herpes genitalis

Summary

Summary: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.

Top Publications

  1. Vickerman P, Devine A, Foss A, Delany Moretlwe S, Mayaud P, Meyer Rath G. The cost-effectiveness of herpes simplex virus-2 suppressive therapy with daily aciclovir for delaying HIV disease progression among HIV-1-infected women in South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HSV-2 suppressive therapy could be an affordable strategy for reducing HIV-1 disease progression and retaining women in care before ART initiation, but cheaply available aciclovir is needed. ..
  2. de Jong M, de Witte L, Taylor M, Geijtenbeek T. Herpes simplex virus type 2 enhances HIV-1 susceptibility by affecting Langerhans cell function. J Immunol. 2010;185:1633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reinforce the importance of preventing sexually transmitted infections, such as HSV-2, to reduce the transmission of HIV-1. ..
  3. Laing K, Magaret A, Mueller D, Zhao L, Johnston C, De Rosa S, et al. Diversity in CD8(+) T cell function and epitope breadth among persons with genital herpes. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:703-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity in T cell response in these ex vivo assessments offers the potential of defining immune correlates of HSV-2 reactivation in humans. ..
  4. Perkins N, Nisbet M, Thomas M. Topical imiquimod treatment of aciclovir-resistant herpes simplex disease: case series and literature review. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, as the mode of action of imiquimod is related to immune stimulation rather than direct antiviral activity, it may be used repeatedly without resistance developing. ..
  5. Zahariadis G, Severini A. Evaluation of a novel serology algorithm to detect herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 antibodies. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:696-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Guidelines on appropriate use of such testing exist, including Canadian-based recommendations. Despite this, most Canadian laboratories do not offer HSV-type specific serology and many provide only nontype-specific HSV serology tests...
  6. . Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14-49 years--United States, 2005-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:456-9 pubmed
    ..Patients with known HSV-2 infection should be tested for HIV...
  7. Halford W, Püschel R, Rakowski B. Herpes simplex virus 2 ICP0 mutant viruses are avirulent and immunogenic: implications for a genital herpes vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12251 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0(-) mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes...
  8. Conrady C, Halford W, Carr D. Loss of the type I interferon pathway increases vulnerability of mice to genital herpes simplex virus 2 infection. J Virol. 2011;85:1625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the results underscore the significant contribution of type I IFNs in resistance to genital HSV-2 infection...
  9. Biraro S, Mayaud P, Morrow R, Grosskurth H, Weiss H. Performance of commercial herpes simplex virus type-2 antibody tests using serum samples from Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Several commercial type-specific serologic tests are available for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Poor specificity of some tests has been reported on samples from sub-Saharan Africa...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Shin H, Iwasaki A. A vaccine strategy that protects against genital herpes by establishing local memory T cells. Nature. 2012;491:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a promising vaccination strategy against herpes simplex virus 2, and potentially against other sexually transmitted infections such as human immunodeficiency virus...
  2. Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa J, Magaret A, Wang R, Mugo N, et al. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:427-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1...
  3. Westhoff G, Little S, Caughey A. Herpes simplex virus and pregnancy: a review of the management of antenatal and peripartum herpes infections. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2011;66:629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss management of antenatal and peripartum herpes infections, considerations for mode of delivery, and the course of neonatal HSV infections...
  4. Dasgupta G, BenMohamed L. Of mice and not humans: how reliable are animal models for evaluation of herpes CD8(+)-T cell-epitopes-based immunotherapeutic vaccine candidates?. Vaccine. 2011;29:5824-36 pubmed publisher
  5. Ng ayo M, Friedrich D, Holmes K, Bukusi E, Morrow R. Performance of HSV-2 type specific serological tests in men in Kenya. J Virol Methods. 2010;163:276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..5 were the most concordant with those of WB for all the approaches tested. However, low positive Kalon test results should be interpreted with caution as they could reflect early seroconversion or false positive results...
  6. MO A, Musselli C, Chen H, Pappas J, LECLAIR K, Liu A, et al. A heat shock protein based polyvalent vaccine targeting HSV-2: CD4(+) and CD8(+) cellular immunity and protective efficacy. Vaccine. 2011;29:8530-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Khodai T, Chappell D, Christy C, Cockle P, Eyles J, Hammond D, et al. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines...
  8. Morello C, Levinson M, Kraynyak K, Spector D. Immunization with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genes plus inactivated HSV-2 is highly protective against acute and recurrent HSV-2 disease. J Virol. 2011;85:3461-72 pubmed publisher
  9. Posavad C, Remington M, Mueller D, Zhao L, Magaret A, Wald A, et al. Detailed characterization of T cell responses to herpes simplex virus-2 in immune seronegative persons. J Immunol. 2010;184:3250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanism(s) by which such responses are elicited may provide important insights in developing novel strategies for preventing acquisition of sexually acquired HSV-2...
  10. Belshe R, Leone P, Bernstein D, Wald A, Levin M, Stapleton J, et al. Efficacy results of a trial of a herpes simplex vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women...
  11. Awasthi S, Zumbrun E, Si H, Wang F, Shaw C, Cai M, et al. Live attenuated herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein E deletion mutant as a vaccine candidate defective in neuronal spread. J Virol. 2012;86:4586-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the gE2-del virus is safe, other than when injected at high titer into the brain, and is efficacious as a prophylactic and immunotherapeutic vaccine...
  12. Ludema C, Cole S, Poole C, Chu H, Eron J. Meta-analysis of randomized trials on the association of prophylactic acyclovir and HIV-1 viral load in individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus-2. AIDS. 2011;25:1265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize the randomized evidence regarding the association between acyclovir use and HIV-1 replication as measured by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2...
  13. Pereira V, Moizeis R, Fernandes T, Araújo J, Meissner R, Fernandes J. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is the main cause of genital herpes in women of Natal, Brazil. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;161:190-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in sexually active women who participated in the cervical cancer screening program in Natal, Brazil...
  14. Awasthi S, Lubinski J, Shaw C, Barrett S, Cai M, Wang F, et al. Immunization with a vaccine combining herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein C (gC) and gD subunits improves the protection of dorsal root ganglia in mice and reduces the frequency of recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA in guinea pigs compar. J Virol. 2011;85:10472-86 pubmed publisher
  15. Baeten J, Lingappa J, Beck I, Frenkel L, Pepper G, Celum C, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance...
  16. Mugo N, Dadabhai S, Bunnell R, Williamson J, Bennett E, Baya I, et al. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors...
  17. Vickerman P, Foss A, Pickles M, Deering K, Verma S, Eric Demers -, et al. To what extent is the HIV epidemic in southern India driven by commercial sex? A modelling analysis. AIDS. 2010;24:2563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In south India, general population HIV prevalence estimates range from 0.5 to 3%. To focus HIV prevention efforts, it is important to understand whether HIV transmission is driven by commercial sex...
  18. Peng T, Zhu J, Klock A, Phasouk K, Huang M, Koelle D, et al. Evasion of the mucosal innate immune system by herpes simplex virus type 2. J Virol. 2009;83:12559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..HSV-2's blockade of the innate immune system's production of type I IFN may be a major factor in allowing the virus to break through host mucosal defenses...
  19. Aumakhan B, Gaydos C, Quinn T, Beyrer C, Benning L, Minkoff H, et al. Clinical reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and human immunodeficiency virus disease progression markers. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9973 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural history of HSV-2 infection and role of HSV-2 reactivations in HIV disease progression are unclear...
  20. Bastien S, Mason Jones A, De Koker P, Mmbaga E, Ross D, Mathews C. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection as a biomarker for sexual debut among young people in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend that the validation of alternative biological measures should be prioritized, and included in future studies and trials of interventions to reduce sexual health risk...
  21. Wilson S, Cheshenko N, Fakioglu E, Mesquita P, Keller M, Herold B. Susceptibility to genital herpes as a biomarker predictive of increased HIV risk: expansion of a murine model of microbicide safety. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:1113-24 pubmed publisher
  22. Ward H, Rönn M. Contribution of sexually transmitted infections to the sexual transmission of HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This fact does not disprove a causal link, but mechanisms of action and the design and implementation of interventions need to be better understood. ..
  23. Hofstetter A, Rosenthal S, Stanberry L. Current thinking on genital herpes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014;27:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections...
  24. Schneider J, Lakshmi V, Dandona R, Kumar G, Sudha T, Dandona L. Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India...
  25. Jacob S, Baeten J, Hughes J, Peinado J, Wang J, Sanchez J, et al. A post-trial assessment of factors influencing study drug adherence in a randomized biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:897-904 pubmed publisher
  26. Lingappa J, Baeten J, Wald A, Hughes J, Thomas K, Mujugira A, et al. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375:824-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression...
  27. Tata S, Johnston C, Huang M, Selke S, Magaret A, Corey L, et al. Overlapping reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the genital and perianal mucosa. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:499-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 occurs frequently. Anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 reactivation have not been intensively studied...
  28. Munjoma M, Kurewa E, Mapingure M, Mashavave G, Chirenje M, Rusakaniko S, et al. The prevalence, incidence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among pregnant Zimbabwean women followed up nine months after childbirth. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10:2 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to measure the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 infection in women followed for 9 months after childbirth...
  29. Berntsson M, Tunbäck P, Ellström A, Krantz I, Löwhagen G. Decreasing prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies in selected groups of women in Sweden. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:623-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% for the female attendees at the clinic for sexually transmitted infections. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in pregnant women appears to have decreased in Sweden during the past decade, which may reflect changes in sexual behaviour...
  30. Corbell C, Stergachis A, Ndowa F, Ndase P, Barnes L, Celum C. Genital ulcer disease treatment policies and access to acyclovir in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:488-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Current World Health Organization guidelines for sexually transmitted infections recommend acyclovir as first-line syndromic treatment of GUD in countries with high herpes simplex virus-2 prevalence (> or =30%)...
  31. Ghebremichael M, Larsen U, Paintsil E. Association of age at first sex with HIV-1, HSV-2, and other sexual transmitted infections among women in northern Tanzania. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:570-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the association between age at first sex and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV-1 and HSV-2, in women in Moshi urban district, northern Tanzania...
  32. Bernstein D, Farley N, Bravo F, Earwood J, McNeal M, Fairman J, et al. The adjuvant CLDC increases protection of a herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D vaccine in guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2010;28:3748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CLDC enhanced protection compared to MPL/Alum and is the first vaccine to reduce recurrent virus shedding, a key to decreasing the spread of HSV-2...
  33. Bradley H, Markowitz L, Gibson T, McQuillan G. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2--United States, 1999-2010. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are common infections with serious sequelae. HSV-1 is an increasingly important cause of genital herpes in industrialized countries...
  34. Halford W, Püschel R, Gershburg E, Wilber A, Gershburg S, Rakowski B. A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17748 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that a HSV-2 vaccine might be more likely to prevent genital herpes if it contained a live-attenuated HSV-2 virus rather than a single HSV-2 protein...
  35. Nakubulwa S, Mirembe F, Kaye D, Kaddu Mulindwa D. Association between HSV-2 and HIV serostatus in pregnant women of known HIV serostatus attending Mulago hospital antenatal clinic, Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:803-6 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of HSV-2 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic in Mulago Teaching Hospital in Kampala, Uganda...
  36. Phipps W, Saracino M, Magaret A, Selke S, Remington M, Huang M, et al. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking...
  37. Tanton C, Weiss H, Rusizoka M, Legoff J, Changalucha J, Baisley K, et al. Long-term impact of acyclovir suppressive therapy on genital and plasma HIV RNA in Tanzanian women: a randomized controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Acyclovir administered at a dosage of 400 mg twice daily is unlikely to be a useful long-term intervention to reduce HIV transmission. The lack of effect on HIV may be attributable to suboptimal adherence or treatment regimen. ..
  38. Lu Y, Celum C, Wald A, Baeten J, Cowan F, Delany Moretlwe S, et al. Acyclovir achieves a lower concentration in African HIV-seronegative, herpes simplex virus 2-seropositive women than in non-African populations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:2777-9 pubmed publisher
    ..59 h · ?g/ml, respectively, 54% and 52% lower than values from non-Africans. Lower acyclovir concentrations may partly explain the reduced acyclovir suppression of HSV-2 genital ulcer recurrence in HPTN 039 African women participants...
  39. Brans R, Yao F. Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:163 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs...
  40. DONNELL D, Baeten J, Hong T, Lingappa J, Mujugira A, Nakku Joloba E, et al. Correlation between pill counts and biologic effects in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial: implications for measuring adherence. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:632-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e., fewer pills returned than expected) and when pill counts were missing because bottles were not returned, plasma HIV-1 RNA and GUD effects were diminished, likely indicating periods of non-adherence...
  41. Mugwanya K, Baeten J, Mugo N, Irungu E, Ngure K, Celum C. High-dose valacyclovir HSV-2 suppression results in greater reduction in plasma HIV-1 levels compared with standard dose acyclovir among HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons: a randomized, crossover trial. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Standard-dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg twice daily) reduces plasma HIV-1 levels by 0.25-0.50 log(10) copies/mL. It is not known if higher doses might further suppress HIV-1 levels...
  42. Paz Bailey G, Sternberg M, Puren A, Markowitz L, Ballard R, Delany S, et al. Improvement in healing and reduction in HIV shedding with episodic acyclovir therapy as part of syndromic management among men: a randomized, controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1039-49 pubmed publisher
    ..It is uncertain whether episodic acyclovir will enhance ulcer healing if delivered at primary health care settings, because there is often a delay in treatment initiation...
  43. Sgaier S, Mony P, Jayakumar S, McLaughlin C, Arora P, Kumar R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and syphilis infections in the general population in India. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis infections in the general population in India...
  44. PHIRI S, Hoffman I, Weiss H, Martinson F, Nyirenda N, Kamwendo D, et al. Impact of aciclovir on ulcer healing, lesional, genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA among patients with genital ulcer disease in Malawi. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..By a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aciclovir 800 mg twice daily for 5 days added to the syndromic management of genital ulcer disease (GUD) to determine the impact on ulcer healing and HIV outcomes...
  45. Alsallaq R, Schiffer J, Longini I, Wald A, Corey L, Abu Raddad L. Population level impact of an imperfect prophylactic vaccine for herpes simplex virus-2. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine's short-term impact in a high prevalence setting in Africa would be a substantial decrease in incidence, whereas its immediate impact on prevalence would be small and would increase slowly over time. ..
  46. Fuchs J, Celum C, Wang J, Hughes J, Sanchez J, Cowan F, et al. Clinical and virologic efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression by acyclovir in a multicontinent clinical trial. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed regional variation in the clinical and virologic efficacy of acyclovir for HSV suppression warrants further evaluation of determinants of responses to acyclovir. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00076232.)...
  47. Peña K, Adelson M, Mordechai E, Blaho J. Genital herpes simplex virus type 1 in women: detection in cervicovaginal specimens from gynecological practices in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents the largest analysis of HSV types reported and has important public health implications, particularly for younger women...
  48. Okuku H, Sanders E, Nyiro J, Ngetsa C, Ohuma E, McClelland R, et al. Factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seronegative Kenyan men and women reporting high-risk sexual behavior. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:837-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to determine the incidence and correlates of HSV-2 infection in HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior, compared with high-risk HIV-1-seronegative women in the same community...
  49. de Bruyn G, Shiboski S, van der Straten A, Blanchard K, Chipato T, Ramjee G, et al. The effect of the vaginal diaphragm and lubricant gel on acquisition of HSV-2. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:301-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Johnston C, Koelle D, Wald A. HSV-2: in pursuit of a vaccine. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4600-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Schiffer J, Abu Raddad L, Mark K, Zhu J, Selke S, Koelle D, et al. Mucosal host immune response predicts the severity and duration of herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding episodes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18973-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The model suggests that the rate of containment of infected cells by the peripheral mucosal immune system is the major driver of duration and severity of HSV-2 reactivation in the immunocompetent host...
  52. Vincent K, Bell B, Johnston R, Stegall R, Vargas G, Tan A, et al. Benzalkonium chloride causes colposcopic changes and increased susceptibility to genital herpes infection in mice. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:579-84 pubmed
    ..Endoscopic colposcopy could be employed in small animals allowing colposcopy to be used as one component in a multifactorial safety testing paradigm...
  53. Watson Jones D, Wald A, Celum C, Lingappa J, Weiss H, Changalucha J, et al. Use of acyclovir for suppression of human immunodeficiency virus infection is not associated with genotypic evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 resistance to acyclovir: analysis of specimens from three phase III trials. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, UL23 is highly polymorphic compared to other loci in HSV-2, but no drug resistance mutations were detected that could explain the failure to reduce HIV incidence or to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these studies...
  54. Delagrave S, Hernandez H, Zhou C, Hamberger J, Mundle S, Catalan J, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of intramuscular replication-defective and subunit vaccines against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the mouse genital model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46714 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also support further investigation of ACAM529 for prophylaxis in human subjects...
  55. Roth K, Ferreira V, Kaushic C. HSV-2 vaccine: current state and insights into development of a vaccine that targets genital mucosal protection. Microb Pathog. 2013;58:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Future vaccination strategies that focus on induction of robust mucosal immunity in the genital tract may hold the key for a successful vaccine against HSV-2...
  56. Dropulic L, Cohen J. The challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:1429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel HSV vaccines, such as replication-defective or attenuated viruses, have elicited humoral and cellular immune responses in preclinical studies. These vaccines and others hold promise in future clinical studies. ..
  57. Delany Moretlwe S, Jentsch U, Weiss H, Moyes J, Ashley Morrow R, Stevens W, et al. Comparison of focus HerpesSelect and Kalon HSV-2 gG2 ELISA serological assays to detect herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in a South African population. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of two widely used gG2 ELISA was compared to derive an appropriate testing algorithm for use in South Africa...