infectious bovine rhinotracheitis


Summary: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.

Top Publications

  1. Meyer G, Lemaire M, Ros C, Belak K, Gabriel A, Cassart D, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of acute and latent infections of calves with bovine herpesvirus types 1 and 5. Arch Virol. 2001;146:633-52 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, after primary infection, BHV-1 and BHV-5 displayed similar biological features and consequently need to be considered together for the control of BHV-1 infection...
  2. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S. Cell-mediated immune responses induced by BHV-1: rational vaccine design. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:369-80 pubmed
    ..This includes well-defined genetically engineered gene-deleted, subunit and vectored vaccines...
  3. Pritchard G, Banks M, Vernon R. Subclinical breakdown with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus infection in dairy herd of high health status. Vet Rec. 2003;153:113-7 pubmed
    b>Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus infection was detected by an antibody ELISA in the bulk milk of a large closed dairy herd of high health status in an area of low cattle density in East Anglia...
  4. Thiry J, Keuser V, Muylkens B, Meurens F, Gogev S, Vanderplasschen A, et al. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1. Vet Res. 2006;37:169-90 pubmed
    ..BoHV-1 is a herpesvirus responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, which is a disease of major economic concern...
  5. Nuotio L, Neuvonen E, Hyytiäinen M. Epidemiology and eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) virus in Finland. Acta Vet Scand. 2007;49:3 pubmed
    b>Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV) is a significant disease among domestic and wild cattle. The BHV-1 infection was first detected in Finland in 1970; presumably it was imported in 1968...
  6. Solís Calderón J, Segura Correa V, Segura Correa J, Alvarado Islas A. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in beef cattle herds of Yucatan, Mexico. Prev Vet Med. 2003;57:199-208 pubmed
    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in a population of non-vaccinated beef cattle in the livestock region of Yucatan, Mexico and to determine ..
  7. Fulton R. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009). Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs...
  8. Reber A, Reist M, Schwermer H. Cost-effectiveness of bulk-tank milk testing for surveys to demonstrate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine enzootic leucosis in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2012;154:189-97 pubmed publisher
    In Switzerland, annual surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) are implemented by a random allocation of farms to the respective survey as well as blood sampling of ..
  9. Ackermann M, Engels M. Pro and contra IBR-eradication. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:293-302 pubmed
    ..Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous...

More Information


  1. Schutz J, Carroll J, Gasbarre L, Shelton T, Nordstrom S, Hutcheson J, et al. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:1948-54 pubmed publisher
    ..On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (..
  2. Xue W, Ellis J, Mattick D, Smith L, Brady R, Trigo E. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young c. Vaccine. 2010;28:3784-92 pubmed publisher 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)...
  3. Waldner C, Kennedy R. Associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus, antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in calves. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:916-27 pubmed publisher
    ..associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), antibodies against BVDV, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus in calves.
  4. Mollema L, Rijsewijk F, Nodelijk G, de Jong M. Quantification of the transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 among red deer (Cervus elaphus) under experimental conditions. Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:25-34 pubmed
    ..Consequently, it is not necessary for the eradication of BHV1 in cattle to eradicate BHV1 in red deer populations as well...
  5. Mars M, Bruschke C, van Oirschot J. Airborne transmission of BHV1, BRSV, and BVDV among cattle is possible under experimental conditions. Vet Microbiol. 1999;66:197-207 pubmed
    ..Although airborne transmission is possibly not the main route of transmission, these findings will have consequences for disease prevention and regulations in control programmes...
  6. Vonk Noordegraaf A, Buijtels J, Dijkhuizen A, Franken P, Stegeman J, Verhoeff J. An epidemiological and economic simulation model to evaluate the spread and control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in The Netherlands. Prev Vet Med. 1998;36:219-38 pubmed
    Bovine herpesvirus type I (BHV1), causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), was introduced in the Netherlands in 1971. In 1993, about 42% of the dairy cows had antibodies against BHV1...
  7. Muylkens B, Thiry J, Kirten P, Schynts F, Thiry E. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Vet Res. 2007;38:181-209 pubmed
    ..Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates...
  8. McDermott J, Kadohira M, O Callaghan C, Shoukri M. A comparison of different models for assessing variations in the sero-prevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by farm, area and district in Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 1997;32:219-34 pubmed
    The relative variability of the sero-prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) due to cow, farm, and agroecological area levels were investigated for three contrasting districts in Kenya: Samburu, an arid and ..
  9. Rajkhowa S, Rajkhowa C, Rahman H, Bujarbaruah K. Seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in mithun (Bos frontalis) in India. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23:821-9 pubmed
    A preliminary study on the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in different strains of mithun maintained atthe National Research Centre on Mithun, Nagaland, India, revealed that the overall prevalence of IBR in ..
  10. Behura S, Tizioto P, Kim J, Grupioni N, Seabury C, Schnabel R, et al. Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17938 pubmed publisher
    ..disease from beef cattle experimentally challenged with either bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis...
  11. Falcone E, Cordioli P, Tarantino M, Muscillo M, Sala G, La Rosa G, et al. Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus type-2 (BVDV-2) isolated from a contaminated vaccine. Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:577-89 pubmed
    A non-cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 was isolated from a batch of live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccine, and inoculated intranasally into four 3-month-old calves...
  12. Verhoeff J, van Nieuwstadt A. BRS virus, PI3 virus and BHV1 infections of young stock on self-contained dairy farms: epidemiological and clinical findings. Vet Rec. 1984;114:288-93 pubmed
    ..Bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections caused more serious respiratory problems than parainfluenza type 3 virus infections. ..
  13. Durgut R, Ataseven V, Sagkan Ozturk A, Ozturk O. Evaluation of total oxidative stress and total antioxidant status in cows with natural bovine herpesvirus-1 infection. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:3408-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, future research conductance is needed on antioxidative and oxidative balance to understand pathophysiology of BHV-1 infections. ..
  14. Anziliero D, Santos C, Brum M, Weiblen R, Chowdhury S, Flores E. A recombinant bovine herpesvirus 5 defective in thymidine kinase and glycoprotein E is immunogenic for calves and confers protection upon homologous challenge and BoHV-1 challenge. Vet Microbiol. 2011;154:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate homologous and heterologous protection and are promising towards the use of the recombinant BoHV-5gE?TK? in vaccine formulations to control BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 infections. ..
  15. Thonur L, Maley M, Gilray J, Crook T, Laming E, Turnbull D, et al. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:37 pubmed publisher
    ..This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD. ..
  16. Kamaraj G, Lakshmi Narasu M, Srinivasan V. Validation of betapropiolactone (BPL) as an inactivant for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:589-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus causes vulvovaginitis, abortion and respiratory disease in cows and heifers. Betapropiolactone (BPL) is a disinfectant, effective against bacteria, fungi and viruses...
  17. Nandi S, Kumar M. Serological evidence of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) infection in yaks (Peophagus grunniens) from the National Research Centre on Yak, India. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1041-2 pubmed publisher
    ..1%. The sero-prevalence of BoHV-1 infections was highest in male calf (67.7%) followed by yak cows (62.6%), yak bulls (56.8%), and yak heifers (50.0%). ..
  18. Fan Q, Yao L, Ding M, Wang D, Chen H, Liu Z. Development of latex agglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies against Bovine herpesvirus 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:1162-5 pubmed publisher
    ..57% (95% confidence interval: 30.45-38.69%). The results suggest that LAT has the potential to be a rapid method for the diagnosis of BHV-1 and BHV-5 infection in cattle herds. ..
  19. Grom J, Hostnik P, Toplak I, Barlic Maganja D. Molecular detection of BHV-1 in artificially inoculated semen and in the semen of a latently infected bull treated with dexamethasone. Vet J. 2006;171:539-44 pubmed
    ..However, PCR was shown to be faster and easier to perform and may be a good alternative to virus isolation especially when bovine semen has to be screened for BHV-1 prior to artificial insemination. ..
  20. Glotov A, Glotova T, Sergeev A, Drozdov I. [Pathogenesis of mixed experimental infection caused by diarrheal viruses--bovine mucosal disease and bovine infectious rhinotracheitis in calves]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:40-3 pubmed
    ..calves aged 4-6 months with bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVDMD) (cytopathogenic) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (BRT) viruses, was studied...
  21. Mahajan V, Banga H, Deka D, Filia G, Gupta A. Comparison of diagnostic tests for diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in natural cases of bovine abortion. J Comp Pathol. 2013;149:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction (PCR) for amplification of the gene encoding glycoprotein B were applied for diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cases of abortion. The seroprevalence of IBR in the population studied was 26...
  22. Liu Z, Brum M, Doster A, Jones C, Chowdhury S. A bovine herpesvirus type 1 mutant virus specifying a carboxyl-terminal truncation of glycoprotein E is defective in anterograde neuronal transport in rabbits and calves. J Virol. 2008;82:7432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the BHV-1gE cytoplasmic tail-truncated virus reactivated in the TG; however, it had defective anterograde transport from TG to nose and eye in calves and rabbits...
  23. Makoschey B, Franken P, Mars J, Dubois E, Schroeder C, Thiry J, et al. IBR and BVD control: the key to successful herd management. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2010;123:519-21, 516-8 pubmed
    ..Voluntary or mandatory programs are ongoing on regional or national level in a lot of countries. Successful programs put pressure on surrounding regions/countries to initiate control program as well. ..
  24. Spilki F, Esteves P, da Silva A, Franco A, Rijsewijk F, Roehe P. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA allows discrimination between responses induced by bovine herpesvirus subtypes 1 (BoHV-1.1) and 2 (BoHV-1.2). J Virol Methods. 2005;129:191-3 pubmed
    ..1-immunized calves (kappa = 0.799). The test may be useful to provide new insights into the roles played by each of these two subtypes in the epidemiology of BoHV-1 infections...
  25. Ampe B, Duchateau L, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Dupont A, Kerkhofs P, et al. Assessment of the long-term effect of vaccination on transmission of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle herds hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccine. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:1787-93 pubmed publisher
    To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms...
  26. Patel J, Shilleto R. Modification of active immunization with live bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine by passive viral antibody. Vaccine. 2005;23:4023-8 pubmed
  27. Raizman E, Pogranichniy R, Negron M, Schnur M, Tobar Lopez D. Seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 in non-vaccinated cattle herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:773-8 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a population of non-vaccinated, double purpose, dairy and beef ..
  28. Santman Berends I, Mars M, Waldeck H, van Duijn L, Wever P, Van den Broek K, et al. Quantification of the probability of reintroduction of IBR in the Netherlands through cattle imports. Prev Vet Med. 2018;150:168-175 pubmed publisher
    In the Netherlands, the feasibility of a national control program for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is discussed...
  29. Sarangi L, Naveena T, Rana S, Surendra K, Reddy R, Bajibabu P, et al. Evaluation of a specialized filter-paper matrix for transportation of extended bovine semen to screen for bovine herpesvirus-1 by real-time PCR. J Virol Methods. 2018;257:1-6 pubmed publisher
    The extended frozen semen (EFS) batches produced from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) sero-positive cattle and buffalo bulls housed in various semen stations in India are transported to the testing laboratory in liquid nitrogen (..
  30. Holzhauer M, Dijk R, Mars J. [Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis outbreak on a mostly BHV-1 free farm can result in great damage]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2003;128:593-5 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis BHV1-infection was based on clinical symptoms and confirmed with PCR. The clinical signs, diagnostic methods, therapy, risk-analysis and prevention are discussed. ..
  31. Yan B, Chao Y, Chen Z, Tian K, Wang C, Lin X, et al. Serological survey of bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection in China. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:136-41 pubmed
    ..In Hubei Province, the overall seroprevalence was 22.2% (170/765) while the prevalence for individual farms varied greatly from 0.0% to 41.5%. The sera from imported cows had a moderate prevalence of 21.7% (105/483). ..
  32. Blickenstorfer S, Schwermer H, Engels M, Reist M, Doherr M, Hadorn D. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:49 pubmed publisher
    ..disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland...
  33. Ellgaard T, Bindslev L, Kamstrup S. Evaluation of the virus clearance capacity and robustness of the manufacturing process for the recombinant factor VIII protein, turoctocog alfa. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;129:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Other viruses utilised included: infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBRV), minute virus of mice (MVM), bovine enterovirus (BEV) and Reo-3 virus (Reo-3)...
  34. Reiczigel J. Analysis of experimental data with repeated measurements. Biometrics. 1999;55:1059-63 pubmed
    ..To answer question (A), a permutation test is proposed and its power is evaluated by simulation. ..
  35. Chung Y, Shen H, Cheng L, Liu S, Chu C. Effectiveness of a BHV-1/BEFV bivalent vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection in cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2016;109:161-165 pubmed publisher
    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) causes acute febrile respiratory diseases (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR), decreased milk production, weight loss and abortion...
  36. Claus M, Alfieri A, Folgueras Flatschart A, Wosiacki S, Médici K, Alfieri A. Rapid detection and differentiation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 glycoprotein C gene in clinical specimens by multiplex-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2005;128:183-8 pubmed
  37. Alvarez M, Bielsa J, Santos L, Makoschey B. Compatibility of a live infectious bovine rhinotraheitis (IBR) marker vaccine and an inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:6613-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the two vaccines can be applied at the same day for the first or second dose of the BVD basic vaccination and then at the booster vaccinations (third dose onwards). ..
  38. Sibhat B, Ayelet G, Skjerve E, Gebremedhin E, Asmare K. Bovine herpesvirus-1 in three major milk sheds of Ethiopia: Serostatus and association with reproductive disorders in dairy cattle. Prev Vet Med. 2018;150:126-132 pubmed publisher
    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) in cows and infectious pustular balanopostitis (IPB) in bulls worldwide...
  39. Wang J, Horner G, O Keefe J. Genetic characterisation of bovine herpesvirus 1 in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2006;54:61-6 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence that more virulent strains of BHV-1, e.g. subtype 1.1 and BHV type 5, are, or have been, present in New Zealand. Genetic variations exist among these BHV-1.2b isolates. ..
  40. Hodgson P, Aich P, Stookey J, Popowych Y, Potter A, Babiuk L, et al. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. Vet Res. 2012;43:21 pubmed publisher
  41. Saira K, Chowdhury S, Gaudreault N, da Silva L, Henderson G, Doster A, et al. The zinc RING finger of bovine herpesvirus 1-encoded bICP0 protein is crucial for viral replication and virulence. J Virol. 2008;82:12060-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that mutation of a single well-conserved cysteine residue in the C(3)HC(4) zinc RING finger of bICP0 has dramatic effects on the growth properties of BHV-1...
  42. Langellotti C, Pappalardo J, Quattrocchi V, Mongini C, Zamorano P. Induction of specific cytotoxic activity for bovine herpesvirus-1 by DNA immunization with different adjuvants. Antiviral Res. 2011;90:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we propose the use of ISA25, ISA206 or Cliptox as adjuvants in a DNA vaccine since they are able to induce not only a specific humoral immune response but also a specific cellular immune response...
  43. Petrini S, Ramadori G, Corradi A, Borghetti P, Lombardi G, Villa R, et al. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of DNA vaccines against bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) in calves. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In the other groups the IFN-? secreting cells were detected after virus infection and at low values...
  44. Bandyopadhyay S, Chakraborty D, Sarkar T, Pal B, Sasmal D, Biswas T, et al. A serological survey of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in yak (Poephagus grunniens) in Arunachal Pradesh in India. Rev Sci Tech. 2009;28:1045-50 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that the seroprevalence of antibodies against BHV-1 has been studied in yak in India...
  45. Rey M, Undi M, Rodriguez Lecompte J, Joseph T, Morrison J, Yitbarek A, et al. A study of the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device compared with a needle and syringe used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses. Vet J. 2013;198:235-8 pubmed publisher
    ..needle and syringe (NS) when used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). The study was conducted in two independent phases...
  46. Castrucci G, Frigeri F, Salvatori D, Ferrari M, Sardonini Q, Cassai E, et al. Vaccination of calves against bovine herpesvirus-1: assessment of the protective value of eight vaccines. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;25:29-41 pubmed
    ..In each experiment, all infected donor calves developed a typical severe infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection and excreted virus in their nasal secretions of up to 10(8.00) TCID50/0.1 ml...
  47. Schmidt T, Brown M, Larson R, Kleiboeker S, Olson K, Keisler D, et al. Effect of dietary lipoic acid on metabolic hormones and acute-phase proteins during challenge with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67:1192-8 pubmed
    To determine the effect of dietary supplemental lipoic acid (LA) on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and acute-phase proteins of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV).
  48. Zhang M, Fu S, Deng M, Xie Q, Xu H, Liu Z, et al. Attenuation of bovine herpesvirus type 1 by deletion of its glycoprotein G and tk genes and protection against virulent viral challenge. Vaccine. 2011;29:8943-50 pubmed publisher
    To develop a novel vaccine against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) mutant was constructed by deleting the genes for glycoprotein G (gG) and thymidine kinase (tk) through homologous recombination...
  49. Glotov A, Glotova T, Sergeev A, Sergeev A. [Study of antiviral activity of different drugs against bovine herpes virus and pestivirus]. Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49:6-9 pubmed
    ..The other drugs were ineffective...
  50. El Kholy A. Molecular and immunological detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 in clinical specimens. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12:125-36 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, it is recommended for routine screening of not only local but also imported animals and biologics for BHV-1 contamination...
  51. Kamaraj G, Rana S, Srinivasan V. Serological response in cattle immunized with inactivated oil and Algel adjuvant vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. New Microbiol. 2009;32:135-41 pubmed
    b>Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was grown in Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line using a roller culture system for its large-scale production...
  52. Cusack P, McMeniman N, Lean I. The physiological and production effects of increased dietary intake of vitamins E and C in feedlot cattle challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:2423-33 pubmed
    ..More severe disease may have translated these cellular effects to changes in health and performance...
  53. Givens M, Marley M, Jones C, Ensley D, Galik P, Zhang Y, et al. Protective effects against abortion and fetal infection following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 during pregnancy in beef heifers that received two doses of a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;241:484-95 pubmed publisher
  54. Zhu L, Yuan C, Zhang D, Ma Y, Ding X, Zhu G. BHV-1 induced oxidative stress contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in MDBK cells. Vet Res. 2016;47:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the loss of MMP was ameliorated by ROS depression. Collectively, ROS dependent mitochondrial damage and ultimately disruption of energy metabolism (ATP depletion) are a potential pathogenic mechanism for BHV-1 infection. ..
  55. Saha T, Guha C, Chakraborty D, Pal B, Biswas U, Chatterjee A, et al. Isolation and characterization of BoHV-1 from seropositive cows after inducing artificial stress in West Bengal, India. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013;16:720-5 pubmed
    b>Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India...
  56. Rossi C, Kiesel G. Antibody to viruses affecting cattle in commercial tissue culture grade fetal calf serum. Appl Microbiol. 1974;27:114-7 pubmed
  57. Perez S, Meyer F, Saira K, Doster A, Jones C. Premature expression of the latency-related RNA encoded by bovine herpesvirus type 1 correlates with higher levels of beta interferon RNA expression in productively infected cells. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that inappropriate expression of LR-RNA, in the absence of LR protein expression, may influence the latency-reactivation cycle and pathogenic potential of BHV-1...
  58. Richeson J, Beck P, Gadberry M, Gunter S, Hess T, Hubbell D, et al. Effects of on-arrival versus delayed modified live virus vaccination on health, performance, and serum infectious bovine rhinotracheitis titers of newly received beef calves. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:999-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of timing of a multivalent modified live virus (MLV) BRD vaccine on health, performance, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) antibody titers of newly received stocker cattle...
  59. Boelaert F, Biront P, Soumare B, Dispas M, Vanopdenbosch E, Vermeersch J, et al. Prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 in the Belgian cattle population. Prev Vet Med. 2000;45:285-95 pubmed
  60. Tarasov A, Gray D, Tsai M, Shields N, Montrose A, Creedon N, et al. A potentiometric biosensor for rapid on-site disease diagnostics. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;79:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This sensor technology is versatile, amenable to multiplexing, easily integrated to POC devices, and has the potential to impact a wide range of human and animal diseases. ..
  61. Nardelli S, Farina G, Lucchini R, Valorz C, Moresco A, Dal Zotto R, et al. Dynamics of infection and immunity in a dairy cattle population undergoing an eradication programme for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Prev Vet Med. 2008;85:68-80 pubmed publisher
    Several countries within the European Union (EU) have successfully eradicated Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), while others (e.g. Germany) are making efforts to achieve IBR-free status...
  62. Boissevain I. [A common cold does no harm]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2002;127:596 pubmed
  63. Parreño V, López M, Rodriguez D, Vena M, Izuel M, Filippi J, et al. Development and statistical validation of a guinea pig model for vaccine potency testing against Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:2539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results indicate that the developed guinea pig model represents a novel and reliable tool to estimate batch-to-batch vaccine potency and to predict efficacy of killed BoHV-1 veterinary vaccines...
  64. Segura Correa J, Solorio Rivera J, Sánchez Gil L. Seroconversion to bovine viral diarrhoea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in dairy herds of Michoacan, Mexico. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:233-8 pubmed publisher
    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) are important viral diseases around the world...
  65. Peek S, Bonds M, Gangemi D, Thomas C, Schultz R. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of recombinant human interferon alfa-2a and recombinant human interferon alfa-B/D hybrid against bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus in. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:871-4 pubmed
    ..interferon alfa-2a and recombinant human interferon alfa-B/D hybrid against cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in vitro.
  66. Wirth U, Fraefel C, Vogt B, Vlcek C, Paces V, Schwyzer M. Immediate-early RNA 2.9 and early RNA 2.6 of bovine herpesvirus 1 are 3' coterminal and encode a putative zinc finger transactivator protein. J Virol. 1992;66:2763-72 pubmed
    ..BHV-1 seems to have evolved a subtle mechanism to ensure the continued synthesis of p135 while turning off IER4.2, which encodes p180, the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP4 homolog...
  67. O Toole D, Chase C, Miller M, Campen H. Kennedy, the early sixties, and visitation by the angel of death. Vet Pathol. 2014;51:1051-62 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of this and later reports, veterinarians became alert to the association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and abortion, including the risks of exposing pregnant cattle to live vaccinal BoHV-1...
  68. Han Z, Gao J, Li K, Shahzad M, Nabi F, Zhang D, et al. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. J Wildl Dis. 2016;52:164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed. ..
  69. Marin M, Leunda M, Verna A, Morán P, Odeón A, Pérez S. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves. Vet J. 2016;209:82-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. ..
  70. Lemaire M, Schynts F, Meyer G, Georgin J, Baranowski E, Gabriel A, et al. Latency and reactivation of a glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine: influence of virus load and effect of specific maternal antibodies. Vaccine. 2001;19:4795-804 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this study shows for the first time that the gE-negative vaccine, when used in passively immunised calves, can lead to seronegative vaccine virus carriers...
  71. Perry G, Zimmerman A, Daly R, Buterbaugh R, Rhoades J, Scholz D, et al. The effects of vaccination on serum hormone concentrations and conception rates in synchronized naive beef heifers. Theriogenology. 2013;79:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, vaccination of naïve heifers with an MLV vaccine at the start of a fixed-time AI protocol had a negative effect on pregnancy success...
  72. Raaperi K, Aleksejev A, Orro T, Viltrop A. Dynamics of bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection in Estonian dairy herds with and without a control programme. Vet Rec. 2012;171:99 pubmed publisher
    ..A small proportion of herds may experience self-clearance of the virus...
  73. Blanc A, Berois M, Tomé L, Epstein A, Arbiza J. Induction of humoral responses to BHV-1 glycoprotein D expressed by HSV-1 amplicon vectors. J Vet Sci. 2012;13:59-65 pubmed
    ..These results reinforce previous findings that HSV-1 amplicon vectors can potentially deliver antigens to animals and highlight the prospective use of these vectors for treating infectious bovine rhinotracheitis disease.
  74. Boissevain I. [The preventive program prevented?]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2003;128:736-7 pubmed
  75. Mweene A, Fukushi H, Pandey G, Syakalima M, Simuunza M, Malamo M, et al. The prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 in traditional cattle in Southern Province, Zambia. Rev Sci Tech. 2003;22:873-7 pubmed
    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, in cattle destined for market in Southern Province, Zambia...
  76. van Oirschot J, Kaashoek M, Rijsewijk F. Advances in the development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines. Vet Microbiol. 1996;53:43-54 pubmed
    ..Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the ..
  77. Biswas S, Bandyopadhyay S, Dimri U, Patra P. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) - a re-emerging concern in livestock: a revisit to its biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis. Vet Q. 2013;33:68-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review the present status of BHV-1 around the world will be addressed besides the current knowledge with regard to its biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis. ..
  78. Hart J, MacHugh N, Morrison W. Theileria annulata-transformed cell lines are efficient antigen-presenting cells for in vitro analysis of CD8 T cell responses to bovine herpesvirus-1. Vet Res. 2011;42:119 pubmed publisher
  79. Umans S. [Veterinarian, your advice is worth gold. Continued prevention of IBR and BVD]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2004;129:709-13 pubmed
  80. Trangadia B, Rana S, Mukherjee F, Srinivasan V. Prevalence of brucellosis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in organized dairy farms in India. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:203-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in organized dairy farms with history of abortion in India...
  81. Campos F, Franco A, Hübner S, Oliveira M, Silva A, Esteves P, et al. High prevalence of co-infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 found in cattle in southern Brazil. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1% with BoHV-5 and 75.9% with both BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This is the first time that such a high frequency of co-infection of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in bovines has been demonstrated...
  82. Falkenberg S, Carroll J, Elsasser T, Best T, SARTIN J, Buntyn J, et al. Evaluation of endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:1522-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV).
  83. Pritchard G, Kirkwood G, Sayers A. Detecting antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and BVD virus infections using milk samples from individual cows. Vet Rec. 2002;150:182-3 pubmed
  84. Gerdes U. [Experiences with the eradication of the bovine herpes virus 1 in Lower Saxony]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2005;112:307-8 pubmed
    ..In 2004 60% of the cattle holdings were free from BHV1. At least the measures which will be taken in Lower Saxony to increase the success of eradication are explained...