herpes labialis


Summary: Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)

Top Publications

  1. Buske Kirschbaum A, Geiben A, Wermke C, Pirke K, Hellhammer D. Preliminary evidence for Herpes labialis recurrence following experimentally induced disgust. Psychother Psychosom. 2001;70:86-91 pubmed
    ..herpes infections which are characterized by painful erosions of the involved skin mainly around the lips (herpes labialis)...
  2. Arduino P, Porter S. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:107-21 pubmed publisher
    ..typically give rise to vesiculo-ulcerative lesions at mucocutaneous junctions particularly the lips (herpes labialis)...
  3. Cernik C, Gallina K, Brodell R. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence-based review. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, an evidence-based dosing regimen must be selected. In this review, data from all sources are tabulated to provide a handy clinical reference. ..
  4. Siegel M. Diagnosis and management of recurrent herpes simplex infections. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133:1245-9 pubmed
    ..Dentists are frequently asked by patients to diagnose and treat recurrent herpetic infections, which are painful and disfiguring. The author explores the diagnosis and treatment of these commonly encountered viral conditions...
  5. Lewis M. Herpes simplex virus: an occupational hazard in dentistry. Int Dent J. 2004;54:103-11 pubmed
    ..review discusses the role of the HSV-1 as a potential occupational hazard for dental workers, focusing on herpes labialis, herpetic whitlow and keratitis...
  6. Kriesel J, Jones B, Matsunami N, Patel M, St Pierre C, Kurt Jones E, et al. C21orf91 genotypes correlate with herpes simplex labialis (cold sore) frequency: description of a cold sore susceptibility gene. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a 3-megabase region on human chromosome 21 containing 6 candidate genes associated with herpes simplex labialis (HSL, "cold sores")...
  7. Meiller T, Silva A, Ferreira S, Jabra Rizk M, Kelley J, DePaola L. Efficacy of Listerine Antiseptic in reducing viral contamination of saliva. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:341-6 pubmed
    ..visit protocol at the onset of a perioral outbreak, consistent historically and clinically with recurrent Herpes labialis. Direct immunofluorescence of cytological smears of the lesions/oral fluids was used to confirm Herpes ..
  8. Chon T, Nguyen L, Elliott T. Clinical inquiries. What are the best treatments for herpes labialis?. J Fam Pract. 2007;56:576-8 pubmed
  9. Leonhardt J, Lawrence N, Narins R. Angioedema acute hypersensitivity reaction to injectable hyaluronic acid. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:577-9 pubmed
    ..Not applicable. Not applicable. Although injectable hyaluronic acid has a high safety profile, this reaction is dramatic. Treatments and potential mechanisms are discussed. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rajan G, Cobb J, Reiss C. Acyclovir induced coma in the intensive care unit. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2000;28:305-7 pubmed
    A 73-year-old man with multiorgan failure requiring mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis developed herpes labialis infection during his stay in the ICU. This was treated with enteral acyclovir...
  2. Posavad C, Wald A, Hosken N, Huang M, Koelle D, Ashley R, et al. T cell immunity to herpes simplex viruses in seronegative subjects: silent infection or acquired immunity?. J Immunol. 2003;170:4380-8 pubmed
    ..Understanding the basis of these acquired immune responses may be critical in developing effective vaccines for genital herpes. ..
  3. Richardson V, Davis S, Gustafson C, West C, Feldman S. Patterns of disease and treatment of cold sores. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013;24:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The trends observed may indicate that physicians are evolving their treatment strategies to implement newer antiviral medications. This may prove more efficacious for the treatment of cold sores. ..
  4. Bain S. Physical signs for the general dental practitioner. Dent Update. 2005;32:300 pubmed
  5. Bernstein D, Spruance S, Arora S, Schroeder J, Meng T. Evaluation of imiquimod 5% cream to modify the natural history of herpes labialis: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:808-14 pubmed
    ..and potential of topical imiquimod to decrease the rate of recurrence in humans with a history of recurrent herpes labialis. Forty-seven subjects with recurrent herpes labialis applied imiquimod 5% (n=30) or vehicle cream (n=17) to ..
  6. Spruance S, Bodsworth N, Resnick H, Conant M, Oeuvray C, Gao J, et al. Single-dose, patient-initiated famciclovir: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for episodic treatment of herpes labialis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:47-53 pubmed
    The brief period of viral replication in recurrent herpes labialis lesions suggests shorter therapeutic regimens are a logical episodic treatment strategy...
  7. Lin L, Chen X, Cui P, Wang J, Guo Z, Lu N, et al. Topical application of penciclovir cream for the treatment of herpes simplex facialis/labialis: a randomized, double-blind, multicentre, aciclovir-controlled trial. J Dermatolog Treat. 2002;13:67-72 pubmed
    ..05). Topical 1% penciclovir cream is as convenient and as effective as 3% aciclovir cream for the treatment of HSFL. Penciclovir cream may provide a good topical alternative to other types of therapy in the future. ..
  8. Arduino P, Porter S. Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: review of its management. Oral Dis. 2006;12:254-70 pubmed
    ..Aciclovir (ACV) 5% cream seems to be the accepted standard topical therapy for herpes labialis, being both effective and well tolerated, although penciclovir 1% cream has been proposed as a potentially ..
  9. Azodo C, Umoh A. Herpes labialis and Nigerian dental health care providers: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and refusal to treat. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:383 pubmed publisher
    The few existing studies on herpes labialis among health care workers have been predominantly among non-dental health care workers...
  10. Willis A, Hyland P, Lamey P. Response to replacement iron therapy in sideropenic individuals with recrudescent herpes labialis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:355-7 pubmed
    This study investigated the effects of iron replacement on the incidence of recurrent herpes labialis and serum ferritin levels in patients with sideropenia...
  11. Löwhagen G, Tunbäck P, Bergstrom T. Proportion of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 among genital and extragenital HSV isolates. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:118-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that a clear HSV type-related tropism might be limited to the permissiveness of the orofacial region for HSV-1, and that both serotypes may readily establish infections below the neck. ..
  12. Yarom N, Buchner A, Dayan D. Herpes simplex infection--Part II: Management of HSV infections. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2006;23:6-13, 65 pubmed
    ..However, only a few regimens are based on solid evidence. The purpose of this study was to review the mode of action of antiviral agents and to present therapeutic regimens supported by randomized control trials. ..
  13. Sciubba J. Herpes simplex and aphthous ulcerations: presentation, diagnosis and management--an update. Gen Dent. 2003;51:510-6 pubmed
  14. Shulman J. An exploration of point, annual, and lifetime prevalence in characterizing recurrent aphthous stomatitis in USA children and youths. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:558-66 pubmed
    ..18% (OHSC). Multivariate logistic models showed that being white, having a history of herpes labialis, (NHANES III), and being white and an adolescent (OHSC) were predictors of RAS...
  15. Papamarkakis K, Bird B, Schubert J, Miljkovic M, Wein R, Bedrossian K, et al. Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa. Lab Invest. 2010;90:589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, SCP shows potential as a complementary tool in medical cytopathology. ..
  16. Opaneye A, Bashford J. Seroprevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 among two sexually active female populations in Middlesbrough, England. J R Soc Promot Health. 2002;122:108-11 pubmed
    ..2% and for HSV-2 is 15.8%. Many of these patients were asymptomatic and constitute a potential source for spreading the virus. Knowledge of HSV seroprevalence can help in planning sexual health promotion strategies. ..
  17. Balan U, Gonsalves N, Jose M, Girish K. Symptomatic changes of oral mucosa during normal hormonal turnover in healthy young menstruating women. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:178-81 pubmed
    ..30% of study subjects complained of aphthous ulcers, 5% had herpes labialis, 25% of them complained of depression, 8% showed gingival bleeding...
  18. Saller R, Buechi S, Meyrat R, Schmidhauser C. Combined herbal preparation for topical treatment of Herpes labialis. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2001;8:373-82 pubmed
    ..The development of new antiviral drugs, especially herbal preparations, thus remains desirable. In a screening study with plant extracts, a rhubarb root extract and a sage extract showed a promising activity...
  19. Wu G, Manzon S, Badovinac R, Woo S. Oral health, dental treatment, and cardiac valve surgery outcomes. Spec Care Dentist. 2008;28:65-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicenter prospective case-controlled studies are needed to address this question definitively. ..
  20. Shafran S, Sacks S, Aoki F, Tyrrell D, Schlech W, Mendelson J, et al. Topical undecylenic acid for herpes simplex labialis: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:78-83 pubmed
    ..placebo-controlled trial of 15% undecylenic acid cream was conducted with 573 patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Treatment was applied 5 or 6 times daily until crusting and then thrice daily until healing...
  21. Kotlow L. Lasers and pediatric dental care. Gen Dent. 2008;56:618-27 pubmed
    ..Using lasers for caries removal, bone removal, and soft tissue treatment can reduce postoperative discomfort and infection and make it possible for dentists to provide safe, simple treatments...
  22. Spruance S, Kriesel J. Treatment of herpes simplex labialis. Herpes. 2002;9:64-9 pubmed
    ..Selected subgroups of patients are candidates for prophylactic treatment with perorally administered nucleoside antiviral agents. Prophylaxis with topical agents is not effective. ..
  23. Lavi E, Sklar E. Enhancement of the eighth cranial nerve and labyrinth on MR imaging in sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with human herpesvirus 1 infection: case report. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1380-2 pubmed
    The case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with herpes labialis, subclinical meningitis, and sudden onset of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is presented...
  24. Spruance S. N-docosanol (Abreva) for herpes labialis: problems and questions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47:457-8 pubmed
  25. Bose S. Herpes simplex virus in association with lip leucoderma. J Dermatol. 2007;34:280-1 pubmed
  26. Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Pöllmann L, Pöllmann B, Katinas G, Minne H, et al. Circasemiannual chronomics: half-yearly biospheric changes in their own right and as a circannual waveform. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003;57 Suppl 1:45s-54s pubmed
    ..The similarity of cycle lengths in itself can only be a hint prompting the search for causal relations. ..
  27. Bose S. Thiersch grafting in recurrent herpes-induced lip depigmentation. J Dermatol. 2005;32:432-5 pubmed
    ..induced lip-depigmentation is an uncommon condition observed rarely in patients suffering from recurrent herpes labialis. Patients usually belong the age group between 20 and 40 who have had herpes labialis for 4--12 years...
  28. Di Crescenzo V, D Antonio A, Tonacchera M, Carlomagno C, Vitale M. Human herpes virus associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Infez Med. 2013;21:224-8 pubmed
    ..We report the case of three patients presenting for the first time herpes labialis a few months before the onset of hashitoxicosis...
  29. Martin Garcia D, Martin Gago J, Mendiluce A, Gordillo R, Bustamente J. Tacrolimus-Basiliximab versus Cyclosporine-Basiliximab in renal transplantation "de novo": acute rejection and complications. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:1694-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment with Basiliximab produced a significantly lower incidence of acute rejection cases and an increase in infectious disease complications, such as lip herpes. ..
  30. Dreno B, Malkin J, Saiag P. Understanding recurrent herpes labialis management and impact on patients' quality of life: the HERPESCOPE study. Eur J Dermatol. 2013;23:491-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Herpes labialis (HL) is a common and benign disease. However, frequent episodes can impair quality of life (QoL) and impact healthcare consumption...
  31. Prokhonchukov A, Zhizhina N, Banchenko G, Milokhova E, Saprykina V, Kulazhenko T, et al. [Prevention and treatment of face herpes with magnetic-laser radiation from Optodan unit]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2006;85:78-82 pubmed
  32. Bolton L. Expanding the rationale for occlusion?. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008;21:13; author reply 13 pubmed
  33. Volpi A, Stanberry L. Tailoring herpes labialis treatments. Herpes. 2007;14:55 pubmed
  34. Sawair F, Jassim Z, Malkawi Z, Jamani K. Epidemiologic aspects of recurrent herpes labialis among Jordanian University students. Saudi Med J. 2010;31:808-13 pubmed
    To study the epidemiologic aspects of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) in a young adult population and to evaluate treatments used by affected patients...
  35. Sowunmi A, Gbotosho G, Adedeji A, Tambo E, Bolaji O, Happi C, et al. Herpes simplex labialis in children with acute falciparum malaria. Acta Trop. 2008;106:68-71 pubmed publisher
  36. Drugge J, Allen P. A nurse practitioner's guide to the management of herpes simplex virus-1 in children. Pediatr Nurs. 2008;34:310-8 pubmed
  37. Amichai B, Meltzer S. Herpes simplex virus associated erythema multiforme in a prepartum woman without involvement of the newborn. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:546 pubmed
  38. Shin Y, Weinberg A, Spruance S, Bernard M, Bacon T, Boon R, et al. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolates to nucleoside analogues and the proportion of nucleoside-resistant variants after repeated topical application of penciclovir to recurrent herpes labialis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1241-5 pubmed
    Subjects received topical penciclovir for 4 days during successive episodes of recurrent herpes labialis. Isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) was attempted from lesions obtained before initiation of treatment and on each day of ..
  39. Rahimi H, Mara T, Costella J, Speechley M, Bohay R. Effectiveness of antiviral agents for the prevention of recurrent herpes labialis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;113:618-27 pubmed publisher
    ..on the effectiveness of systemic and topical nucleoside antiviral agents in the prevention of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) in immunocompetent subjects...
  40. Debernardis A, Alfonsi G, Santacroce L, Bottalico L, Sabatini R, Flace P, et al. Antiviral properties of antineoplastic drugs. From herpes simplex-1 disappearance to a wide antiviral action: a serendipity case report. Acta Biomed. 2009;80:265-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, specific laboratory investigations, together with another case report that is presently in process, showed that vinorelbine, aside from its well known antineoplastic properties, also exerts a powerful antiviral action. ..
  41. Najioullah F. [Signification and limitations of virology diagnostic tools in herpes facialis, herpes genitalis, herpes gestationis and in neonates at risk]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2002;129:507-22 pubmed
    ..However, questions remain for the acceptance of PCR and type specific serology in routine diagnosis. These two technics still have to be standardised before being widely used. ..
  42. Aymard M. [Current epidemiology of herpes]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002;50:425-35 pubmed
  43. Kessler H. Herpes virus infections: a review for the dental practitioner. Tex Dent J. 2005;122:150-65 pubmed
  44. Yazici A, Baz K, Ikizoglu G. Recurrent herpes labialis during isotretinoin therapy: is there a role for photosensitivity?. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:93-5 pubmed
    ..However, we present a case with frequent attacks of herpes labialis during isotretinoin therapy for acne, who had a marked decrease in frequency of recurrences following strict ..
  45. Devani A, Barankin B. Dermacase. Angular cheilitis. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53:1011, 1022-3 pubmed
  46. Opstelten W, Neven A, Eekhof J. Treatment and prevention of herpes labialis. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54:1683-7 pubmed
    To review the evidence regarding the treatment and prevention of herpes labialis.
  47. Streja E, Miller J, Bech B, Greene N, Pedersen L, Yeargin Allsopp M, et al. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:332.e1-332.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP)...
  48. Chanzy B, Braig S, Morand P. [Debates and updates regarding the virologic diagnosis of herpes]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002;50:419-24 pubmed
  49. Raborn G, Chan K, Grace M. Treatment modalities and medication recommended by health care professionals for treating recurrent herpes labialis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135:48-54 pubmed
    The authors conducted a survey to determine how health care professionals respond to patients' inquiries about cold sores, also known as recurrent herpes labialis, and their choices of treatment modalities and medications.
  50. Waggoner Fountain L, Grossman L. Herpes simplex virus. Pediatr Rev. 2004;25:86-93 pubmed
  51. Boivin G, Goyette N, Sergerie Y, Keays S, Booth T. Longitudinal evaluation of herpes simplex virus DNA load during episodes of herpes labialis. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:248-51 pubmed
    Few studies have performed sequential evaluation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) load using quantitative PCR during episodes of herpes labialis.
  52. Bose S. Herpes labialis-induced isomorphic phenomenon in lip leucoderma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:500-1 pubmed publisher
  53. Lipsitch M, Bacon T, Leary J, Antia R, Levin B. Effects of antiviral usage on transmission dynamics of herpes simplex virus type 1 and on antiviral resistance: predictions of mathematical models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2824-35 pubmed
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent herpes labialis (RHL), a common disease afflicting up to 40% of adults worldwide...
  54. Veltri J, Geiringer K, Richardson C, Boon R. Using community pharmacies to conduct an HSV-1 prevalence study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002;11:373-8 pubmed
    To describe the effectiveness of community-based pharmacists in conducting a study to measure the baseline prevalence of Herpes simplex virus, type-1 susceptibility to two antiviral medications in subjects with recurrent Herpes labialis.
  55. Bodsworth N, Bayerl C, Cunningham A, Silny W. No significant analgesic benefit of adding lidocaine 2% to aciclovir 5% cream as treatment of episodes of herpes labialis. Herpes. 2003;10:53-4 pubmed
  56. Yoshida M, Amatsu A. High frequency of detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the oral cavity of patients with eczema herpeticum. Dermatology. 2004;209:101-3 pubmed
    It has been reported that herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was detected in the oral cavity of patients with herpes labialis under various conditions such as during oral surgery.
  57. Leunig A. [Diagnosis at a glance. Non-healing lesion of the upper lip. Not a case for zovirax]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2007;149:5 pubmed
  58. Bacon T, Boon R, Schultz M, Hodges Savola C. Surveillance for antiviral-agent-resistant herpes simplex virus in the general population with recurrent herpes labialis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3042-4 pubmed
    ..simplex virus was very low among more than 1,000 isolates from individuals with an episode of recurrent herpes labialis not treated with topical antiviral agents. Two isolates had borderline resistance to acyclovir (0...
  59. Färber I. [How contagious is herpes?]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2005;28:30 pubmed
  60. Fath R. [Viral and bacterial skin infections. Bullae and warts are also in good hands with the family physician]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2007;149:10-2, 14 pubmed
  61. Ozkaya E, Topkarci Z, Ozarmağan G. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy. Australas J Dermatol. 2007;48:190-2 pubmed
    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream...
  62. Rae B. Inadequate instructions result in overdose death--a closed claim analysis. Mich Med. 2007;106:8-9 pubmed
  63. Novikova I, Zlotnikova M. Ceruloplasmin plasma levels in patients with severe forms of herpes infection. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2011;155:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There is evidence of an increase in CP levels during the acute period of CRHI (chronic recurrent herpes infection) and decrease in remission...
  64. Kaye S, Madan N, Dowd T, Hart C, McCarthy K, Patterson A. Ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74:114-6 pubmed
    ..Group A comprised nine patients with a history of herpes labialis, group B 15 patients with a history of herpes keratitis. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was isolated from 1...
  65. Blondeau J, Embil J. Herpes simplex virus infection: what to look for. What to do!. J Can Dent Assoc. 1990;56:785-7 pubmed
    ..This brief review highlights some of the basic properties of HSV, its transmission and pathogenesis. As well, common HSV oral infections are reviewed and suggestions are put forward to prevent the accidental transmission of HSV...
  66. Kallio Laine K, Seppanen M, Lokki M, Lappalainen M, Notkola I, Seppälä I, et al. Widespread unilateral pain associated with herpes simplex virus infections. J Pain. 2008;9:658-65 pubmed publisher
  67. Block S, Yogev R, Waldmeier F, Hamed K. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a single 1500-mg dose of famciclovir in adolescents with recurrent herpes labialis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 8) of single-dose therapy with 1500 mg famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) for recurrent herpes labialis in adolescents. Mean Cmax, mean AUC0-?, and clearance for penciclovir were 9.37 ?g/mL, 31...
  68. Orzalli M, DeLuca N, Knipe D. Nuclear IFI16 induction of IRF-3 signaling during herpesviral infection and degradation of IFI16 by the viral ICP0 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E3008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results define a pathway for nuclear innate sensing of HSV DNA by IFI16 in infected HFF and document a mechanism by which a virus can block this nuclear innate response. ..
  69. Kleinman D, Swango P, Niessen L. Epidemiologic studies of oral mucosal conditions--methodologic issues. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1991;19:129-40 pubmed
    ..Methods used to study leukoplakia, lichen planus, recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, geographic tongue and candidiasis are highlighted...
  70. Chosidow O, Drouault Y, Garraffo R, Veyssier P. Valaciclovir as a single dose during prodrome of herpes facialis: a pilot randomized double-blind clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:142-6 pubmed
    Randomized clinical trials of valaciclovir in recurrent herpes labialis are lacking.
  71. Shulman J. Recurrent herpes labialis in US children and youth. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32:402-9 pubmed
    ..This study reports data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, 1988-1994 (NHANES III)...
  72. Ozawa S, Eda H, Ishii Y, Ban F, Funabashi T, Hata S, et al. The herpes simplex virus type 1 BgKL variant, unlike the BgOL variant, shows a higher association with orolabial infection than with infections at other sites, supporting the variant-dispersion-replacement hypothesis. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2183-90 pubmed
  73. O Connor M, Phelan M. The impact of HSV for inflammatory arthropathy patients. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:489-90 pubmed publisher
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), also known as herpes labialis, is the etiologic agent of vesicular lesions of the oral mucosa commonly referred to as "cold sores"...
  74. Spruance S, McKeough M. Combination treatment with famciclovir and a topical corticosteroid gel versus famciclovir alone for experimental ultraviolet radiation-induced herpes simplex labialis: a pilot study. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:1906-10 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy of corticosteroids for the treatment of herpes labialis, we compared famciclovir (Famvir, 500 mg 3x/day po [per os] for 5 days) and topical fluocinonide (0...
  75. McManus V, Pittman J. Ulcer management. "I just want it to be gone!". Dent Today. 2004;23:48-51 pubmed
  76. Leung D, Sacks S. Docosanol: a topical antiviral for herpes labialis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:2567-71 pubmed
    Recurrent herpes labialis is a painful and potentially disfiguring infection affecting an estimated 40 million people in the US alone. The majority of recurrences are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1...
  77. Holzgreve H. [Honey is better than aciclovir in herpes]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005;147:18 pubmed
  78. Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz R. Human herpes simplex labialis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32:625-30 pubmed
    ..This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and management issues for HSL...
  79. Harmenberg J, Oberg B, Spruance S. Prevention of ulcerative lesions by episodic treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: A literature review. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90:122-30 pubmed publisher
    There are substantial difficulties involved in carrying out clinical studies of recurrent herpes labialis, since the disease has a rapid onset, short-lasting viral shedding period and is rapidly self-healing...
  80. Gallais J, Boisnault P, Morel F, Clerc P, Letrillard L, Hebbrecht G. [Herpes labialis and genitalis in general medicine]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2000;127:596-602 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the respective importance of herpes labialis and genitalis in patients consulting general practitioners and ascertain their knowledge and opinions concerning herpes labialis and genitalis in ..
  81. Spijkervet F, Vissink A, Raghoebar G, Van der Waal I. [Vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2001;108:223-8 pubmed
    ..In many cases the lesion can be classified as recurrent herpes labialis, but many other causes can induce a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa and perioral skin as well...
  82. McIntyre G. Viral infections of the oral mucosa and perioral region. Dent Update. 2001;28:181-6, 188 pubmed
    ..This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management of common viral infections of the oral mucosa and perioral region...
  83. Spruance S, Hill J. Clinical significance of antiviral therapy for episodic treatment of herpes labialis: exploratory analyses of the combined data from two valaciclovir trials. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:703-7 pubmed
    ..We also introduce a new measure that combines the two observed drug effects (reduced lesion duration, increased aborted lesions) into a single endpoint that captures the global benefit of the drug to the patient...
  84. Yarom N, Buchner A, Dayan D. Herpes simplex virus infection: part I--Biology, clinical presentation and latency. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2005;22:7-15, 84 pubmed
    ..simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common, and include primary herpetic gingivo-stomatitis, recurrent herpes labialis and recurrent intra-oral herpes...
  85. Knevel R, Kuijkens A. Case history. Int J Dent Hyg. 2003;1:124-5 pubmed
  86. Tang J, Chan P. Images in clinical medicine. Herpes labialis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1855 pubmed
  87. Itzhaki R, Wozniak M. Susceptibility to herpes simplex labialis conferred by the gene encoding apolipoprotein E. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:624-5; author reply 625-6 pubmed publisher
  88. Hull C, McKeough M, Sebastian K, Kriesel J, Spruance S. Valacyclovir and topical clobetasol gel for the episodic treatment of herpes labialis: a patient-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual role of immune responses (protection, pathology) is well recognized in other infectious diseases. The addition of corticosteroids to antimicrobial agents has been associated with improvement in some of these diseases...
  89. Rosato E, Giovannetti A, Rossi C, Menghi G, Pisarri S, Salsano F. Recurrent infections in patients with nickel allergic hypersensitivity. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2009;23:173-80 pubmed
    ..In patients with Ni hypersensitivity a higher incidence of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL), urinary tract infections (RUTI), genital candidiasis, and upper respiratory tract infections (RURTI) ..
  90. Durdu M, Ruocco V. Clinical and cytologic features of antibiotic-resistant acute paronychia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:120-6.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute paronychia usually is treated as a bacterial infection, but antibiotic-resistant acute paronychia may be caused by other infectious and noninfectious problems...
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