kaposi varicelliform eruption


Summary: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).

Top Publications

  1. Feye F, Halleux C, Gillet J, Vanpee D. Exacerbation of atopic dermatitis in the emergency department. Eur J Emerg Med. 2004;11:360-2 pubmed
    ..The association with herpetic keratitis is not frequent but is a major ophthalmological problem. Treatment consists of the administration of high-dose intravenous acyclovir and acyclovir ophthalmic ointment. ..
  2. Rerinck H, Kamann S, Wollenberg A. [Eczema herpeticum: Pathogenesis and therapy]. Hautarzt. 2006;57:586-91 pubmed
    ..Treatment of choice is systemic acyclovir therapy...
  3. Stricker T, Lips U, Sennhauser F. Visual diagnosis: an 8-month-old infant who has an erupting rash. Pediatr Rev. 2007;28:231-4 pubmed
  4. Kimata H. Rapidly increasing incidence of Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in patients with atopic dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:260-1 pubmed
  5. Engler R, Kenner J, Leung D. Smallpox vaccination: Risk considerations for patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:357-65 pubmed
    ..Individuals with active or quiescent atopic dermatitis are at increased risk for vaccinia complications. The nature of these complications and other considerations are summarized in this rostrum...
  6. Fleming J, Lynn W. A 33-year-old man with a facial rash. PLoS Med. 2004;1:e17; quiz e12 pubmed
  7. Leung D, Gao P, Grigoryev D, Rafaels N, Streib J, Howell M, et al. Human atopic dermatitis complicated by eczema herpeticum is associated with abnormalities in IFN-? response. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:965-73.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The basis for increased susceptibility of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) to develop disseminated viral skin infections such as eczema herpeticum (AD with a history of eczema herpeticum, ADEH(+)) is poorly understood...
  8. Kawakami Y, Tomimori Y, Yumoto K, Hasegawa S, Ando T, Tagaya Y, et al. Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatum. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Given low NK cell activities and increased IL-17 expression in atopic dermatitis patients, these results can explain the increased susceptibility of atopic dermatitis patients to eczema vaccinatum...
  9. Beck L, Boguniewicz M, Hata T, Schneider L, Hanifin J, Gallo R, et al. Phenotype of atopic dermatitis subjects with a history of eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:260-9, 269.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of subjects with atopic dermatitis (AD) are susceptible to serious infections with herpes simplex virus, called eczema herpeticum, or vaccina virus, called eczema vaccinatum...

More Information


  1. Wollenberg A, Wetzel S, Burgdorf W, Haas J. Viral infections in atopic dermatitis: pathogenic aspects and clinical management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:667-74 pubmed
    ..Eczema herpeticum is the most common member of this group; recent advances in understanding its pathogenesis might contribute to a more successful management of this serious complication...
  2. Howell M, Wollenberg A, Gallo R, Flaig M, Streib J, Wong C, et al. Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:836-41 pubmed
    ..Eczema herpeticum (ADEH) develops in a subset of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) because of disseminated infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
  3. Brook I. Secondary bacterial infections complicating skin lesions. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:808-12 pubmed
    ..These organisms probably reached these sites from the oral cavity, where they are part of the normal flora. This review highlights the polymicrobial aerobic-anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected skin lesions...
  4. Gao P, Rafaels N, Hand T, Murray T, Boguniewicz M, Hata T, et al. Filaggrin mutations that confer risk of atopic dermatitis confer greater risk for eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:507-13, 513.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations have not been reported in African ancestry populations. Atopic dermatitis eczema herpeticum (ADEH) is a rare but serious complication of AD resulting from disseminated cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections...
  5. Howell M, Gao P, Kim B, Lesley L, Streib J, Taylor P, et al. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 gene (STAT6) increases the propensity of patients with atopic dermatitis toward disseminated viral skin infections. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased susceptibility to recurrent skin infections...
  6. Donnelly A, Butler R, Miller C. A case of Kaposi varicelliform eruption in Darier-White disease. Cutis. 2005;75:33-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with DWD are prone to frequent superinfection including the rare complication of Kaposi varicelliform eruption. It is postulated that a defect in cell-mediated immunity may contribute to this predisposition.
  7. Margolis T, Ostler H. Treatment of ocular disease in eczema herpeticum. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;110:274-9 pubmed
    ..The combined use of systemic acyclovir and topical trifluridine may be of similar value in treating all cases of atopic herpetic keratitis...
  8. Wollenberg A, Zoch C, Wetzel S, Plewig G, Przybilla B. Predisposing factors and clinical features of eczema herpeticum: a retrospective analysis of 100 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:198-205 pubmed
    ..Objective and methods We sought to characterize the clinical features and predisposing factors for EH. A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with EH seen from 1980 through 1996 and of 105 control patients with AD was performed...
  9. Mackley C, Adams D, Anderson B, Miller J. Eczema herpeticum: a dermatologic emergency. Dermatol Nurs. 2002;14:307-10, 323; quiz 313 pubmed
    ..Two representative cases of eczema herpeticum along with discussion of the etiology, means of diagnosis, treatments, and complications of eczema herpeticum are presented...
  10. Olson J, Robles D, Kirby P, Colven R. Kaposi varicelliform eruption (eczema herpeticum). Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:18 pubmed
    ..Antiviral treatment for eczema herpeticum is very effective, and should be instituted without delay to avoid significant morbidity and mortality...
  11. Ajith C, Dogra S, Handa S. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in a patient with phenytoin-induced drug rash. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:1452-3 pubmed
  12. Bussmann C, Peng W, Bieber T, Novak N. Molecular pathogenesis and clinical implications of eczema herpeticum. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008;10:e21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of eczema herpeticum. ..
  13. Lane J, Goldstein J. Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;14:189-95 pubmed
    ..Death in revaccinees occurred less commonly and almost entirely from progressive vaccinia. In today's population, death rates might be higher because of the increased prevalence of immune deficiency and atopic dermatitis. ..
  14. Scott J, Elkhal A, Freyschmidt E, MacArthur D, McDonald D, Howell M, et al. Impaired immune response to vaccinia virus inoculated at the site of cutaneous allergic inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1382-8 pubmed
    ..This may contribute to the susceptibility of patients with AD to virus dissemination after smallpox vaccination. ..
  15. Lubbe J, Sanchez Politta S, Tschanz C, Saurat J. Adults with atopic dermatitis and herpes simplex and topical therapy with tacrolimus: what kind of prevention?. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:670-1 pubmed
  16. Yoshida M, Umene K. Close association of predominant genotype of herpes simplex virus type 1 with eczema herpeticum analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2003;109:11-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of PCR-based approach for classification of HSV-1 strains into genotypes seeking an association of a genotype with clinical manifestation. ..
  17. Aronson P, Yan A, Mohamad Z, Mittal M, Shah S. Empiric antibiotics and outcomes of children hospitalized with eczema herpeticum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the importance of early recognition of systemic bacterial illness in children with eczema herpeticum. Empiric antibiotics did not affect mortality, which is low. ..
  18. DiCarlo A, Amon E, Gardner M, Barr S, Ott K. Eczema herpeticum in pregnancy and neonatal herpes infection. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:455-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mother and infant did well. Early diagnosis and treatment of eczema herpeticum is necessary to prevent poor outcomes in pregnancy. Prophylactic acyclovir may help prevent eczema herpeticum in pregnancy. ..
  19. Shenoy M, Suchitra U. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:65 pubmed
    ..There was history of fever, malaise and extensive vesicular eruptions. Diagnosis was made based on clinical features and Tzanck smear examination. Patient responded adequately to oral acyclovir therapy. ..
  20. Fivenson D, Breneman D, Wander A. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. Absence of ocular involvement. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:1037-9 pubmed
    ..All random conjunctival swab cultures performed in 3 patients were positive for growth of viable HSV. Although ocular exposure to HSV may commonly occur in KVE, ocular pathology due to this virus does not appear to be a common sequela...
  21. Mallo Garcia S, Coto Segura P, Suárez Casado H, Caminal L, Sánchez del Río J, Santos Juanes J. Fatal outcome due to bacterial superinfection of eczema herpeticum in a patient with mycosis fungoides. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:21 pubmed
    b>Kaposi varicelliform eruption or eczema herpeticum is well known to be associated with several chronic dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis, foliaceus pemphigus, seborrheic dermatitis, Darier disease, and congenital ichthyosiform ..
  22. Freyschmidt E, Mathias C, Diaz N, MacArthur D, Laouar A, Manjunath N, et al. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses. J Immunol. 2010;185:1295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV. ..
  23. Domenico J, Lucas J, Fujita M, Gelfand E. Susceptibility to vaccinia virus infection and spread in mice is determined by age at infection, allergen sensitization and mast cell status. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;158:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the factors determining the relative resistance/sensitivity to vaccinia virus will aid in the development of strategies for preventing and treating adverse reactions which can occur after smallpox vaccination. ..
  24. Lubbe J, Pournaras C, Saurat J. Eczema herpeticum during treatment of atopic dermatitis with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. Dermatology. 2000;201:249-51 pubmed
    ..Future studies and careful documentation of cases are needed in order to better characterize patients at risk. ..
  25. Khan M, Shaw L, Clark V, Afzal Z. Eczema herpeticum: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2005;15:136-9 pubmed
    ..This paper describes one such case, discusses the aetiology, presentation and management of this condition, and highlights the importance of early recognition by the clinician. ..
  26. Kimata H. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption associated with the use of tacrolimus ointment in two neonates. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:262-3 pubmed
  27. Kramer S, Thomas C, Tyler W, Elston D. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis. 2004;73:115-22 pubmed
  28. Komericki P, Akkilic M, Kranke B, Aberer W. Recurrent herpes simplex infection in multiple locations in an otherwise healthy boy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:113-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed a diagnosis of multifocal herpes simplex infection, and hypothesize that this was a result of his previous eczema herpeticum, an unusual complication, in an otherwise healthy and immunocompetent child. ..
  29. Prabhakar A, Dogra S, Handa S. Eczema herpeticum complicating Parthenium dermatitis. Dermatitis. 2005;16:78-9, quiz 55-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case of eczema herpeticum in association with Parthenium dermatitis. Because Parthenium dermatitis is a common condition in this region, one should be aware of this complication so that appropriate treatment is not delayed...
  30. Denby K, Beck L. Update on systemic therapies for atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis will come with the exploration of novel targeted therapies. ..
  31. De Benedetto A, Slifka M, Rafaels N, Kuo I, Georas S, Boguniewicz M, et al. Reductions in claudin-1 may enhance susceptibility to herpes simplex virus 1 infections in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:242-246.e5 pubmed publisher
  32. Tomimori Y, Kawakami Y, McCausland M, Ando T, Koriazova L, Kato S, et al. Protective murine and human monoclonal antibodies against eczema vaccinatum. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These neutralizing antibodies would likely be effective at reducing or eliminating clinical disease in people with eczema vaccinatum or other severe side effects of the smallpox vaccine. ..
  33. Doherty S, Giancola A, Nash J, Lazar A, Duvic M. Papulo-vesicular eruption. Dermatol Online J. 2007;13:24 pubmed
  34. Babic M. Eczema vaccinatum: a reaction to the smallpox vaccine. A report of a rare but potentially lethal consequence. Am J Nurs. 2007;107:30-1 pubmed
  35. Enserink M. Public health. Treating vaccine reactions: two lifelines, but no guarantees. Science. 2002;298:2313 pubmed
  36. Wetzel S, Wollenberg A. [Eczema herpeticatum]. Hautarzt. 2004;55:646-52 pubmed
    ..While intravenous acyclovir is still regarded as standard treatment of eczema herpeticum, several recently-developed antiviral drugs provide therapeutic options. ..
  37. Menni S, Gualandri L, Boccardi D, Crosti C. Kaposi varicelliform eruption in an infant. J Pediatr. 2005;146:432 pubmed
  38. Hinz T, Zaccaro D, Byron M, Brendes K, Krieg T, Novak N, et al. Atopic dermo-respiratory syndrome is a correlate of eczema herpeticum. Allergy. 2011;66:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Concomitant asthma and rhinitis were identified as correlates of EH. From these data, we conclude that AD patients with EH display a distinct clinical and biological phenotype. ..
  39. Higaki S, Inoue Y, Yoshida A, Maeda N, Watanabe H, Shimomura Y. Case of bilateral multiple herpetic epithelial keratitis manifested as dendriform epithelial edema during primary Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52:127-129 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a serologically verified case of primary, simultaneous onset, bilateral, atypical epithelial herpetic keratitis that manifested as dendriform epithelial edema during a generalized dermatitis incident...
  40. Koranda F. Images in clinical medicine. Use of multinucleated giant cells to diagnose a viral eruption. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:e6 pubmed
  41. Luca N, Lara Corrales I, Pope E. Eczema herpeticum in children: clinical features and factors predictive of hospitalization. J Pediatr. 2012;161:671-5 pubmed publisher
    ..43; 95% CI, 1.52-55.9, P = .01). Predictors of hospitalization in this cohort included male sex, age <1 year, fever, and systemic symptoms at presentation. Hospitalized patients may be at risk for repeat episodes of eczema herpeticum. ..
  42. Gait C, Johnston G. Acute skin conditions in children. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2008;69:M56-8 pubmed
  43. Gao L, Bin L, Rafaels N, Huang L, Potee J, Ruczinski I, et al. Targeted deep sequencing identifies rare loss-of-function variants in IFNGR1 for risk of atopic dermatitis complicated by eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1591-1600 pubmed publisher
    ..004-.0001 and P = .001-.0001, respectively). Our results provide evidence that both genetic variants in the gene encoding IFNGR1 are implicated in susceptibility to the ADEH+ phenotype. ..
  44. Studdiford J, Valko G, Belin L, Stonehouse A. Eczema herpeticum: making the diagnosis in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2011;40:167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of EH in the acute care setting is essential for the provision of timely and specific treatment and to avoid the serious sequelae of this condition...
  45. Wollenberg A, Klein E. Current aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in atopic dermatitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007;33:35-44 pubmed
    ..Molluscum contagiosum virus produces a unique IL-18 binding protein to evade antiviral defense mechanisms. Innate and adaptive immunity do not simply coexist but are linked to one another in a complex network of skin immunobiology...
  46. Langan S, Clair J, Lyons J. Renal failure with herpes simplex. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:347-9 pubmed
  47. Gimenez R, Martin M, Perez P. [Vesicular/pustular lesions in a patient with atopic dermatitis]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003;21:269-70 pubmed
  48. Guss D. Images in emergency medicine. Eczema herpeticum. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:83, 92 pubmed publisher
  49. Howell M, Jones J, Kisich K, Streib J, Gallo R, Leung D. Selective killing of vaccinia virus by LL-37: implications for eczema vaccinatum. J Immunol. 2004;172:1763-7 pubmed
    ..01). These data support a role for cathelicidins in the inhibition of orthopox virus (vaccinia) replication both in vitro and in vivo. Susceptibility of patients with AD to eczema vaccinatum may be due to a deficiency of cathelicidin...
  50. Marcus B, Lipozencic J, Matz H, Orion E, Wolf R. Herpes simplex: autoinoculation versus dissemination. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2005;13:237-41 pubmed
    ..Four cases of autoinoculation and two of KVE illustrate the differences between these two forms of viral spread...
  51. Segura S, Romero D, Carrera C, Iranzo P, Estrach T. Eczema herpeticum during treatment of atopic dermatitis with 1% pimecrolimus cream. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85:524-5 pubmed
  52. Tomita H, Ogawa F, Kuwatsuka S, Toriyama F, Yasumoto S, Kamihira S, et al. Attenuation of an adult T-cell leukemia skin lesion after treatment of a concomitant herpes simplex infection: a case study. Virol J. 2012;9:224 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of eczema herpeticum resulted in a concomitant improvement in the symptoms of ATL, including a reduction in the size of the ATL plaques, for over 2 months before relapse...
  53. Kim B, Bin L, Ye Y, Ramamoorthy P, Leung D. IL-25 enhances HSV-1 replication by inhibiting filaggrin expression, and acts synergistically with Th2 cytokines to enhance HSV-1 replication. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2678-2685 pubmed publisher
    ..Filaggrin breakdown products, however, inhibited HSV-1 replication in vitro. ..
  54. Erdag G, Lockman D, Tromberg J, Cropley T, Patterson J. A case of pityriasis rubra pilaris with associated focal acantholytic dyskeratosis complicated by Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. J Cutan Pathol. 2011;38:919-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a patient with PRP whose biopsies showed both herpes simplex infection and FAD. A complete understanding of the mechanism behind this eruption evolved gradually, aided in great measure by the histopathologic findings...
  55. Broccardo C, Mahaffey S, Schwarz J, Wruck L, David G, Schlievert P, et al. Comparative proteomic profiling of patients with atopic dermatitis based on history of eczema herpeticum infection and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:186-93, 193.e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Eczema herpeticum is a disseminated herpes simplex virus infection that occurs in a small subset of patients...
  56. Tian T, Jin M, Dubin K, King S, Hoetzenecker W, Murphy G, et al. IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection. J Immunol. 2017;198:4341-4351 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest new therapeutic strategies for treatment of eczema vaccinatum and inform assessment of risks in patients receiving IL-1 blocking Abs for treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  57. Wolf R, Davidovici B, Marcus B, Orion E, Lipozencic J. Autoinoculation and dissemination are two different forms of herpes virus spread. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2006;14:258-60 pubmed
    ..Presented are typical examples of the two forms of viral spread...
  58. Freyschmidt E, Mathias C, MacArthur D, Laouar A, Narasimhaswamy M, Weih F, et al. Skin inflammation in RelB(-/-) mice leads to defective immunity and impaired clearance of vaccinia virus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:671-9 pubmed
    ..Atopic dermatitis patients exposed to the smallpox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), occasionally develop eczema vaccinatum (EV), an overwhelming and potentially lethal systemic infection with VV...
  59. Bristol N. Adverse event related to smallpox vaccination. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2007;1:11-2 pubmed publisher
  60. Lederman E, Miramontes R, Openshaw J, Olson V, Karem K, Marcinak J, et al. Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment. Vaccine. 2009;27:375-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both siblings were found to have serologic evidence of orthopoxvirus exposure. These findings have implications for smallpox preparedness, especially in situations where some household members are not candidates for vaccination...
  61. Sinclair C, Gaunt E, Simmonds P, Broomfield D, Nwafor N, Wellington L, et al. Atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6 infection, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, January to February 2014. Euro Surveill. 2014;19:20745 pubmed
  62. Rao G, Chalam K, Prasad G, Sarnathan M, Kumar H. Mini outbreak of Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in skin ward: a study of five cases. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:33-5 pubmed
    ..We are reporting five cases of KVE; four cases acquired the infection in a makeshift ward after admission of the first case in May 2005, due to the renovation work of the regular skin ward...
  63. Schroeder H F, Elgueta N A, Martínez G M. [Eczema herpeticum caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. Review of the literature about one case]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2009;26:356-9 pubmed publisher
  64. Kucukyilmaz I, Alpsoy E, Yazar S. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in association with rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:S169-72 pubmed
    ..We report here a new case of Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in a 38-year-old woman with rosacea. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Kaposi's varicelliform eruption associated with rosacea to be reported...
  65. Ban F, Asano S, Ozawa S, Eda H, Norman J, Stroop W, et al. Analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism variants associated with herpes gladiatorum and Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in sumo wrestlers. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicated that reactivation and transmission of latent HSV-1 infections, especially BgK(L), occurred frequently among wrestlers and was caused by severe skin damage. These results support the BgK(L) dispersion hypothesis...
  66. Fortuño Y, Marcoval J, Kruger M, Gimenez S, Bordas X, Peyri J. Unilateral Darier's disease complicated by Kaposi's varicelliform eruption limited to the affected skin. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:1106-7 pubmed
  67. Wollenberg A. Eczema herpeticum. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2012;96:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This contribution covers eczema herpeticum, the disseminated viral infection of an eczematous skin disease with the herpes simplex virus, as it is the clinically most important viral complication of AD...
  68. Gao P, Leung D, Rafaels N, Boguniewicz M, Hand T, Gao L, et al. Genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) are associated with atopic dermatitis and eczema herpeticum. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:650-7 pubmed publisher
    ..008). Our findings suggest that distinct markers in IRF2 may be associated with AD and ADEH, which may depend upon ethnic ancestry, and genetic variants in IRF2 may contribute to an abnormal immune response to HSV...
  69. Naleway A, Belongia E, Greenlee R, Kieke B, Chen R, Shay D. Eczematous skin disease and recall of past diagnoses: implications for smallpox vaccination. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:1-7 pubmed
    ..According to current recommendations, a preexposure vaccination program should identify these persons and exclude them from participating...
  70. Yoshida M, Amatsu A. High frequency of detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the oral cavity of patients with eczema herpeticum. Dermatology. 2004;209:101-3 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was detected in the oral cavity of patients with herpes labialis under various conditions such as during oral surgery...
  71. Shiohara T, Sato Y, Takahashi R, Kurata M, Mizukawa Y. Increased susceptibility to cutaneous viral infections in atopic dermatitis: the roles of regulatory T cells and innate immune defects. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2011;41:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide several potential explanations for why AD patients are at greater risk for eczema molluscatum...
  72. Mackley C, Miller J. Photo Quiz. What is your diagnosis? Eczema herpeticum superinfection in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. Cutis. 2004;73:301, 317-8 pubmed
  73. Boyd D, Sperling L, Norton S. Eczema herpeticum and clinical criteria for investigating smallpox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1102-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tzanck preparation was critical for rapid diagnosis of herpetic infection and exclusion of smallpox...
  74. Takahashi R, Sato Y, Kurata M, Yamazaki Y, Kimishima M, Shiohara T. Pathological role of regulatory T cells in the initiation and maintenance of eczema herpeticum lesions. J Immunol. 2014;192:969-78 pubmed publisher
  75. Rodriguez Serna M, Mercader P, Pardo J, Fortea Baixauli J, Aliaga A. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in an HIV-positive patient after laser resurfacing. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:711-2 pubmed
    ..This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of Kaposi's varicelliform eruption after laser resurfacing. The immunodepressed status of the patient may have played a role in her infection...
  76. Gao P, Rafaels N, Mu D, Hand T, Murray T, Boguniewicz M, et al. Genetic variants in thymic stromal lymphopoietin are associated with atopic dermatitis and eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:1403-1407.e4 pubmed publisher
  77. Feito Rodríguez M, Ramírez Marín P, Sendagorta Cudós E, de Lucas Laguna R, Herranz Pinto P. [Vesicular lesions localized to eyelids]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2007;67:183-4 pubmed
  78. Garcia Doval I. Three more learning points. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e30 pubmed
  79. Popov Y, Nikolov R, Lalova A. Localized eczema herpeticum with unilateral ocular involvement. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2010;19:35-7 pubmed
    ..The patient has had a mild form of atopic dermatitis (AD) since early childhood. Why AD patients are prone to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is still unclear. Ocular pathologic findings in these cases are rarely reported...
  80. Kang S, Yi J, Choi H, Yun S. Eczema herpeticum localized to area of tinea cruris. J Dermatol. 2004;31:60-2 pubmed
    ..We experienced a patient with tinea cruris who developed EH within a fungal infection. To our knowledge, dermatophyte infection as an underlying cutaneous disorder for EH has not been previously described in the English literature...
  81. Moses A, Cohen Poradosu R. Images in clinical medicine. Eczema vaccinatum--a timely reminder. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1287 pubmed
  82. Bin L, Howell M, Kim B, Streib J, Hall C, Leung D. Specificity protein 1 is pivotal in the skin's antiviral response. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:430-438.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have found specificity protein (Sp) 1 transcription factor in the viral replication machinery and postulated that Sp1 was required for viral replication in host cells...
  83. Kikuchi K, Hoashi T, Kanazawa S, Tamaki K. Angiogenic cytokines in serum and cutaneous lesions of patients with polyarteritis nodosa. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:57-61 pubmed
  84. Peters P, van Setten P, Brus F. [Diagnostic images (169). A toddler not feeling well and having a rash. Eczema herpeticum]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:2478 pubmed
    ..A 1-year-old boy with eczema presented with fever and a rash, which was diagnosed as eczema herpeticum...
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