herpetic keratitis

Summary

Summary: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Khan B, Harissi Dagher M, Pavan Langston D, Aquavella J, Dohlman C. The Boston keratoprosthesis in herpetic keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:745-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of an artificial cornea (Boston Keratoprosthesis [KPro]) in herpetic corneal graft failures...
  2. Tabbara K. Treatment of herpetic keratitis. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1640 pubmed
  3. Gebhardt B, Varnell E, Kaufman H. Acetylsalicylic acid reduces viral shedding induced by thermal stress. Curr Eye Res. 2004;29:119-25 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)...
  4. Kaye S, Choudhary A. Herpes simplex keratitis. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2006;25:355-80 pubmed
    ..Elucidating their roles in corneal scarring and vascularisation may lead to improved therapies for HSK...
  5. Fukuda M, Deai T, Hibino T, Higaki S, Hayashi K, Shimomura Y. Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus genome in tears from patients with herpetic keratitis. Cornea. 2003;22:S55-60 pubmed
    b>Herpetic keratitis is manifested in various corneal disorders, for example, dendritic keratitis, persistent epithelial defect, disciform keratitis, and endotheliitis...
  6. Sarangi P, Sehrawat S, Suvas S, Rouse B. IL-10 and natural regulatory T cells: two independent anti-inflammatory mechanisms in herpes simplex virus-induced ocular immunopathology. J Immunol. 2008;180:6297-306 pubmed
    ..Our current investigations indicate that at least two independent anti-inflammatory mechanisms are involved in limiting the corneal lesions in SK, both of which may need to be modulated to control SK therapeutically...
  7. Yang Y, Bauer D, Wasmuth S, Steuhl K, Heiligenhaus A. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and 2) during the course of experimental necrotizing herpetic keratitis. Exp Eye Res. 2003;77:227-37 pubmed
    ..The ratio of MMPs to TIMPs may be important for the course of necrotizing HSV keratitis. TIMPs might participate in the repair process...
  8. Athmanathan S, Bandlapally S, Rao G. Collection of corneal impression cytology directly on a sterile glass slide for the detection of viral antigen: an inexpensive and simple technique for the diagnosis of HSV epithelial keratitis - a pilot study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2001;1:3 pubmed
    ..Conventional virology techniques are often expensive and time consuming. We describe here a highly economical, simple, rapid and sensitive technique for the collection of impression cytology, for the laboratory diagnosis of HSK...
  9. Inoue T, Inoue Y, Nakamura T, Yoshida A, Inoue Y, Tano Y, et al. The effect of immunization with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D fused with interleukin-2 against murine herpetic keratitis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2002;46:370-76 pubmed
    ..the preventive effect of vaccination using fusion protein (gD-IL-2) consisting of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD), and human interleukin-2 (IL-2), and plasmid DNA encoding gD-IL-2 against murine herpetic keratitis.

More Information

Publications79

  1. Zheng X. Reactivation and donor-host transmission of herpes simplex virus after corneal transplantation. Cornea. 2002;21:S90-3 pubmed
    ..To review our previous studies regarding herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) corneal latency in the rabbit lamellar keratoplasty (LK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) models...
  2. Biswas P, Banerjee K, Kim B, Kinchington P, Rouse B. Role of inflammatory cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase 2 in the ocular immunopathologic disease herpetic stromal keratitis. J Virol. 2005;79:10589-600 pubmed
    ..COX-2 stimulation by HSV infection represents a critical early event accessible for therapy and the control of SK severity...
  3. Biswas P, Rouse B. Early events in HSV keratitis--setting the stage for a blinding disease. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:799-810 pubmed
    ..We also comment on events ongoing during chronic SK, debating whether or not these represent virus-induced or autoimmune lesions...
  4. Inoue T, Kosaki R, Inoue Y, Nishida K, Shimomura Y, Tano Y, et al. Immunohistological study of infiltrated cells and cytokines in murine herpetic keratitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2001;79:484-7 pubmed
    To identify localization and kinetics of infiltrated cells and cytokines in murine herpetic keratitis.
  5. Wasmuth S, Bauer D, Yang Y, Steuhl K, Heiligenhaus A. Topical treatment with antisense oligonucleotides targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha in herpetic stromal keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5228-34 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated whether topical application of TNF-alpha-antagonizing molecules, antisense oligonucleotides (ASON), might be an effective way of modifying the course of immune-mediated herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK)...
  6. Keadle T, Stuart P. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) ameliorates corneal disease in a mouse model of recurrent herpetic keratitis. Microb Pathog. 2005;38:13-21 pubmed
    ..Normal mice receiving rIL-10 by ocular and intra-peritoneal routes had less severe corneal lesions. Our results indicate that IL-10 and DTH responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of recurrent HSK in mice...
  7. Prasher P, Muftuoglu O. Herpetic keratitis after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for failed graft. Eye Contact Lens. 2009;35:41-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a case of herpetic epithelial keratitis after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) for a failed graft...
  8. Bueno C, Barquero A, Di Cónsoli H, Maier M, Alché L. A natural tetranortriterpenoid with immunomodulating properties as a potential anti-HSV agent. Virus Res. 2009;141:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, in addition to its antiviral effect, CDM would be acting as an immunomodulating compound which would be responsible for the improvement of murine HSK already reported...
  9. Duan R, de Vries R, van Dun J, van Loenen F, Osterhaus A, Remeijer L, et al. Acyclovir susceptibility and genetic characteristics of sequential herpes simplex virus type 1 corneal isolates from patients with recurrent herpetic keratitis. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1402-14 pubmed publisher
    The incidence and clinical significance of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir resistance were determined in patients with recurrent herpetic keratitis (RHK).
  10. Khodadoost M, Sabahi F, Behroz M, Roustai M, Saderi H, Amini Bavil Olyaee S, et al. Study of a polymerase chain reaction-based method for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA among Iranian patients with ocular herpetic keratitis infection. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:328-32 pubmed
    To study the presence of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene in tear films of Iranian patients with herpetic keratitis.
  11. Williams D, Fitzmaurice T, Lay L, Forster K, Hefford J, Budge C, et al. Efficacy of antiviral agents in feline herpetic keratitis: results of an in vitro study. Curr Eye Res. 2004;29:215-8 pubmed
    ..To determine, by a plaque reduction assay, the in vitro efficacy of novel antiviral agents in the treatment of feline herpes virus 1 (FHV-1) keratitis in the domestic cat (Felis felis)...
  12. Banerjee K, Biswas P, Rouse B. Role of Stat4-mediated signal transduction events in the generation of aggressor CD4+ T cells in herpetic stromal keratitis pathogenesis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:65-75 pubmed
    ..The data imply a significant role of Stat4-mediated signaling events in the generation of an aggressor CD4(+) T cell population in stromal keratitis pathogenesis...
  13. Wilhelmus K. Redundant publication of clinical trials on herpetic keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:222-6 pubmed
    ..To examine reported clinical trials on herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis as a case study for the configuration and possible motives of overlapping publications in the ophthalmic literature...
  14. Shimomura Y. [Herpes simplex virus latency, reactivation, and a new antiviral therapy for herpetic keratitis]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;112:247-64; discussion 265 pubmed
    ..first performed a comprehensive survey on the subjective factors in patients who had experienced recurrent herpetic keratitis. The result of our survey revealed that stress, lack of sleep, shoulder stiffness, and physical fatigue were ..
  15. Duan R, van Dun J, Remeijer L, Siemerink M, Mulder P, Norberg P, et al. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein G (gG) and gI genotypes in patients with herpetic keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of the HSV-1 gG and gI genotypes and their potential disease association was determined in a large cohort of patients with herpetic keratitis (HK).
  16. Duan R, de Vries R, Osterhaus A, Remeijer L, Verjans G. Acyclovir-resistant corneal HSV-1 isolates from patients with herpetic keratitis. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:659-63 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence and molecular characteristics of isolates from 173 immunocompetent patients with herpetic keratitis (HK) who were infected with acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(R)) corneal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was determined...
  17. Jansen A, Rijneveld W, Remeijer L, Völker Dieben H, Eggink C, Geerards A, et al. Five-year follow-up on the effect of oral acyclovir after penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis. Cornea. 2009;28:843-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the long-term effect of oral acyclovir administered during the first 6 months after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for herpetic eye disease (HED)...
  18. Ghiasi H, Osorio Y, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2. Virology. 2002;302:286-93 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
  19. Inoue T, Inoue Y, Hayashi K, Shimomura Y, Fujisawa Y, Aono A, et al. Effect of herpes simplex virus-1 gD or gD-IL-2 DNA vaccine on herpetic keratitis. Cornea. 2002;21:S79-85 pubmed
  20. Osorio Y, Sharifi B, Perng G, Ghiasi N, Ghiasi H. The role of T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines in HSV-1-induced corneal scarring. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2002;10:105-16 pubmed
    ..To determine the relative impact of T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines on the induction of corneal scarring...
  21. Remeijer L, Maertzdorf J, Buitenwerf J, Osterhaus A, Verjans G. Corneal herpes simplex virus type 1 superinfection in patients with recrudescent herpetic keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:358-63 pubmed
    b>Herpetic keratitis is a common sequel of a corneal infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Recrudescent herpetic keratitis (RHK) may result in irreversible damage to the cornea...
  22. Kymionis G, Portaliou D, Bouzoukis D, Suh L, Pallikaris A, Markomanolakis M, et al. Herpetic keratitis with iritis after corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A for keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1982-4 pubmed
    ..Crosslinking can induce herpetic keratitis with iritis even in patients with no history of herpetic disease...
  23. Borderie V, Meritet J, Chaumeil C, Rozenberg F, Baudrimont M, Touzeau O, et al. Culture-proven herpetic keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty in patients with no previous history of herpes disease. Cornea. 2004;23:118-24 pubmed
    ..To report three cases of herpetic infection in recipients of organ-cultured donor corneas among 586 consecutive corneal transplantation procedures...
  24. Goldblum D, Bachmann C, Tappeiner C, Garweg J, Frueh B. Comparison of oral antiviral therapy with valacyclovir or acyclovir after penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1201-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare the outcome of prophylactic oral valacyclovir (VAL) or oral acyclovir treatment (ACV) in patients having undergone penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis (HK).
  25. Lu C, Chen K, Lee S, Hsu W, Lai J, Li Y. Herpes simplex keratitis following excimer laser application. J Refract Surg. 2006;22:509-11 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of herpes simplex keratitis following excimer laser application...
  26. Gebhardt B, Varnell E, Kaufman H. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 synthesis suppresses Herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21:114-20 pubmed
    ..It may be possible to use COX-2 inhibitors to prevent viral reactivation in high-risk patients by drug prophylaxis...
  27. Nakagawa H, Uchida Y, Takamura E, Nakagawa Y, Araki H, Watanabe M. Diagnostic impression cytology for herpes simplex keratitis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1993;37:505-13 pubmed
    ..Impression cytology is noninvasive and useful for a rapid etiological diagnosis of herpetic epithelial lesions...
  28. Bouley D, Kanangat S, Wire W, Rouse B. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type-1 infection and herpetic stromal keratitis development in IFN-gamma knockout mice. J Immunol. 1995;155:3964-71 pubmed
  29. Liesegang T. Classification of herpes simplex virus keratitis and anterior uveitis. Cornea. 1999;18:127-43 pubmed
    ..To review the classification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis and anterior uveitis using the available clinical, pathologic, and laboratory models of disease...
  30. Ghiasi H, Cai S, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. MHC-II but not MHC-I responses are required for vaccine-induced protection against ocular challenge with HSV-1. Curr Eye Res. 1997;16:1152-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the importance of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I versus MHC class-II immune responses in protecting naive versus vaccinated mice against an ocular HSV-1 challenge...
  31. Streilein J, Dana M, Ksander B. Immunity causing blindness: five different paths to herpes stromal keratitis. Immunol Today. 1997;18:443-9 pubmed
    ..As discussed here by Wayne Streilein and colleagues, strategies designed to prevent and treat this syndrome must be aware of the fact that the disease is multifactorial in its cause and pathogenesis...
  32. Liesegang T. Herpes simplex virus epidemiology and ocular importance. Cornea. 2001;20:1-13 pubmed
    ..To review the changing epidemiology of herpes simplex disease and correlate it with the epidemiology of ocular herpes simplex disease...
  33. Dhaliwal D, Romanowski E, Yates K, Hu D, Goldstein M, Gordon Y. Experimental laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis induces the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:506-7 pubmed
    ..We determined whether laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis acts as a trigger for the reactivation and ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus type-1 in a rabbit latency model...
  34. Inoue T, Nakamura T, Yoshida A, Takahashi K, Inoue Y, Shimomura Y, et al. Preventive effect of local plasmid DNA vaccine encoding gD or gD-IL-2 on herpetic keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:4209-15 pubmed
    ..study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a local plasmid DNA vaccine encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 glycoprotein D (gD) or gD-interleukin (IL)-2 (chimeric gene of gD and human IL-2) in preventing murine herpetic keratitis.
  35. Ghiasi H, Cai S, Slanina S, Perng G, Nesburn A, Wechsler S. The role of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 in herpes simplex virus type 1 ocular replication and eye disease. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:1086-93 pubmed
    ..Th1 (IL-2) cytokine responses may help protect mice against ocular HSV-1 challenge and reduce ocular HSV-1 replication...
  36. Wilhelmus K, Dawson C, Barron B, Bacchetti P, Gee L, Jones D, et al. Risk factors for herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis recurring during treatment of stromal keratitis or iridocyclitis. Herpetic Eye Disease Study Group. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80:969-72 pubmed
    ..Possible risk factors were evaluated for herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis in patients with stromal keratouveitis...
  37. Miyajima S, Sano Y, Sotozono C, Yokoi N, Ishino Y, Kinoshita S. [Herpes simplex keratitis after ophthalmic surgery]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2003;107:538-42 pubmed
    ..PCR detection in tear fluid is helpful in diagnosing this disease. ..
  38. Kakimaru Hasegawa A, Kuo C, Komatsu N, Komatsu K, Miyazaki D, Inoue Y. Clinical application of real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of herpetic diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR is an informative method of diagnosing herpetic eye diseases and evaluating the possible involvement of HSV in other inflammatory ocular diseases. ..
  39. Gallar J, Tervo T, Neira W, Holopainen J, Lamberg M, Miñana F, et al. Selective changes in human corneal sensation associated with herpes simplex virus keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4516-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Corneal cold-sensitive terminals remain largely unaffected. ..
  40. Norose K, Yano A, Zhang X, Blankenhorn E, Heber Katz E. Mapping of genes involved in murine herpes simplex virus keratitis: identification of genes and their modifiers. J Virol. 2002;76:3502-10 pubmed
    ..Loci on chromosomes 4, 5, 12, 13, and 14 were shown to be involved in general susceptibility to clinical disease, whereas loci on chromosomes 10 and 17 were shown to be unique to ocular disease. ..
  41. Banerjee K, Biswas P, Kumaraguru U, Schoenberger S, Rouse B. Protective and pathological roles of virus-specific and bystander CD8+ T cells in herpetic stromal keratitis. J Immunol. 2004;173:7575-83 pubmed
    ..A case is made that CD8(+) T cell control is expressed in the trigeminal ganglion, serving to curtail a source of virus to the cornea. ..
  42. Kim B, Lee S, Kaistha S, Rouse B. Application of FGF-2 to modulate herpetic stromal keratitis. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:1021-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that treatment of FGF-2 has therapeutic effects on herpetic SK progression via its role in wound healing. ..
  43. Knickelbein J, Hendricks R, Charukamnoetkanok P. Management of herpes simplex virus stromal keratitis: an evidence-based review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2009;54:226-34 pubmed publisher
  44. El Aal A, El Sayed M, Mohammed E, Ahmed M, Fathy M. Evaluation of herpes simplex detection in corneal scrapings by three molecular methods. Curr Microbiol. 2006;52:379-82 pubmed
    ..Documented infection can be further assessed by cell-culture technique or PCR depending laboratory availability. ..
  45. Meller D, Thomasen H, Steuhl K. [Amniotic membrane transplantation in herpetic corneal infections]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010;227:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the basis and clinical application of amniotic membrane transplantation for the management of corneal infections with Herpes simplex and Herpes zoster virus are reviewed. ..
  46. Jiménez J, Ortiz C, Pérez Ocón F, Jiménez R. Optical image quality and visual performance for patients with keratitis. Cornea. 2009;28:783-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Green L, Pavan Langston D. Herpes simplex ocular inflammatory disease. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2006;46:27-37 pubmed
  48. Gittins Nuñez L, Díaz Del Castillo Martín E, Huerta Albañil I, Ríos Prado R, Soto Dávila M. [Risk factors and rejection frequency in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2016;54:190-5 pubmed
    ..50 mm, older patient with a history with previous corneal neovascularization, keratopathy and herpetic keratitis. Introducción: el trasplante de córnea representa uno de los procedimientos quirúrgicos que con ..
  49. Nicula C, Nicula D, Pop R. Results at 7years after cross-linking procedure in keratoconic patients. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2017;40:535-541 pubmed publisher
    ..were: patients with a corneal thickness of less than 400?m at the thinnest point, with Vogt's striae or herpetic keratitis, dry eye syndrome or aphakia...
  50. Marcos Fernández M, Tabernero S, Herreras J, Galarreta D. Impact of herpetic stromal immune keratitis in corneal biomechanics and innervation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2018;256:155-161 pubmed publisher
    To study corneal innervation in eyes with history of herpetic keratitis and its correlation with corneal sensitivity and biomechanical properties...
  51. Bhattacharjee P, Neumann D, Foster T, Clement C, Singh G, Thompson H, et al. Effective treatment of ocular HSK with a human apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide in a mouse eye model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:4263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that topical treatment with apoE peptide has efficacy against HSK through anti-HSV-1 and anti-inflammatory activities. ..
  52. Keadle T, Morris J, Pepose J, Stuart P. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells are key participants in the development of recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis in mice. Microb Pathog. 2002;32:255-62 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells play a role in the immunopathogenesis of recurrent HSK, and their role is dependent upon the host genetic profile. ..
  53. Kroll D, Schuman J. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus keratitis after initiating bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:401-3 pubmed
    ..To report a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation after starting bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma...
  54. David A, Baghian A, Foster T, Chouljenko V, Kousoulas K. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K(gK) is essential for viral corneal spread and neuroinvasiveness. Curr Eye Res. 2008;33:455-67 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K(gK) in corneal infection, neuroinvasion, and virus latency in trigeminal ganglia of mice...
  55. Deai T, Fukuda M, Tomoda Y, Higaki S, Hayashi K, Shimomura Y. Excimer laser photokeratectomy reactivates latent herpes simplex virus. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:570-2 pubmed
    ..It has been reported that excimer laser irradiation might elicit herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome activation. We describe a clinical case in which HSV DNA sequences were detected quantitatively after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK)...
  56. Gordon Y, Yates K, Mah F, Romanowski E. The effects of Xalatan on the recovery of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the induced reactivation and spontaneous shedding rabbit models. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2003;19:233-45 pubmed
    Xalatan treatment has been reported both clinically and experimentally to promote recurrences of herpetic keratitis. Our goal was to determine the effects of topical Xalatan and its components on the recovery of ocular herpes simplex ..
  57. Qian H, Atherton S. Apoptosis and increased expression of Fas ligand after uniocular anterior chamber (AC) inoculation of HSV-1. Curr Eye Res. 2003;26:195-203 pubmed
    ..To determine if apoptosis occurs in the eyes and brain following uniocular anterior chamber (AC) inoculation of HSV-1 and if expression of Fas ligand (FasL) or Fas is altered by virus infection...
  58. Araki Sasaki K, Tanaka T, Ebisuno Y, Kanda H, Umemoto E, Hayashi K, et al. Dynamic expression of chemokines and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the HSV-infected cornea and its associated tissues. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2006;14:257-66 pubmed
  59. Nesburn A, Bettahi I, Dasgupta G, Chentoufi A, Zhang X, You S, et al. Functional Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25(Bright+) "natural" regulatory T cells are abundant in rabbit conjunctiva and suppress virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells during ocular herpes infection. J Virol. 2007;81:7647-61 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined whether conjunctiva CD4(+) CD25(+) nT(reg) cells affect the topical/mucosal delivery of subunit vaccines that stimulate the ocular mucosal immune system...
  60. Dediulescu L, Dediulescu D. [Study of cytotoxic and antiviral effects of some eye drops]. Oftalmologia. 2008;52:62-6 pubmed
    ..of the cytotoxic and antiviral effect of six commercial mixtures, eye drops type, underlined the advantages of using eye drops with Indomethacin for Herpetic Keratitis, due to the antiviral effect and also for the lack of cytotoxicity.
  61. Mancino P, Dalessandro M, Falasca K, Ucciferri C, Pizzigallo E, Vecchiet J. Acute urinary retention due to HSV-1: a case report. Infez Med. 2009;17:38-40 pubmed
    ..Neurological damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and/or PNS due to HSV-1 seems to be the most likely reason. The course of disease was benign and self-remitting...
  62. Deshpande S, Zheng M, Lee S, Rouse B. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in herpetic immunoinflammatory ocular lesions. Vet Microbiol. 2002;86:17-26 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this immunoinflammatory response involves multiple immune mechanisms including autoimmunity...
  63. Stumpf T, Case R, Shimeld C, Easty D, Hill T. Primary herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the eye triggers similar immune responses in the cornea and the skin of the eyelids. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1579-90 pubmed
    ..In both sites, the neutrophil is the predominant infiltrating cell type and is a likely source of the cytokines observed and a major effector of the disease process...
  64. Keadle T, Usui N, Laycock K, Kumano Y, Pepose J, Stuart P. Cytokine expression in murine corneas during recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:193-205 pubmed
    ..Recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is a potentially blinding, immune-mediated disease. To better understand the immunopathology of recurrent HSK, we examined the cytokine profile of mouse corneas with the condition...
  65. Pleyer U, Winterhalter S. [Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of herpes virus associated uveitis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2010;227:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is intended to provide an overview on the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this important disorder...
  66. Yoon K, Heo H, Kang I, Lee M, Kim K, Park S, et al. Effect of topical cyclosporin A on herpetic stromal keratitis in a mouse model. Cornea. 2008;27:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the effect of topical cyclosporin A on herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) in a mouse model...
  67. Bräuer L, Kindler C, Jäger K, Sel S, Nölle B, Pleyer U, et al. Detection of surfactant proteins A and D in human tear fluid and the human lacrimal system. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3945-53 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the expression and presence of surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D in the lacrimal apparatus, at the ocular surface, and in tears in healthy and pathologic states...
  68. Bauer D, Lu M, Wasmuth S, Li H, Yang Y, Roggendorf M, et al. Immunomodulation by topical particle-mediated administration of cytokine plasmid DNA suppresses herpetic stromal keratitis without impairment of antiviral defense. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:216-25 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether the course of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) in BALB/c mice could be altered by topical gene-gun-mediated administration of interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10 plasmid DNA...
  69. Inoue T, Inoue Y, Hayashi K, Yoshida A, Nishida K, Shimomura Y, et al. Topical administration of HSV gD-IL-2 DNA is highly protective against murine herpetic stromal keratitis. Cornea. 2002;21:106-10 pubmed
    To evaluate the immunopreventive effect of eyedrops that contain gD-IL-2 DNA (a chimeric gene of the glycoprotein D gene of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) and human interleukin-2 (IL-2) on murine herpetic keratitis.
  70. Krieglsteiner S, Gümbel H, Kohnen T. [Heparin Surface-Modified Poly(methylmethacrylate) and Foldable Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lenses in Cataract Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and CMV-Retinitis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2004;221:40-6 pubmed
    ..Heparin surface-modified PMMA-IOLs as well as acrylic IOLs are associated with less postoperative inflammation than conventional intraocular lenses...