cytomegalovirus retinitis

Summary

Summary: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.

Top Publications

  1. Stewart M, Bolling J, Mendez J. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in an immunocompetent patient. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:572-4 pubmed
  2. Komanduri K, Feinberg J, Hutchins R, Frame R, Schmidt D, Viswanathan M, et al. Loss of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with high CD4+ T cell counts and recurrent retinitis. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1285-9 pubmed
  3. Wei L, Park S, Skiest D. Prevalence of visual symptoms among patients with newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis. Retina. 2002;22:278-82 pubmed
    ..05). Most HIV-infected patients with newly diagnosed CMV retinitis had visual symptoms at presentation regardless of the zone of retinal involvement. The incidence of visual symptoms correlated with the degree of retinal involvement. ..
  4. Holland G, Vaudaux J, Jeng S, Yu F, Goldenberg D, Folz I, et al. Characteristics of untreated AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis. I. Findings before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1988 to 1994). Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:5-11 pubmed
    ..In contrast to earlier concepts, CMV retinitis does not seem to be a fovea-sparing disease. Findings in this study can serve as a reference for investigations into possible changes in CMV retinitis since the introduction of HAART. ..
  5. Saidel M, Berreen J, Margolis T. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after intravitreous triamcinolone in an immunocompetent patient. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:1141-3 pubmed
    ..The retinitis once again responded to antiviral therapy. CMV retinitis can occur after local immunosuppression with IVTA. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication of IVTA. ..
  6. Dix R, Cousins S. Murine cytomegalovirus retinitis during MAIDS: Susceptibility correlates with elevated intraocular levels of interleukin-4 mRNA. Curr Eye Res. 2003;26:211-7 pubmed
    ..It is therefore possible that IL-4 synthesis by Th2 CD4+ T cells during retrovirus-induced immunosuppression serves to inhibit the perforin cytotoxic pathway that subsequently allows susceptibility to MCMV retinitis during MAIDS. ..
  7. Ausayakhun S, Watananikorn S, Ngamtiphakorn S, Prasitsilp J. Intravitreal foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88:103-7 pubmed
    ..Intravitreal foscarnet appeared to be a useful alternative treatment for patients intolerant or unaffordable to intravenous anti-CMV drugs, but the complications of this treatment should also be considered...
  8. Wiegand T, Young L. Cytomegalovirus retinitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2006;46:91-110 pubmed
  9. Hodge W, Boivin J, Shapiro S, Lalonde R, Shah K, Murphy B, et al. Laboratory-based risk factors for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:733-45 pubmed
    ..These findings may be useful to clinicians and health policy experts in developing rational guidelines for screening, examination frequency and targeted prophylaxis for patients with AIDS. ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Weinberg A, Jabs D, Chou S, Martin B, Lurain N, Forman M, et al. Mutations conferring foscarnet resistance in a cohort of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:777-84 pubmed
    ..016). The incidence of foscarnet resistance after 6, 9, and 12 months of therapy was 13%, 24%, and 37%, respectively...
  2. Eid A, Bakri S, Kijpittayarit S, Razonable R. Clinical features and outcomes of cytomegalovirus retinitis after transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10:13-8 pubmed
    ..The severity of clinical disease at the time of diagnosis may predict poor outcome. Hence, early intervention may be crucial to prevent its progression to irreversible visual loss...
  3. Kempen J, Min Y, Freeman W, Holland G, Friedberg D, Dieterich D, et al. Risk of immune recovery uveitis in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:684-94 pubmed
    ..Large CMV lesions and use of intravitreous cidofovir are risk factors for IRU. ..
  4. Chien H, Dix R. Evidence for multiple cell death pathways during development of experimental cytomegalovirus retinitis in mice with retrovirus-induced immunosuppression: apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. J Virol. 2012;86:10961-78 pubmed
    ..We conclude that apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis participate simultaneously during MAIDS-related MCMV retinitis, and all may play a role during AIDS-related HCMV retinitis. ..
  5. Skiest D, Chiller T, Chiller K, Park A, Keiser P. Protease inhibitor therapy is associated with markedly prolonged time to relapse and improved survival in AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12:659-64 pubmed
    Prior to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R) in AIDS patients was characterized by multiple relapses and decreased survival...
  6. Price P, Mathiot N, Krueger R, Stone S, Keane N, French M. Immune dysfunction and immune restoration disease in HIV patients given highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Virol. 2001;22:279-87 pubmed
    ..Further studies are important as dysregulated T-cell responses may cause disease later in the course of immune reconstitution. ..
  7. Hu J, Coassin M, Stewart J. Fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert) for chronic cystoid macular edema in two patients with AIDS and a history of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:206-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No CMV reactivation was detected during the several-month follow-up period. Retisert may be an effective treatment for CME in AIDS patients with IRU reactivation and a history of CMV retinitis. ..
  8. Ausayakhun S, Yuvaves P, Ngamtiphakom S, Prasitsilp J. Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients with intravitreal ganciclovir. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 9:S15-20 pubmed
  9. Baker M, Allen P, Shortt J, Lewin S, Spencer A. Immune recovery uveitis in an HIV-negative individual. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:189-90 pubmed
    ..disorder originally described in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis following highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  10. Arevalo J, Garcia R, Mendoza A. High-dose (5000-microg) intravitreal ganciclovir combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-infected patients in Venezuela. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:610-8 pubmed
    ..To describe the use of high doses of intravitreal ganciclovir combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients...
  11. Kempen J, Jabs D, Wilson L, Dunn J, West S, Tonascia J. Mortality risk for patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1365-73 pubmed
  12. Delyfer M, Rougier M, Hubschman J, Aouizérate F, Korobelnik J. Cytomegalovirus retinitis following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone: report of two cases. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85:681-3 pubmed
    ..Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis usually affects severely immunosuppressed individuals. However, some exceptional and isolated cases of CMV retinitis have been described in immunocompetent patients...
  13. Manosuthi W, Chaovavanich A, Tansuphaswadikul S, Prasithsirikul W, Inthong Y, Chottanapund S, et al. Incidence and risk factors of major opportunistic infections after initiation of antiretroviral therapy among advanced HIV-infected patients in a resource-limited setting. J Infect. 2007;55:464-9 pubmed
    ..To study incidence, risk factors, and impact of major opportunistic infections (OIs) after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  14. Miyamoto C, Yashiro S, Nagata Y, Nagataki S. [Ocular complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus seen at the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Center]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;105:483-7 pubmed
    ..To examine the ocular complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) in Japan...
  15. Velez G, Roy C, Whitcup S, Chan C, Robinson M. High-dose intravitreal ganciclovir and foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:396-7 pubmed
    To describe the chronic use of high doses of intravitreal ganciclovir, in combination with foscarnet, for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis.
  16. Jeon S, Lee W, Lee Y, Lee D, Lee J. Risk factors for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with cytomegalovirus viremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1892-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with CMV viremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
  17. Jabs D, Van Natta M, Thorne J, Weinberg D, Meredith T, Kuppermann B, et al. Course of cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: 2. Second eye involvement and retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:2232-9 pubmed
    ..To describe the course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  18. Segarra Newnham M, Salazar M. Valganciclovir: A new oral alternative for cytomegalovirus retinitis in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive individuals. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22:1124-8 pubmed
    ..Given the need for lifelong therapy for CMV retinitis in some human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, valganciclovir is a welcome alternative to long-term administration of intravenous antivirals...
  19. Tun N, London N, Kyaw M, Smithuis F, Ford N, MARGOLIS T, et al. CMV retinitis screening and treatment in a resource-poor setting: three-year experience from a primary care HIV/AIDS programme in Myanmar. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:41 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a neglected disease in resource-poor settings, in part because of the perceived complexity of care and because ophthalmologists are rarely accessible...
  20. Tugal Tutkun I, Kir N, Gul A, Konice M, Urgancioglu M. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis. Ophthalmologica. 2000;214:149-52 pubmed
    b>Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is a rare complication of systemic immunosuppressive therapy in patients with rheumatic disorders...
  21. Bertelmann E, Liekfeld A, Pleyer U, Hartmann C. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in Wegener's granulomatosis: case report and review of the literature. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005;83:258-61 pubmed
    ..To present the first case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in a Wegener's granulomatosis patient on systemic cyclosporine A (CsA) therapy...
  22. Deghaide N, Rodrigues M, Castelli E, Mendes Junior C, Figueiredo J, Donadi E. Tumor necrosis factor region polymorphisms are associated with AIDS and with cytomegalovirus retinitis. AIDS. 2009;23:1641-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Alp M, Baykam N, Kural G. Immune recovery uveitis associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in a patient with CMV retinitis and AIDS despite a low CD4+ T cell count: case report and a review of the literature. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of the literature led us to propose that our patient developed an intraocular inflammation which may probably be a form of IRU and it might be appropriate to employ additional criteria in the definition and the diagnosis of IRU...
  24. Yust I, Fox Z, Burke M, Johnson A, Turner D, Mocroft A, et al. Retinal and extraocular cytomegalovirus end-organ disease in HIV-infected patients in Europe: a EuroSIDA study, 1994-2001. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;23:550-9 pubmed
    ..It furthermore serves as a reminder of the importance of EOCMVD as a cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS in the pre-HAART era...
  25. Hubbard L, Ricks M, Martin B, Bressler N, Kempen J, Dunn J, et al. Comparability of two fundus photograph reading centers in grading cytomegalovirus retinitis progression. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:426-34 pubmed
    To compare grading of cytomegalovirus retinitis progression by two different fundus photograph reading centers (FPRCs).
  26. Jouan M, Saves M, Tubiana R, Carcelain G, Cassoux N, Aubron Olivier C, et al. Discontinuation of maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2001;15:23-31 pubmed
    ..To study the safety of discontinuing cytomegalovirus (CMV) maintenance therapy among patients with cured CMV retinitis receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  27. Kedhar S, Jabs D. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Herpes. 2007;14:66-71 pubmed
    ..Still, immune recovery does not guarantee protection from recurrent disease. CMV retinitis and uveitis associated with immune recovery remain causes of vision loss in this population and demand vigilance on the part of physicians...
  28. Thorne J, Jabs D, Kempen J, Holbrook J, Nichols C, Meinert C. Causes of visual acuity loss among patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1441-5 pubmed
    ..To quantitate the frequencies of the common causes of visual acuity loss for patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  29. Martidis A, Danis R, Ciulla T. Treating cytomegalovirus retinitis-related retinal detachment by combining silicone oil tamponade and ganciclovir implant. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2002;33:135-9 pubmed
  30. Schrier R, Song M, Smith I, Karavellas M, Bartsch D, Torriani F, et al. Intraocular viral and immune pathogenesis of immune recovery uveitis in patients with healed cytomegalovirus retinitis. Retina. 2006;26:165-9 pubmed
  31. Wohl D, Kendall M, Owens S, Holland G, Nokta M, Spector S, et al. The safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and incidence of immune recovery uveitis following potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2005;6:136-46 pubmed
  32. Sloan D, Taegtmeyer M, Pearce I, Hart I, Miller A, Beeching N. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in the absence of HIV or immunosuppression. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:813-5 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of CMV retinitis in an HIV-negative man with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL). This is the first such case to be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of aqueous humor...
  33. Brar M, Kozak I, Freeman W, Oster S, Mojana F, Yuson R. Vitreoretinal interface abnormalities in healed cytomegalovirus retinitis. Retina. 2010;30:1262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to use spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in imaging retina and vitreoretinal relationship in healed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis...
  34. Shi Y, Lu H, He T, Yang Y, Liu L, Zhang R, et al. Prevalence and clinical management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients in Shanghai, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:326 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a common AIDS-associated illness, leading to blindness in up to 30% of patients...
  35. Jabs D, Van Natta M, Thorne J, Weinberg D, Meredith T, Kuppermann B, et al. Course of cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: 1. Retinitis progression. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:2224-31 pubmed
    ..To describe the course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  36. Karavellas M, Azen S, Macdonald J, Shufelt C, Lowder C, Plummer D, et al. Immune recovery vitritis and uveitis in AIDS: clinical predictors, sequelae, and treatment outcomes. Retina. 2001;21:1-9 pubmed
  37. Martin D, Sierra Madero J, Walmsley S, Wolitz R, Macey K, Georgiou P, et al. A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1119-26 pubmed
    ..We compared the effects of oral valganciclovir with those of intravenous ganciclovir as induction therapy for newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis in 160 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  38. Kempen J, Martin B, Wu A, Barron B, Thorne J, Jabs D. The effect of cytomegalovirus retinitis on the quality of life of patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:987-95 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis on quality of life (QOL) in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  39. Pathanapitoon K, Ausayakhun S, Kunavisarut P, Wattananikorn S, Ausayakhun S, Leeungurastien T, et al. Blindness and low vision in a tertiary ophthalmologic center in Thailand: the importance of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Retina. 2007;27:635-40 pubmed
    ..To determine the causes of blindness and low vision in patients consulting a tertiary ophthalmologic center in northern Thailand...
  40. Walmsley S, Tseng A. Comparative tolerability of therapies for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Drug Saf. 1999;21:203-24 pubmed
    ..Determination of the patient predictors of success of this approach is an active area of research...
  41. Engstrom R, Goldenberg D, Parnell J, Barnhart L, Holland G. Clear lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation during retinal detachment repair in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) [correction of autoimmune deficiency syndrome] and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:666-73 pubmed
  42. Chua A, Wilson D, Ford N. HIV and cytomegalovirus in Thailand. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:328-9 pubmed
  43. Sobrin L, Foster C. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after one decade of HAART. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;47:155-64 pubmed
  44. Lalezari J, Lindley J, Walmsley S, Kuppermann B, Fisher M, Friedberg D, et al. A safety study of oral valganciclovir maintenance treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;30:392-400 pubmed
    ..Other than a higher than expected frequency of oral candidiasis (17%), no clinical toxicities or laboratory abnormalities occurred during treatment with valganciclovir that have not been observed during treatment with ganciclovir...
  45. Holbrook J, Jabs D, Weinberg D, Lewis R, Davis M, Friedberg D. Visual loss in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:99-107 pubmed
    ..To evaluate rates and causes of visual loss among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis before widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  46. Ufret Vincenty R, Singh R, Lowder C, Kaiser P. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after fluocinolone acetonide (Retisert) implant. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:334-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis after placement of a fluocinolone acetonide (Retisert) implant...
  47. Mudvari S, Virasch V, Singa R, MacCumber M. Ultra-wide-field imaging for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010;41:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the Optomap imaging system (Optos PLC, Dunfermline, Scotland) with conventional fundus photography in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis...
  48. Hoang Q, Simon D, Kumar G, Oh F, Goldstein D. Recurrent CMV retinitis in a non-HIV patient with drug-resistant CMV. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:737-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of recurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in an HIV-negative patient with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia...
  49. Kunou N, Ogura Y, Yasukawa T, Kimura H, Miyamoto H, Honda Y, et al. Long-term sustained release of ganciclovir from biodegradable scleral implant for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Control Release. 2000;68:263-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the blended implants are promising for the intraocular controlled drug delivery over a period of several months to one year to treat cytomegalovirus retinitis.
  50. Heiden D, Ford N, Wilson D, Rodriguez W, MARGOLIS T, Janssens B, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis: the neglected disease of the AIDS pandemic. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e334 pubmed
  51. Walmsley S, Raboud J, Angel J, Mazzulli T, Shen S, Casciaro L, et al. Long-term follow-up of a cohort of HIV-infected patients who discontinued maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. HIV Clin Trials. 2006;7:1-9 pubmed
    To determine the long-term safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) and to identify predictors for relapse.
  52. Shane T, Martin D. Endophthalmitis after ganciclovir implant in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:649-54 pubmed
    ..To describe the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of endophthalmitis in patients treated with a ganciclovir implant...
  53. Tanna A, Kempen J, Dunn J, Haller J, Jabs D. Incidence and management of cataract after retinal detachment repair with silicone oil in immune compromised patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:1009-15 pubmed
    ..To determine the incidence of and risk factors for cataract and to describe the visual outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with cytomegalovirus-related retinal detachments repaired with silicone oil...
  54. Sklar P, Agyemang A, Monastra R, Kress D, Metcalf J, Robinson M, et al. Five-year follow-up of a cohort of profoundly immunosuppressed patients discontinuing therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. AIDS. 2004;18:567-9 pubmed
    ..Fifteen patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) were followed after discontinuing anti-cytomegalovirus therapy...
  55. Holland G, Vaudaux J, Shiramizu K, Yu F, Goldenberg D, Gupta A, et al. Characteristics of untreated AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis. II. Findings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997 to 2000). Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:12-22 pubmed
  56. Cho W, Kim H, Moon J. Spontaneous resolution of intravitreal steroid-induced bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2012;26:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The retinal lesions progressively regressed and completely resolved in both eyes by six months of follow-up. Patients with IVTA-induced CMV retinitis may not require systemic treatment with ganciclovir...
  57. Vertes D, Snyers B, De Potter P. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after low-dose intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide in an immunocompetent patient: a warning for the widespread use of intravitreous corticosteroids. Int Ophthalmol. 2010;30:595-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CMV retinitis can occur after local immunosuppression with IVTA in an immunocompetent patient with no other systemic risk factors...
  58. Kempen J, Jabs D, Dunn J, West S, Tonascia J. Retinal detachment risk in cytomegalovirus retinitis related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:33-40 pubmed
  59. Ausayakhun S, Watananikorn S, Ittipunkul N, Chaidaroon W, Patikulsila P, Patikulsila D. Epidemiology of the ocular complications of HIV infection in Chiang Mai. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:399-406 pubmed
    ..To identify the magnitude of ocular complications in HIV infection in Chiang Mai, and determine the signs or symptoms that indicate the risk factors for developing ocular complications in HIV-positive patients..
  60. Martin D, Dunn J, Davis J, Duker J, Engstrom R, Friedberg D, et al. Use of the ganciclovir implant for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127:329-39 pubmed
    ..To describe the risks, benefits, and recommended use of the ganciclovir implant for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy...
  61. Bradfield Y, Kushner B, Gangnon R. Ocular complications after organ and bone marrow transplantation in children. J AAPOS. 2005;9:426-32 pubmed
    ..Organ and bone marrow transplantation commonly are performed in children. Ocular complications usually are described as secondary to post-transplantation medications. The complication rate is unknown...
  62. Jabs D, Ahuja A, Van Natta M, Lyon A, Srivastava S, Gangaputra S. Course of cytomegalovirus retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: five-year outcomes. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:2152-61.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the 5-year outcomes of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  63. Park Y, Byeon S. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after intravitreous triamcinolone injection in a patient with central retinal vein occlusion. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2008;22:143-4 pubmed publisher
    ..CMV retinitis is a rare complication of local immunosuppression with IVTA. It can be managed with timely injection of intravitreal gancyclovir until recovery from local immunosuppression...
  64. Kersten A, Althaus C, Best J, Sundmacher R. Cystoid macular edema following immune recovery and treatment with cidofovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999;237:893-6 pubmed
    ..Iritis and bulbar hypotony are known as the major complications after intravenous and intravitreal use of this antiviral drug. Cystoid macular edema (CME) after intravenous application of cidofovir has not been reported...
  65. Buggage R, Chan C, Matteson D, Reed G, Whitcup S. Apoptosis in cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with AIDS. Curr Eye Res. 2000;21:721-9 pubmed
    To determine the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  66. Jabs D, Van Natta M, Holbrook J, Kempen J, Meinert C, Davis M. Longitudinal study of the ocular complications of AIDS: 1. Ocular diagnoses at enrollment. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:780-6 pubmed
    ..To report the prevalence of ocular complications of AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  67. Hsieh S, Pan S, Hung C, Tsai H, Chen M, Chang S. Association between cytomegalovirus-specific reactivity of T cell subsets and development of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1386-91 pubmed
    ..Development of CMV-R after initiation of HAART is associated with a poor reconstitution of CMV-specific immune response, rather than with immune rebound...
  68. Haerter G, Manfras B, de Jong Hesse Y, Wilts H, Mertens T, Kern P, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:e88-94 pubmed
    ..Increased rates of upper respiratory tract infection, reactivation of latent tuberculosis, and other systemic infectious diseases have been reported among patients receiving anti-TNF- alpha antibodies...
  69. Iyer J, Connolly J, Agrawal R, Yeo T, Lee B, Au B, et al. Cytokine analysis of aqueous humor in HIV patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Cytokine. 2013;64:541-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is the most common opportunistic ocular infection in patients with AIDS. Comprehensive analysis of aqueous humor for immunologic factors has yet to be performed in patients with CMVR...
  70. Morrison V, Labree L, Azen S, Goldberg D, Freeman W. Results of silicone oil removal in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis related retinal detachments. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:786-793 pubmed
  71. Vogel J, Fleckenstein C, Wagner M, Gümbel H, Theegarten D, Cinatl J, et al. The human eye (retina): a site of persistent HCMV infection?. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;243:671-6 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable either that during the immunosuppression HCMV infection reactivates in various other organs viremically affecting the retina or that HCMV persisting in the retina may locally reactivate and result in HCMV retinitis...
  72. Robinson M, Reed G, Csaky K, Polis M, Whitcup S. Immune-recovery uveitis in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:49-56 pubmed
    To investigate the clinical features associated with immune recovery in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis who are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  73. Jaffar S, Ariyoshi K, Frith P, Okouchi Y, Sabally S, Ajewole T, et al. Retinal manifestations of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections among hospital patients in The Gambia, west Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4:487-92 pubmed
    ..We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine prevalence of these in The Gambia where both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection are present and the prevalence of HIV-1 is rising...