infectious mononucleosis

Summary

Summary: A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.

Top Publications

  1. Kutok J, Wang F. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Annu Rev Pathol. 2006;1:375-404 pubmed
    ..Our current understanding of the role of EBV in the development of Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and other EBV-associated diseases is discussed. ..
  2. Piriou E, van Dort K, Weel J, Bemelman F, Gamadia L, van Oers M, et al. Detailed kinetics of EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during primary EBV infection in a kidney transplant patient. Clin Immunol. 2006;119:16-20 pubmed
    The etiology of infectious mononucleosis is poorly understood and usually detected many weeks after infection...
  3. Chalupa P, Kaspar M, Holub M. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with pericholecystitis in a patient with Epstein-Barr Virus infectious mononucleosis. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:CS30-33 pubmed
    ..Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication of Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis and involves thickening of the gallbladder wall...
  4. Zaadstra B, Chorus A, van Buuren S, Kalsbeek H, van Noort J. Selective association of multiple sclerosis with infectious mononucleosis. Mult Scler. 2008;14:307-13 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have suggested an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and infectious mononucleosis (IM) but data on the exact strength of this association or its selectivity have been conflicting...
  5. Thacker E, Mirzaei F, Ascherio A. Infectious mononucleosis and risk for multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:499-503 pubmed
    To characterize the association between infectious mononucleosis (IM), a frequent clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection after childhood, and the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  6. Wang X, Yang K, Wei C, Huang Y, Zhao D. Coinfection with EBV/CMV and other respiratory agents in children with suspected infectious mononucleosis. Virol J. 2010;7:247 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a retrospective study of children with suspected infectious mononucleosis. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence to detect EBV, CMV and other ..
  7. Nielsen T, Rostgaard K, Nielsen N, Koch Henriksen N, Haahr S, Sørensen P, et al. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:72-5 pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association...
  8. Balfour H, Holman C, Hokanson K, Lelonek M, Giesbrecht J, White D, et al. A prospective clinical study of Epstein-Barr virus and host interactions during acute infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1505-12 pubmed
    Characterizing virus-host interactions during self-limited infectious mononucleosis could explain how Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication is normally controlled and provide insight into why certain immunocompromised patients fail to ..
  9. Nielsen T, Rostgaard K, Askling J, Steffensen R, Oturai A, Jersild C, et al. Effects of infectious mononucleosis and HLA-DRB1*15 in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009;15:431-6 pubmed publisher
    Both human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*15 and Epstein-Barr virus infection presenting as infectious mononucleosis (IM) are recognized as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS)...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Ebell M. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:1279-87 pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis should be suspected in patients 10 to 30 years of age who present with sore throat and significant fatigue, palatal petechiae, posterior cervical or auricular adenopathy, marked adenopathy, or inguinal adenopathy...
  2. Breuer C, Janssen G, Laws H, Schaper J, Mayatepek E, Schroten H, et al. Splenic infarction in a patient hereditary spherocytosis, protein C deficiency and acute infectious mononucleosis. Eur J Pediatr. 2008;167:1449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, 1 week after admission the patient developed typical clinical signs of acute infectious mononucleosis. Further laboratory work up confirmed the diagnosis of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection and ..
  3. Bonsignore A, Grillone G, Soliera M, Fiumara F, Pettinato M, Calarco G, et al. [Occult rupture of the spleen in a patient with infectious mononucleosis]. G Chir. 2010;31:86-90 pubmed
    ..Among the diseases responsible of occult rupture, infectious diseases are the most frequent and, among these, infectious mononucleosis, that is complicated with splenic rupture in 0.5% of the cases, with 30% of mortality.
  4. Hislop A, Kuo M, Drake Lee A, Akbar A, Bergler W, Hammerschmitt N, et al. Tonsillar homing of Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8+ T cells and the virus-host balance. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2546-55 pubmed
    Patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) undergoing primary EBV infection show large expansions of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood...
  5. Hadinoto V, Shapiro M, Greenough T, Sullivan J, Luzuriaga K, Thorley Lawson D. On the dynamics of acute EBV infection and the pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis. Blood. 2008;111:1420-7 pubmed
    ..mB(Lats)) in the blood disappear rapidly on presentation with acute symptomatic primary infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]). They undergo a simple exponential decay (average half-life: 7.5 +/- 3...
  6. Zhou J, Cai S, Zheng M. Dapsone-induced infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:1111-3 pubmed
  7. Dohno S, Maeda A, Ishiura Y, Sato T, Fujieda M, Wakiguchi H. Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus in infants. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:536-40 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM) is usually on serologic tests. The responses of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (anti-EBV) antibodies are weak in infants...
  8. Wagner H, Scott R, Buchwald D, Sixbey J. Peripheral blood lymphocytes express recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 during Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:979-84 pubmed
    ..recombination-activating genes (RAGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 26 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM)...
  9. Shimojima Y, Ishii W, Matsuda M, Nakazawa H, Ikeda S. Cytomegalovirus-induced infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with methotrexate and infliximab. Intern Med. 2010;49:937-40 pubmed
    We report a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome (IMLS) while being treated with methotrexate and infliximab...
  10. Foreman B, Mackler L, Malloy E. Clinical inquiries. Can we prevent splenic rupture for patients with infectious mononucleosis?. J Fam Pract. 2005;54:547-8 pubmed
  11. Corsi M, Ruscica M, Passoni D, Scarmozzino M, Gulletta E. High Th1-type cytokine serum levels in patients with infectious mononucleosis. Acta Virol. 2004;48:263-6 pubmed
    ..Primary EBV infection is commonly associated with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). T cell immune activation plays an important role in EBV-associated diseases...
  12. Sundqvist E, Sundstrom P, Linden M, Hedström A, Aloisi F, Hillert J, et al. Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: interaction with HLA. Genes Immun. 2012;13:14-20 pubmed publisher
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, history of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and HLA-A and DRB1 have all been proposed as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  13. Goldacre M, Wotton C, Seagroatt V, Yeates D. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis: record linkage study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:1032-5 pubmed
    To ascertain if infectious mononucleosis is a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS); and, if it is, whether its effect is close to or remote in time from the onset of MS.
  14. Macsween K, Higgins C, McAulay K, Williams H, Harrison N, Swerdlow A, et al. Infectious mononucleosis in university students in the United kingdom: evaluation of the clinical features and consequences of the disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:699-706 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is common among university students. We undertook to analyze the clinical features and sequelae of the disease in a cohort of students at Edinburgh University.
  15. Lagona E, Sharifi F, Voutsioti A, Mavri A, Markouri M, Attilakos A. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Infection. 2007;35:118-9 pubmed
  16. Cao Z, Zhao Z, Zhao X. Effect of compound glycyrrhizin injection on liver function and cellular immunity of children with infectious mononucleosis complicated liver impairment. Chin J Integr Med. 2006;12:268-72 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection (CGI) on liver function and cellular immunity of children with infectious mononucleosis complicated liver impairment (IM-LI) and to explore its clinical therapeutic effect.
  17. Al Tabaa Y, Tuaillon E, Jeziorski E, Ouedraogo D, Bollore K, Rubbo P, et al. B-cell polyclonal activation and Epstein-Barr viral abortive lytic cycle are two key features in acute infectious mononucleosis. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:33-7 pubmed publisher
    Acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) is generally associated with a large EBV B cell reservoir cells and an intense B-cell polyclonal activation whereas the number of quiescent EBV-infected memory B cells in chronically EBV-infected ..
  18. Ramagopalan S, Valdar W, Dyment D, DeLuca G, Yee I, Giovannoni G, et al. Association of infectious mononucleosis with multiple sclerosis. A population-based study. Neuroepidemiology. 2009;32:257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here in a population-based Canadian cohort, we investigate the relationship between prior clinical infection or vaccination and the risk of MS...
  19. Bell A, Fortune B, Sheeler R. Clinical inquiries. What test is the best for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis?. J Fam Pract. 2006;55:799-802 pubmed
    ..antigen are the most sensitive, are highly specific, and are also the most expensive for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on validating cohort study)...
  20. Katz B, BOAS S, Shiraishi Y, Mears C, Taylor R. Exercise tolerance testing in a prospective cohort of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and recovered controls following infectious mononucleosis. J Pediatr. 2010;157:468-72, 472.e1 pubmed publisher
    Six months after acute infectious mononucleosis (IM), 13% of adolescents meet criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We measured exercise tolerance in adolescents with CFS and control subjects 6 months after IM.
  21. Stephenson J, DuBois J. Nonoperative management of spontaneous splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2007;120:e432-5 pubmed
    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis with no clear consensus on appropriate management...
  22. Huynh G, Adler F. Mathematical modelling the age dependence of Epstein-Barr virus associated infectious mononucleosis. Math Med Biol. 2012;29:245-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary EBV infection in adolescents and young adults, however, often leads to infectious mononucleosis (IM) with symptoms including fever, fatigue and sore throat that can persist for months...
  23. Zoraster R, Rison R. Severe lactic acidosis secondary to minocycline in a teenager with infectious mononucleosis and mitochondrial myopathy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:627-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of a teenager in which mitochondrial myopathy with severe lactic acidosis presented following a bout of infectious mononucleosis and minocycline use...
  24. Chijioke O, Muller A, Feederle R, Barros M, Krieg C, Emmel V, et al. Human natural killer cells prevent infectious mononucleosis features by targeting lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1489-98 pubmed publisher
    Primary infection with the human oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can result in infectious mononucleosis (IM), a self-limiting disease caused by massive lymphocyte expansion that predisposes for the development of distinct EBV-..
  25. Scherrenburg J, Piriou E, Nanlohy N, van Baarle D. Detailed analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during infectious mononucleosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..simultaneously Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses during and after infectious mononucleosis (IM), using a previously described 12-day stimulation protocol with EBNA1 or BZLF1 peptide pools...
  26. Kang M, Kim T, Shim K, Jung S, Cho M, Yoo K, et al. Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis in young adults: two case reports. Korean J Intern Med. 2009;24:381-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice...
  27. Cameron B, Galbraith S, Zhang Y, Davenport T, Vollmer Conna U, Wakefield D, et al. Gene expression correlates of postinfective fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:56-66 pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis (IM) commonly triggers a protracted postinfective fatigue syndrome (PIFS) of unknown pathogenesis.
  28. Atrasheuskaya A, Kameneva S, Neverov A, Ignatyev G. Acute infectious mononucleosis and coincidental measles virus infection. J Clin Virol. 2004;31:160-4 pubmed
    ..Recognizing the infectious etiology of concomitant infections is important for both clinicians and epidemiologists...
  29. Farrell P. Role for HLA in susceptibility to infectious mononucleosis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2756-8 pubmed
    Factors involved in determining whether infectious mononucleosis occurs after primary EBV infection may include age, dose of virus received, and various genetic markers...
  30. Ponsonby A, van der Mei I, Dwyer T, Blizzard L, Taylor B, Kemp A, et al. Exposure to infant siblings during early life and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2005;293:463-9 pubmed
    ..Viral infection has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  31. Nystad T, Myrmel H. Prevalence of primary versus reactivated Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with VCA IgG-, VCA IgM- and EBNA-1-antibodies and suspected infectious mononucleosis. J Clin Virol. 2007;38:292-7 pubmed
  32. Candy B, Hotopf M. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;:CD004402 pubmed
    Glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) is associated with fatigue, fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. The severity of symptoms can vary...
  33. McAulay K, Higgins C, Macsween K, Lake A, Jarrett R, Robertson F, et al. HLA class I polymorphisms are associated with development of infectious mononucleosis upon primary EBV infection. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3042-8 pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is an immunopathological disease caused by EBV that occurs in young adults and is a risk factor for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)...
  34. Crawford D, Macsween K, Higgins C, Thomas R, McAulay K, Williams H, et al. A cohort study among university students: identification of risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion and infectious mononucleosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:276-82 pubmed
    A vaccine against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is in clinical trials. Up-to-date information on risk factors for EBV infection and infectious mononucleosis (IM) among young adults is required to inform a vaccination strategy.
  35. Vezina H, Balfour H, Weller D, Anderson B, Brundage R. Valacyclovir pharmacokinetics and exploratory pharmacodynamics in young adults with Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:734-42 pubmed publisher
    Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection often results in infectious mononucleosis and is associated with serious sequelae. No treatment is approved for EBV infection, and an antiviral intervention would be significant...
  36. Ulff Møller C, Nielsen N, Rostgaard K, Hjalgrim H, Frisch M. Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:1706-12 pubmed publisher
    Elevated levels of serological markers of EBV infection in patients with SLE and observations that infectious mononucleosis (IM) may precede some cases of SLE suggest a possible role of EBV in the aetiology of SLE...
  37. Hislop A, Taylor G, Sauce D, Rickinson A. Cellular responses to viral infection in humans: lessons from Epstein-Barr virus. Annu Rev Immunol. 2007;25:587-617 pubmed
    ..Analysis of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a clinical syndrome that can arise during primary EBV infection, has allowed the evolution of the ..
  38. Katz B, Shiraishi Y, Mears C, Binns H, Taylor R. Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2009;124:189-93 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to characterize prospectively the course and outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents during a 2-year period after infectious mononucleosis.
  39. Feng Z, Li Z, Sui B, Xu G, Xia T. Serological diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis by chemiluminescent immunoassay using capsid antigen p18 of Epstein-Barr virus. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;354:77-82 pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis is the common clinical manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in young children...
  40. Tattevin P, Le Tulzo Y, Minjolle S, Person A, Chapplain J, Arvieux C, et al. Increasing incidence of severe Epstein-Barr virus-related infectious mononucleosis: surveillance study. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1873-4 pubmed
    Older patients are more susceptible to severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). This condition may increase in industrialized countries where primary EBV infection occurs later in life...
  41. Tsai M, Hsu C, Yen M, Yan D, Chiu C, Huang Y, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis and risk factor analysis for complications in hospitalized children. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2005;38:255-61 pubmed
    The characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM) in Chinese children are rarely reported...
  42. Sauce D, Larsen M, Abbott R, Hislop A, Leese A, Khan N, et al. Upregulation of interleukin 7 receptor alpha and programmed death 1 marks an epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell response that disappears following primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:9068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we noticed that in HLA-A 0201-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients undergoing primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, the initial CD8 response targets ..
  43. Huang Y, Katz B, Mears C, Kielhofner G, Taylor R. Postinfectious fatigue in adolescents and physical activity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:803-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare adolescents who do and do not recover from acute infectious mononucleosis in terms of fatigue severity and activity levels before, during, and in the 2 years following infection.
  44. Sandalova E, Hislop A, Levitsky V. T-cell receptor triggering differentially regulates bim expression in human lymphocytes from healthy individuals and patients with infectious mononucleosis. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:958-65 pubmed
    ..Bim in different subpopulations of ex vivo isolated human T cells from healthy donors and patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM)...
  45. Vetsika E, Callan M. Infectious mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2004;6:1-16 pubmed
    ..If delayed until adolescence or later, it can be associated with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever or 'mono'), an illness characterised by fevers, pharyngitis, ..
  46. González Saldaña N, Monroy Colín V, Piña Ruiz G, Juárez Olguín H. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of infectious mononucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:361 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious mononucleosis (IM) or Mononucleosis syndrome is caused by an acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus...
  47. Huang S, Chen J, Cheng C, Yang Y. Hypoalbuminaemia is an independent predictor for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in childhood Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis. Eur J Haematol. 2012;89:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..HLH) is a potentially fatal condition in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM)...
  48. Gao L, Xie Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Shen K. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of infectious mononucleosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in children in Beijing, China. World J Pediatr. 2011;7:45-9 pubmed publisher
    b>infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a self-limited disease, but a few cases may have severe complications...
  49. Fafi Kremer S, Morand P, Brion J, Pavese P, Baccard M, Germi R, et al. Long-term shedding of infectious epstein-barr virus after infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:985-9 pubmed
    ..well as infectivity of the virus in saliva, were evaluated in 20 patients for 6 months after the onset of infectious mononucleosis (IM)...
  50. White P, Thomas J, Sullivan P, Buchwald D. The nosology of sub-acute and chronic fatigue syndromes that follow infectious mononucleosis. Psychol Med. 2004;34:499-507 pubmed
    A previous principal components analysis of symptoms occurring after infectious mononucleosis suggested that a discrete fatigue syndrome occurs, which is independent of psychiatric disorder...
  51. Khoo S, Ullah I, Manning K, Fenton J. Spontaneous splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:300-1 pubmed
    Abdominal complaints in patients with infectious mononucleosis should alert the surgeon to the potential, and possibly fatal, risk of splenic rupture...
  52. Sokal E, Hoppenbrouwers K, Vandermeulen C, Moutschen M, Leonard P, Moreels A, et al. Recombinant gp350 vaccine for infectious mononucleosis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1749-53 pubmed publisher
    To date, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent infectious mononucleosis, a disease frequently induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in adolescents or adults devoid of preexisting immunity to the virus.
  53. Lawee D. Mild infectious mononucleosis presenting with transient mixed liver disease: case report with a literature review. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53:1314-6 pubmed
  54. Vernon S, Nicholson A, Rajeevan M, Dimulescu I, Cameron B, Whistler T, et al. Correlation of psycho-neuroendocrine-immune (PNI) gene expression with symptoms of acute infectious mononucleosis. Brain Res. 2006;1068:1-6 pubmed
    ..microarrays were used to examine PNI gene expression in the peripheral blood of 13 subjects with infectious mononucleosis (IM)...
  55. Hjalgrim H, Rostgaard K, Johnson P, Lake A, Shield L, Little A, et al. HLA-A alleles and infectious mononucleosis suggest a critical role for cytotoxic T-cell response in EBV-related Hodgkin lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6400-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the lymphoma's association with HLA-A*01 and HLA-A*02 simultaneously in the setting of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a risk factor for EBV-related HL, in a case-series analysis including 278 EBV-related and 656 EBV-..
  56. Tierney R, Edwards R, Sitki Green D, Croom Carter D, Roy S, Yao Q, et al. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus strains in patients with infectious mononucleosis: comparison of ex vivo samples with in vitro isolates by use of heteroduplex tracking assays. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:287-97 pubmed
    ..a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) to identify resident viral sequences has suggested that patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) who are undergoing primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection frequently harbor different EBV ..
  57. Karagöz G, Ak O, Ozer S. The coexistence of hepatitis A and infectious mononucleosis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2005;16:102-4 pubmed
    ..b>Infectious mononucleosis is an acute illness characterized clinically by sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy...
  58. Ahlgren C, Toren K, Oden A, Andersen O. A population-based case-control study on viral infections and vaccinations and subsequent multiple sclerosis risk. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to clarify whether these infections or vaccinations, and two other infections, varicella and infectious mononucleosis, influence MS risk...
  59. Watanabe H, Sekine H, Uruma T, Nagasaki S, Tsunoda T, Machida Y, et al. Increase of atypical lymphocytes expressing CD4+/CD45RO+ in an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome associated with hepatitis A virus infection. J Infect Chemother. 2009;15:187-90 pubmed publisher
    Subpopulations of regular and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of a 24-year-old man with an infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like syndrome associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were analyzed...
  60. Wingate P, McAulay K, Anthony I, Crawford D. Regulatory T cell activity in primary and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Med Virol. 2009;81:870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..thereafter, but primary infection in early adulthood may cause immunopathological damage manifest as infectious mononucleosis. In this study the role of T(reg) was investigated in acute infectious mononucleosis and healthy EBV ..
  61. Bravender T. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and infectious mononucleosis. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010;21:251-64, ix pubmed
    b>Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome that is common in adolescents and young adults and is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, and fatigue...
  62. Thoufeeq M, Ali Khan S, Jain S, Al Shakerchi H, Hussain M. A case of acute infectious mononucleosis presenting with very high ferritin. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:637-8 pubmed
    Hepatitis is an important but uncommon manifestation of acute Epstein Barr infection. Infectious mononucleosis is usually a disease of young adults...
  63. Cheng C, Chang L, Shao P, Lee P, Chen J, Lu C, et al. Clinical manifestations and quantitative analysis of virus load in Taiwanese children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:216-21 pubmed
    To delineate the clinical manifestations in different age groups and to define the viral load in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis (EBV-associated IM).
  64. Elliott S, Suhrbier A, Miles J, Lawrence G, Pye S, Le T, et al. Phase I trial of a CD8+ T-cell peptide epitope-based vaccine for infectious mononucleosis. J Virol. 2008;82:1448-57 pubmed
    ..single-center phase I clinical trial of a CD8(+) T-cell peptide epitope vaccine against infectious mononucleosis was conducted with 14 HLA B*0801-positive, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seronegative adults...
  65. Williams H, Macsween K, McAulay K, Higgins C, Harrison N, Swerdlow A, et al. Analysis of immune activation and clinical events in acute infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:63-71 pubmed
    The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis (IM) are thought to be caused by T cell activation and cytokine production...
  66. Park J, Shin J, Lee J, Jang Y, Kim S, Lee K, et al. False positive immunoglobulin m antibody to cytomegalovirus in child with infectious mononucleosis caused by epstein-barr virus infection. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:713-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of seroconversion to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) Ig G positivity and reduced CMV Ig M titer with persistently negative CMV Ig G, a definite diagnosis of EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis was established 1 year 2 month later.