dendritic keratitis


Summary: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Mannis M, Plotnik R, Schwab I, Newton R. Herpes simplex dendritic keratitis after keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111:480-4 pubmed
    We treated three patients with herpes simplex dendritic keratitis that occurred between three and 11 months after keratoplasty. The patients had no history of herpetic infection...
  2. Høvding G. A comparison between acyclovir and trifluorothymidine ophthalmic ointment in the treatment of epithelial dendritic keratitis. A double blind, randomized parallel group trial. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1989;67:51-4 pubmed
    ..Two patient (8%) in the acyclovir group and 1 patient (4%) in the TFT group failed to heal within 14 days of treatment. No clinically significant adverse effects were recorded...
  3. Hoh H, Hurley C, Claoue C, Viswalingham M, Easty D, Goldschmidt P, et al. Randomised trial of ganciclovir and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes simplex dendritic keratitis: a multicentre study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80:140-3 pubmed
    This study was designed to assess the relative efficacy of topical ganciclovir 0.15% gel and acyclovir 3% ointment in the treatment of herpes simplex dendritic keratitis.
  4. Zhang W, Suzuki T, Shiraishi A, Shimamura I, Inoue Y, Ohashi Y. Dendritic keratitis caused by an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus with frameshift mutation. Cornea. 2007;26:105-6 pubmed
    ..To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis after long-term, inconsistent use of topical acyclovir and fluorometholone...
  5. Bigar F, Witmer R. Corneal regrafts. Dev Ophthalmol. 1987;14:117-20 pubmed
    ..In herpetic disease with corneal vascularization and frequent secondary glaucoma the results are poor. In patients with failed grafts for corneal dystrophies or degenerations the regrafts can be beneficial. ..
  6. Mori Y, Inoue Y, Shimomura Y, Manabe R. [In vitro sensitivity to antiviral agents of herpes simplex viruses isolated from patients with herpetic keratitis]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1990;94:484-7 pubmed
    ..0032 to 0.33 micrograms/ml (0.13 +/- 0.11). No virus with markedly diminished sensitivity to IDU and ACV was found. These results suggest that all HSV-1 strains isolated from patients have good sensitivity in vitro to antiviral agents. ..
  7. Kirkness C, Ezra E, Rice N, Steele A. The success and survival of repeat corneal grafts. Eye (Lond). 1990;4 ( Pt 1):58-64 pubmed
    ..Glaucoma was an important complication in 38% of eyes. Only 12 eyes in the series had no significant complication and 18 eyes achieved a corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better. ..
  8. Newell C, Martin S, Sendele D, Mercadal C, Rouse B. Herpes simplex virus-induced stromal keratitis: role of T-lymphocyte subsets in immunopathology. J Virol. 1989;63:769-75 pubmed
    ..These observations implicate the CD4+ T-lymphocyte subset as the principal mediators of SK and CD8+ T lymphocytes as possible regulators that control the severity of SK. ..
  9. Claoue C. Preliminary data suggest a role for bacterial superinfection of a viral keratitis after zosteriform spread of herpes simplex virus to the eye of the mouse. J R Soc Med. 1988;81:452-5 pubmed
    ..Preliminary data suggests that bacteriological super-infection of the viral keratitis occurs frequently, producing a unique experimental model. ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. O Brien W, Guy J, Taylor J. Pathogenesis of corneal oedema associated with herpetic eye disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74:723-30 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that corneal oedema associated with HSV-1 induced disease can occur in the absence of detectable virus replication and cytolysis of corneal endothelial cells. ..
  2. Newell C, Sendele D, Rouse B. Effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte depletion on the induction and expression of herpes simplex stromal keratitis. Reg Immunol. 1989;2:366-9 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that CD4+ T-lymphocytes are involved in both the induction and the expression of SK, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes may serve some regulatory function in this disease. ..
  3. O Brien W, Taylor J. The isolation of herpes simplex virus from rabbit corneas during latency. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30:357-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HSV-1 can remain in a nonreplicative state characteristic of latency in cells of rabbit corneas for long periods after infection and therapy of herpetic eye disease. ..
  4. Gebhardt B, Hill J. T lymphocytes in the trigeminal ganglia of rabbits during corneal HSV infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988;29:1683-91 pubmed
  5. Lewkowicz Moss S, Shimeld C, Lipworth K, Hill T, Blyth W, Easty D. Quantitative studies on Langerhans cells in mouse corneal epithelium following infection with herpes simplex virus. Exp Eye Res. 1987;45:127-40 pubmed
    ..However, after inoculation on the snout, numerous clusters were seen over the epithelial surface, often surround by epithelium devoid of LCs. ..
  6. Opremcak E, Wells P, Thompson P, Daigle J, Rice B, Millin J, et al. Immunogenetic influence of Igh-1 phenotype on experimental herpes simplex virus type-1 corneal infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988;29:749-54 pubmed
    ..The susceptibility/resistance to HSK in these mice is unrelated to trigeminal ganglionic latency or keratocyte permissivity. ..
  7. Mott K, Brick D, Van Rooijen N, Ghiasi H. Macrophages are important determinants of acute ocular HSV-1 infection in immunized mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5605-15 pubmed
    ..During the latent stage of HSV-1 infection, however, macrophage depletion failed to have any observable effect on HSV-1 latency in the TGs of infected mice. ..
  8. de Freitas D, Sato E, Kelly L, Pavan Langston D. Delayed onset of varicella keratitis. Cornea. 1992;11:471-4 pubmed
    ..Based on this case and on a review of the literature, we believe that this delayed onset of keratitis represents a distinct category of varicella corneal complications. ..
  9. Montgomery A, Centifanto Y. Heterogeneity within an HSV-1 wild-type strain and its importance in pathogenesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1989;191:362-9 pubmed
  10. Hirose N, Shimomura Y, Matsuda M, Inoue Y, Inaba M, Hamano T, et al. Corneal endothelial changes associated with herpetic stromal keratitis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1988;32:14-20 pubmed
    ..The eyes with keratouveitis (17 patients), however, had marked polymegathism and pleomorphism of the endothelium and a distinctly lower endothelial cell density (mean, 19%) than the healthy fellow eyes. ..
  11. Higaki S, Itahashi M, Deai T, Fukuda M, Shimomura Y. Effect of oral valaciclovir on herpetic keratitis. Cornea. 2006;25:S64-7 pubmed
    ..The patient was a 61-year-old man who presented with dendritic keratitis in his left eye...
  12. Barequet I, Wasserzug Y. Herpes simplex keratitis after cataract surgery. Cornea. 2007;26:615-7 pubmed
  13. Gokhale N, Dherai A, Desai H, Ashavaid T. Unusual dendritic keratitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:57-9 pubmed
    Bilateral pseudo-dendritic keratitis in infancy can be due to tyrosinemia, a rare metabolic disorder. Ocular involvement may be the earliest presenting manifestation of this disease...
  14. Zhu X. [Ophthalmological application of HSV-monoclonal antibodies]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 1990;26:264-6 pubmed
    ..Among 14 cases of clinically doubtful HSK, 4 cases were positive. The IFA was completed within 2-3 hours after sampling. The procedure proved rapid, sensitive, and highly specific for etiological diagnosis of HSK. ..
  15. Lee S, Storch G, Reed C, Hagerty C, Pepose J. Comparative laboratory diagnosis of experimental herpes simplex keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;109:8-12 pubmed
  16. Veneroni G, Calixte C, Bozzo Costa E, Germogli R. [Specific immunostimulation in the therapy of recurrent herpes simplex type I or II]. Boll Ist Sieroter Milan. 1987;66:427-34 pubmed
    ..The examined antivirals allow to obtain a significant decrease of the intensity and duration of the relapses without interfering in any way with the immunity system. ..
  17. Teng C. Images in clinical medicine. Corneal dendritic ulcer from herpes simplex virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:e22 pubmed publisher
  18. Hendricks R, Tao M, Glorioso J. Alterations in the antigenic structure of two major HSV-1 glycoproteins, gC and gB, influence immune regulation and susceptibility to murine herpes keratitis. J Immunol. 1989;142:263-9 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 400 words) ..
  19. Colin J, Malet F, Chastel C, Richard M. Use of collagen shields in the treatment of herpetic keratitis. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:189-91 pubmed
    Eighteen patients with typical Herpes simplex virus dendritic keratitis confirmed by viral isolation were treated with corneal collagen shields presoaked with trifluorothymidine for 15 minutes and trifluorothymidine eye drops 5 times ..
  20. Schwab I. Oral acyclovir in the management of herpes simplex ocular infections. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:423-30 pubmed
    ..Acyclovir seems to be a promising adjunct antiviral agent for the treatment of recalcitrant epithelial, stromal, or uveal disease secondary to HSV. ..
  21. Brooks A, Weiner J. Indications for penetrating keratoplasty: a clinicopathological review of 511 corneal specimens. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1987;15:277-81 pubmed
    ..Acute ulceration was usually bacterial in origin, not infrequently with hypopyon. ..
  22. Maudgal P, De Clercq E. Bromovinyldeoxyuridine treatment of herpetic keratitis clinically resistant to other antiviral agents. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:193-9 pubmed
    ..Under BVDU therapy, dendritic keratitis in 44 patients healed within an average 7.8 days...
  23. Cook S, Aitken D, Loeffler K, Brown S. Herpes simplex virus in the cornea; an ultrastructural study on viral reactivation. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1986;105 ( Pt 6):634-41 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that HSV replication occurs within keratocytes. HSV replication is an important step in the evolution of disciform herpetic keratitis. ..
  24. Genée E, Maith J. [Comparison of the effectiveness of acyclovir and vidarabine in superficial herpes keratitis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1987;191:30-2 pubmed
    ..5 days and 8 days respectively (no statistical significance). However, the results revealed that Acyclovir was more effective. Both drugs were well tolerated. ..
  25. Eggink C, Vaandrager W, Burger D, Sauerwein R. [Acanthamoeba keratitis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1996;140:1130-33 pubmed
    ..In cases of refractory keratitis, the possibility of an Acanthamoeba infection should be taken into account. ..
  26. Kennedy P, Wakakura M, Foulds W, Clements G. Herpes simplex virus 1 infection upregulates stress protein expression in cultured retinal neurons. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990;53:72-5 pubmed
    ..The number of cells labelled with a polyclonal anti-HSV antibody increased with time after infection. Retinal neurons in culture can be infected with HSV, after which StrP expression is significantly upregulated. ..
  27. Nesburn A, Ghiasi H, Wechsler S. Ocular safety and efficacy of an HSV-1 gD vaccine during primary and latent infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:1497-502 pubmed
    ..This suggests that to provide high levels of ocular protection in rabbits (and probably in humans), HSV-1 vaccines may have to elicit a more vigorous immune response than that produced by normal HSV-1 infection. ..
  28. Inoue Y, Ohashi Y, Shimomura Y, Manabe R, Yamada M, Ueda S, et al. Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D. Protective immunity against murine herpetic keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:411-8 pubmed
    ..Cellular immunity, however, was not detected. These results indicate that two antibody-mediated defense mechanisms--virus neutralization and CDC--were responsible for the protective effect observed in our study. ..
  29. Trousdale M, Robin J, Willey D, De Clercq E. Intentional reactivation of latent ocular herpes infection during BVDU therapy. Curr Eye Res. 1987;6:1471-7 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that BVDU had a demonstrable therapeutic effect on the recovery of HSV-1 from ocular cultures during intentional reactivation, but the latent ganglionic infection was not eliminated. ..
  30. Holbach L, Font R, Naumann G. Herpes simplex stromal and endothelial keratitis. Granulomatous cell reactions at the level of Descemet's membrane, the stroma, and Bowman's layer. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:722-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of HSV antigens in human corneal endothelial cells and in the granulomatous reactions at the level of Descemet's membrane. ..
  31. Jacobson J, Leib D, Goldstein D, Bogard C, Schaffer P, Weller S, et al. A herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase deletion mutant is defective for productive acute and reactivatable latent infections of mice and for replication in mouse cells. Virology. 1989;173:276-83 pubmed
  32. Kelly L, Eliason J. Eikenella corrodens keratitis: case report. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73:22-4 pubmed
    ..corrodens ulcerative keratitis with hypopyon in a 39-year-old male with herpes simplex keratitis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of E. corrodens as a pathogen in bacterial keratitis. ..
  33. Cantin E, Chen J, Mcneill J, Willey D, Openshaw H. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA sequences in corneal transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction assays. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:15-21 pubmed
    ..Overall, TK sequences were detected in 8 of 11 corneas from subjects with a past history of herpes keratitis and in 4 of 11 corneas from subjects with no past history of herpetic eye disease. ..
  34. Charles S, Gray J. Ocular herpes simplex virus infections: reduced sensitivity to acyclovir in primary disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74:286-8 pubmed
    ..Reduced sensitivity to acyclovir was seen in four isolates, all of which were from primary infections acquired in the community and without a previous history of treatment with antiviral drugs...
  35. Gebhardt B, Hill J. Cellular neuroimmunologic responses to ocular herpes simplex virus infection. J Neuroimmunol. 1990;28:227-36 pubmed
    ..T lymphocytes were seen surrounding neuron cell bodies some of which contained either cytoplasmic HSV-1 antigens or nuclear HSV-1 DNA. ..
  36. Swartz N, Cohen E, Scott D, Genvert G, Arentsen J, Laibson P. Personality and keratoconus. CLAO J. 1990;16:62-4 pubmed
    ..05). Patients who considered themselves moderate or severely limited by their eye condition were more likely to have abnormal scores (7 of 8; 87%) than patients who thought they were mildly affected (8 of 20; 40%) (P less than .05). ..
  37. Fraser Smith E, Matthews T. Effect of ketorolac on herpes simplex virus type one ocular infection in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1988;4:321-6 pubmed
    ..8/2) and conjunctivitis (4.3/10) compared to vehicle. Thus, ketorolac appears to be an anti-inflammatory agent that does not worsen viral ocular infection...
  38. Valyi Nagy T, Deshmane S, Spivack J, Steiner I, Ace C, Preston C, et al. Investigation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene expression and DNA synthesis during the establishment of latent infection by an HSV-1 mutant, in1814, that does not replicate in mouse trigeminal ganglia. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 3):641-9 pubmed
  39. Cook S, Paveloff M, Doucet J, Cottingham A, Sedarati F, Hill J. Ocular herpes simplex virus reactivation in mice latently infected with latency-associated transcript mutants. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991;32:1558-61 pubmed
    ..091). These results confirm that the mouse can be used as a reactivation model for ocular HSV infection and that the presence of LAT facilitates reactivation in vivo in the mouse...
  40. Wylegała E, Dzierzega A. [Liposomes containing dexamethasone-- ophthalmic ointment]. Klin Oczna. 1991;93:68-9 pubmed
    ..Dexamethasone contained in liposomes MLV was connected with a base forming a 0.05% ophthalmic ointment. The drug prepared in this manner was used in an experimental viral interstitial keratitis in rabbits...
  41. Abu el Asrar A, Geboes K, Missotten L, Emarah M, Desmet V. Expression of MHC class II antigens and immunoglobulin M by the corneal epithelial cells in herpetic keratitis. Int Ophthalmol. 1990;14:233-9 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that cell-mediated as well as antibody-mediated immune responses are involved, with a possible role for an autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of this condition...
  42. Hamasaki D, Dix R, Atherton S. Bilateral alterations of the ERG and retinal histology following unilateral HSV-1 inoculation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988;29:1242-54 pubmed
    ..The differences in the alterations of the ERG and the histopathological changes may be related to the underlying mechanism of action of the HSV-1 during the evolution of the experimental retinopathy...
  43. Liesegang T. Ocular herpes simplex infection: pathogenesis and current therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 1988;63:1092-105 pubmed
    ..A plan for medical and surgical management of ocular herpes simplex, based on current knowledge of the disease process, relates to the integrity of the epithelium and the presence of active viral disease...
  44. Zimmer C, Nieuwenhuis I, Danisevskis M, Spiegel H, Hansen L. [Sudden blindness in an AIDS patient. Simultaneous infection with cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex viruses and development of malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1991;199:48-52 pubmed
    ..Autopsy demonstrated signs of simultaneous a CMV-infection of the retina and a herpes simplex-infection of the optic nerve combined with a Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma of the optic tract...
  45. Brandt C, Grau D. Mixed infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 generates recombinants with increased ocular and neurovirulence. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:2214-23 pubmed
    ..5 log units lower than the neurovirulent recombinants. These recombinants should be useful in studying virulence determinants in herpetic ocular infections...
  46. Remeijer L, Van Rij G, Mooij C, Beekhuis W, Renardel de Lavalette J. Infectious crystalline keratopathy. Doc Ophthalmol. 1987;67:95-103 pubmed
    ..It consists of local bactericidal antibiotics and the lowest possible dosage of corticosteroids, if necessary combined with a partial lamellar keratectomy and removal of the affected corneal tissue by fraising...
  47. Romanowski E, Bartels S, Gordon Y. Comparative antiviral efficacies of cidofovir, trifluridine, and acyclovir in the HSV-1 rabbit keratitis model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:378-84 pubmed
  48. Denis J, Chouraqui P, Karpouzas I, Hoang Xuan T, Pouliquen Y. [Treatment of superficial herpes simplex keratitis with vidarabine (Vira A): multicenter study of 100 cases]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1990;13:143-50 pubmed
    ..Tolerance to Vira A ointment is good. Indications of Ara-A during ocular herpes are superficial keratitis, especially those resistant to IDU or, from experimental data, to ACV, and their prevention by a possible long term treatment...
  49. Young T, Robin J, Holland G, Hendricks R, Paschal J, Engstrom R, et al. Herpes simplex keratitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:1476-9 pubmed
    ..Only one of six cases had stromal infiltrative involvement. These cases raise the question of whether the immunologic abnormalities associated with AIDS may affect the clinical characteristics and course of HSV keratitis...
  50. Neufeld M, Steinemann T, Merin L, Stroop W, Brown M. Identification of a herpes simplex virus-induced dendrite in an eye-bank donor cornea. Cornea. 1999;18:489-92 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the presence of an active herpetic dendrite in an eye-bank cornea...
  51. Opremcak E, Rice B, Wells P, Foster C. Histology and immunohistology of Igh-1-restricted herpes simplex keratitis in BALB/c congenic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:305-12 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a strong relationship between Igh-1 phenotype and inflammatory cell recruitment in response to corneal infection with HSV-1, and support a role for T cell subpopulations in mediating Igh-1-restricted HSK...
  52. Fivenson D, Breneman D, Wander A. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. Absence of ocular involvement. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:1037-9 pubmed
    ..All random conjunctival swab cultures performed in 3 patients were positive for growth of viable HSV. Although ocular exposure to HSV may commonly occur in KVE, ocular pathology due to this virus does not appear to be a common sequela...
  53. Jin X. [Treatment of experimental HSV keratitis with recombinant human interferon (rHuIFN): a clinical and scanning electron microscopic study]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 1990;26:36-8 pubmed
    ..The initial punctate lesions did not expand uniformly but linearly to form dendritic patterns due to varying sensitivity of cells to virus...
  54. Abghari S, Stulting R. Variation in the number of sites of latency of herpes simplex virus in trigeminal ganglia of inbred mice. Curr Eye Res. 1988;7:1155-62 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  55. Irkec M, Ogut M. [Clinical and therapeutic features of herpetic ocular lesions in immunosuppressed patients]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 1987;21:262-7 pubmed
    ..Complete healing of the lesions essentially needed employment of topical acyclovir ointment for relatively extended period of time...
  56. Jager M, Atherton S, Bradley D, Streilein J. Herpetic stromal keratitis in mice: less reversibility in the presence of Langerhans cells in the central cornea. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:69-73 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the combination of virus and increased numbers of Langerhans cells within the cornea may lead to an exaggerated ocular immune response that is destructive to the cornea...
  57. Hendricks R, Tumpey T. Contribution of virus and immune factors to herpes simplex virus type I-induced corneal pathology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990;31:1929-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, T-lymphocytes are a necessary component of HSV-1 corneal stromal disease. These results further suggest that RE HSV-1 preferentially activates CD4 cells in the cornea, and KOS HSV-1 preferentially activates CD8 cells in the cornea...
  58. Kowalski R, Gordon Y. Evaluation of immunologic tests for the detection of ocular herpes simplex virus. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:1583-6 pubmed
    ..The enzyme immunofiltration test seems more suitable for a low-volume viral laboratory which confirms all IF test samples with follow-up cell culture isolation...
  59. Roat M, Romanowski E, Araullo Cruz T, Gordon Y. The antiviral effects of rose bengal and fluorescein. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105:1415-7 pubmed
    ..Also, the use of rose bengal to grade keratitis in the study of new antiviral agents should be discouraged...
  60. Santos C. Herpes simplex uveitis. Bol Asoc Med P R. 2004;96:71-4, 77-83 pubmed
    ..When seen it is usually attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. The diagnosis of uveitis caused by herpes simplex is often not diagnosed resulting in inadequate treatment and a poor visual result...
  61. Pepose J. External ocular herpesvirus infections in immunodeficiency. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:87-95 pubmed
  62. Erlich C, Rootman D, Morin J. Corneal transplantation in infants, children and young adults: experience of the Toronto Hospital for Sick Children, 1979-88. Can J Ophthalmol. 1991;26:206-10 pubmed
    ..However, the poor outcome in the congenital glaucoma group indicates that the procedure is not warranted in such patients...
  63. Wilhelmus K, McCulloch R, Gross R. Dendritic keratopathy associated with beta-blocker eyedrops. Cornea. 1990;9:335-7 pubmed
    ..The distinctive pattern of dendritic epithelial keratopathy associated with these topical medications may be due to epithelial toxicity with subsequent regeneration...
  64. Wang H, Sheu M, Stulting R, Kaplan H. Immunohistochemical evaluation of murine HSV-1 keratouveitis. Curr Eye Res. 1989;8:37-46 pubmed
    ..However, the number of inflammatory cells present was too small to allow more definitive characterization. Patchy Ia staining which is noted in the normal choroid increased markedly throughout the keratouveitis...
  65. Abbott K, McLendon E, Gangarosa L, Hill J. Adrenergic induction of HSV-1 ocular shedding in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol. 1986;2:41-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, even reduced concentrations of 6-HD and Epi, as well as beginning Epi 3 days after 6-HD, induced HSV-1 ocular shedding...
  66. Nago R, Hayashi K, Ochiai H, Kubota Y, Niwayama S. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 in herpetic ocular diseases by DNA-DNA hybridization using a biotinylated DNA probe. J Med Virol. 1988;25:259-70 pubmed
    ..Five clinical specimens collected from patients with corneal ulcer or blepharitis contained HSV-1 DNA in spite of the failure of demonstration of viral antigen and/or virus isolation in two cases...
  67. Hatano H, Oh J, Ou K, Minasi P. Induction of Fc and C3b receptors on rabbit corneal cells by herpes simplex virus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988;29:1352-6 pubmed
  68. Liuzzi M, Deziel R, Moss N, Beaulieu P, Bonneau A, Bousquet C, et al. A potent peptidomimetic inhibitor of HSV ribonucleotide reductase with antiviral activity in vivo. Nature. 1994;372:695-8 pubmed
    ..The unique antiviral properties of BILD 1263 may lead to the design of new strategies to treat herpesvirus infections in humans...
  69. Holbach L, Font R, Baehr W, Pittler S. HSV antigens and HSV DNA in avascular and vascularized lesions of human herpes simplex keratitis. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:63-8 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings with regard to possible mechanisms underlying herpetic keratitis in man are discussed...
  70. Dawson C, Jones D, Kaufman H, Barron B, Hauck W, Wilhelmus K. Design and organization of the herpetic eye disease study (HEDS). Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:105-10 pubmed
    ..All medications are administered for 10 weeks. Outcome is judged by time to recurrent disease or treatment failure. This paper presents the design, estimated sample size and recruitment as of July 25, 1990...
  71. Freeman W, Stern W, Gross J, Taylor P, Nadel A, Wiley C. Pathologic observations made by retinal biopsy. Retina. 1990;10:195-204 pubmed
    ..These cases illustrate the use of retinal biopsy in obtaining tissue for diagnosis and guiding treatment in selected cases of retinitis...
  72. Yamashiro H. [Effects of T cell subsets on mouse herpetic keratitis]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1990;94:462-8 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that HSV specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play an important role in the late phase of recovery from HSV corneal infection...
  73. Trousdale M, Barlow W, McGuigan L. Assessment of diclofenac on herpes keratitis in rabbit eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107:1664-6 pubmed
  74. Epstein R, Seedor J, Dreizen N, Stulting R, Waring G, Wilson L, et al. Penetrating keratoplasty for herpes simplex keratitis and keratoconus. Allograft rejection and survival. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:935-44 pubmed
    ..4 versus 16.2%, P less than 0.001). Because survival after multiple regrafts in both groups is poor, additional measures, such as tissue matching, may be necessary to improve the likelihood of success in these high-risk cases...
  75. Osorio Y, Cohen J, Ghiasi H. Improved protection from primary ocular HSV-1 infection and establishment of latency using multigenic DNA vaccines. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:506-14 pubmed
    ..Also, to compare immunization of 5gP protein in Montanide ISA 720 (SEPPIC, Paris, France), an adjuvant recently approved for use in humans, with immunization of 5gP protein in Freund's adjuvant...
  76. Higaki S, Inoue Y, Yoshida A, Maeda N, Watanabe H, Shimomura Y. Case of bilateral multiple herpetic epithelial keratitis manifested as dendriform epithelial edema during primary Kaposi's varicelliform eruption. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52:127-129 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a serologically verified case of primary, simultaneous onset, bilateral, atypical epithelial herpetic keratitis that manifested as dendriform epithelial edema during a generalized dermatitis incident...
  77. Yeung K, Oakes J, Lausch R. Differences in the capacity of two herpes simplex virus isolates to spread from eye to brain map to 1610 base pairs of DNA found in the gene for DNA polymerase. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10 Suppl:31-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, this area of the HSV-1(17) DNA polymerase was 5 AA acids shorter than the HSV-2(186) DNA polymerase. Specific amino acid changes that might account for the neuroinvasive phenotype of HSV-R(D1) are discussed...
  78. Feng C. [The causes of blindness by corneal diseases in 3,499 cases]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 1990;26:151-3 pubmed
    ..4%), corneal injuries (15.7%), keratomalacia (10.0%), and trachoma (3.8%). Patients of the latter two diseases were mostly old cases. The authors discussed the incidence of corneal diseases and their prevention and treatment...
  79. Colin J, Bodin C, Malet F, Jouppe B, Bonne C, Chastel C. [Experimental herpes simplex keratitis in rabbits. Evaluation of pro-infectious effects of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1989;12:255-9 pubmed
    ..should have a spectrum of activity wider than that of NSAID. Subject to further studies, these 3 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory could be used in herpetic kerato-uveitis...
  80. Benad A, Richter E. [BVDU therapy in herpes corneae]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1989;194:424-6 pubmed
    ..2 days). The therapy must therefore be considered as having failed in these cases. In one patient (1.2%) the treatment had to be discontinued, as his condition deteriorated during treatment with BVDU...
  81. Rootman D, Haruta Y, Hill J, Kaufman H. Corneal nerves are necessary for adrenergic reactivation of ocular herpes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988;29:351-6 pubmed
    ..The mean duration of shedding in the nontransplanted eyes was 3.25 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  82. Kaufman H, Varnell E, Wright G, Xu H, Gebhardt B, Thompson H. Effect of 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)-N2-phenylguanine (HBPG), a thymidine kinase inhibitor, on clinical recurrences of ocular herpetic keratitis in squirrel monkeys. Antiviral Res. 1996;33:65-72 pubmed
    ..All corneas showed typical dendritic keratitis 3 days after infection, followed by spontaneous healing...
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