplasm derived from lymphatic endothelium. Lesions progress from early patch stage into plaques that ultimately form tumor nodules...
  34. Cassar O, Blondot M, Mohanna S, Jouvion G, Bravo F, Maco V, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 genotype E in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1459-62 pubmed publisher
    To determine human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) K1 genotypes in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) from Peru, we characterized HHV-8 in 25 KS biopsy samples...
  35. Lin C, Katongole Mbidde E, Byekwaso T, Orem J, Rabkin C, Mbulaiteye S. Intestinal parasites in Kaposi sarcoma patients in Uganda: indication of shared risk factors or etiologic association. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:409-12 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is endemic in Uganda and shares several risk factors with intestinal parasite infestation, including rural residence, contact with surface water, and walking barefoot, however, the significance of these ecologic ..
  36. Little R, Aleman K, Kumar P, Wyvill K, Pluda J, Read Connole E, et al. Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2007;110:4165-71 pubmed
    Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), ..
  37. Feller L, Lemmer J, Wood N, Jadwat Y, Raubenheimer E. HIV-associated oral Kaposi sarcoma and HHV-8: a review. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007;9:129-36 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma is the most common malignant tumour associated with HIV infection. In the majority of cases oral tissues are involved and in 22% the initial presentation is in the oral cavity...
  38. Hussein M. Cutaneous and lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma: a case report and review of literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The vascular nature of the lesion was supported by positive staining for CD31 and CD34. This study examines the clinicopathologic features of KS in children and summarizes the relevant literature...
  39. Hiatt K, Nelson A, Lichy J, Fanburg Smith J. Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States over the last two decades: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of 438 non-HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma patients with comparison to HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:572-82 pubmed publisher
    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is rare and occurs predominantly in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern men...
  40. Sakakibara S, Pise Masison C, Brady J, Tosato G. Gene regulation and functional alterations induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORFK13/vFLIP in endothelial cells. J Virol. 2009;83:2140-53 pubmed publisher
  41. Godoy M, Rouse H, Brown J, Phillips P, Forrest D, Muller N. Imaging features of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:956-65 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiologic features of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
  42. Liu R, Gong M, Li X, Zhou Y, Gao W, Tulpule A, et al. Induction, regulation, and biologic function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2010;116:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate that Axl is induced in Kaposi sarcoma and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) transformed endothelial cells...
  43. Ganem D. KSHV and the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma: listening to human biology and medicine. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:939-49 pubmed publisher
    The linkage of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to infection by a novel human herpesvirus (Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) is one of the great successes of contemporary biomedical research and was achieved by using advanced genomic ..
  44. Pietras T, Baum C, Swick B. Coexistent Kaposi sarcoma, cryptococcosis, and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in a solitary cutaneous nodule in a patient with AIDS: report of a case and literature review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62:676-80 pubmed publisher
    We present a report of a 63-year-old man with AIDS who was diagnosed with coexistent Kaposi sarcoma (KS), Cryptococcus neoformans, and Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in a single, solitary lesion...
  45. Sahin G, Palanduz A, Aydogan G, Cassar O, Ertem A, Telhan L, et al. Classic Kaposi sarcoma in 3 unrelated Turkish children born to consanguineous kindreds. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e704-8 pubmed publisher
    Infection by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in childhood is common in the Mediterranean basin; however, classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is exceedingly rare in children not infected with HIV and not receiving immunosuppression, with only 30 cases ..
  46. Mohanna B S, Sanchez L J, Ferrufino Ll J, Bravo P F, Gotuzzo H E. [Lymph node involvement in classic Kaposi sarcoma: report of three cases]. Rev Med Chil. 2007;135:1166-70 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it must be emphasized that KS in lymph nodes can affect HIV-negative patients or patients without any associated immune deficiency...
  47. Nascimento M, de Souza V, Sumita L, Freire W, Weiss H, Sabino E, et al. Prevalence of, and risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among blood donors in Brazil: a multi-center serosurvey. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..KSHV seroprevalence is high among Brazilian blood donors, particularly from the Amazon region. This study supports the co-existence of sexual and non-sexual routes of KSHV transmission in this population...
  48. Pantanowitz L, Dezube B. Kaposi sarcoma in unusual locations. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:190 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, vascular lesion of low-grade malignant potential that presents most frequently in mucocutaneous sites. KS also commonly involves lymph nodes and visceral organs...
  49. Di Lorenzo G. Update on classic Kaposi sarcoma therapy: new look at an old disease. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008;68:242-9 pubmed publisher
    Classic Kaposi sarcoma (CKS) represents an angioproliferative disease that is originated from endothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and monocyte-macrophage cells...
  50. Koopal S, Furuhjelm J, Järviluoma A, Jäämaa S, Pyakurel P, Pussinen C, et al. Viral oncogene-induced DNA damage response is activated in Kaposi sarcoma tumorigenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:1348-60 pubmed
    b>Kaposi sarcoma is a tumor consisting of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected tumor cells that express endothelial cell (EC) markers and viral genes like v-cyclin, vFLIP, and LANA...
  51. Scehnet J, Ley E, Krasnoperov V, Liu R, Manchanda P, Sjoberg E, et al. The role of Ephs, Ephrins, and growth factors in Kaposi sarcoma and implications of EphrinB2 blockade. Blood. 2009;113:254-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is associated with human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 and is dependent on the induction of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs)...
  52. da Silva Filho F, Marchiori E, Valiante P, Escuissato D, Gasparetto T. AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma of the lung presenting with a "crazy-paving" pattern on high-resolution CT: imaging and pathologic findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2008;23:135-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a fulminate and disseminated form of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining neoplasm, usually presenting pulmonary involvement...
  53. Johnston C, Orem J, Okuku F, Kalinaki M, Saracino M, Katongole Mbidde E, et al. Impact of HIV infection and Kaposi sarcoma on human herpesvirus-8 mucosal replication and dissemination in Uganda. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4222 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the leading cause of cancer in Uganda and occurs in people with and without HIV. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is important both in transmission of HHV-8 and progression to KS...
  54. Marcelin A, Motol J, Guihot A, Caumes E, Viard J, Dussaix E, et al. Relationship between the quantity of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in peripheral blood and effusion fluid samples and KSHV-associated disease. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1163-6 pubmed
    The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-DNA level was determined in samples from 71 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS), 28 patients with multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), and 8 patients with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)...
  55. Marshall V, Martro E, Labo N, Ray A, Wang D, Mbisa G, et al. Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus microRNA sequence analysis and KS risk in a European AIDS-KS case control study. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1126-35 pubmed publisher
    We recently identified polymorphisms in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded microRNA (miRNA) sequences from clinical subjects...
  56. Burbelo P, Issa A, Ching K, Wyvill K, Little R, Iadarola M, et al. Distinct profiles of antibodies to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus antigens in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, multicentric Castleman disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1919-22 pubmed publisher
    Antibody responses against lytic and latent Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus antigens were investigated in patients with KS, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma...
  57. Ganem D. KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:273-96 pubmed
    ..The studies also highlight mechanistic differences between oncogenesis caused by KSHV and that caused by its distant relative Epstein-Barr virus...
  58. O Hara A, Chugh P, Wang L, Netto E, Luz E, Harrington W, et al. Pre-micro RNA signatures delineate stages of endothelial cell transformation in Kaposi sarcoma. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000389 pubmed publisher
    ..novel real-time QPCR method (i) to define progressive stages of endothelial cell transformation cumulating in Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and (ii) to identify specific miRNAs that serve as biomarkers for tumor progression...
  59. Serraino D, De Paoli A, Zucchetto A, Pennazza S, Bruzzone S, Spina M, et al. The impact of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma on mortality of people with AIDS in the highly active antiretroviral therapies era. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:257-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have strongly diminished in the HAART era, but their impact on life expectancy of people with AIDS (PWA) needs to be monitored...
  60. Punj V, Matta H, Schamus S, Yang T, Chang Y, Chaudhary P. Induction of CCL20 production by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of viral FLICE inhibitory protein K13-induced NF-kappaB activation. Blood. 2009;113:5660-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative lesion characterized by dramatic angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltration...
  61. Lodi S, Guiguet M, Costagliola D, Fisher M, De Luca A, Porter K. Kaposi sarcoma incidence and survival among HIV-infected homosexual men after HIV seroconversion. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:784-92 pubmed publisher
    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in reducing the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, HIV-infected individuals who have responded to treatment continue to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma...
  62. Craddock K, Labonte S, Ghazarian D. Anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma resembling epithelioid angiosarcoma in an HIV-positive man. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;18:358-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Martellotta F, Berretta M, Vaccher E, Schioppa O, Zanet E, Tirelli U. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: state of the art and therapeutic strategies. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:634-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the current status and perspectives of AIDS-related KS in the HAART era...
  64. Liang C, Lee J, Jung J. Immune evasion in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus associated oncogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 2008;18:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes current knowledge of host immune evasion strategies of KSHV and their contributions to KSHV-associated diseases...
  65. Sullivan R, Pantanowitz L, Dezube B. Targeted therapy for Kaposi sarcoma. BioDrugs. 2009;23:69-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs as a result of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, typically in the context of one of several immunodeficient states...
  66. Pantanowitz L, Moses A, Dezube B. The inflammatory component of Kaposi sarcoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2009;87:163-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is intimately linked to several aspects of the host immune system. KS development is linked to immunodeficiency in several clinical-epidemiological settings...
  67. Lebbe C, Legendre C, Frances C. Kaposi sarcoma in transplantation. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2008;22:252-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric neoplasm of lymphatic endothelium derived cells infected with Kaposi's human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)...
  68. Wang L, Damania B. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus confers a survival advantage to endothelial cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4640-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that KSHV infection of endothelial cells modulates cell signaling pathways and induces cell survival and angiogenesis, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis induced by KSHV...
  69. Colman R, Blackbourn D. Risk factors in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS. 2008;22:1629-32 pubmed publisher
  70. Ramos da Silva S, Bacchi M, Bacchi C, Elgui de Oliveira D. Human bcl-2 expression, cleaved caspase-3, and KSHV LANA-1 in Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:794-802 pubmed
    We aimed to evaluate the frequency of Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in KS lesions in patients from Brazil...