circoviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Schmoll F, Lang C, Steinrigl A, Schulze K, Kauffold J. Prevalence of PCV2 in Austrian and German boars and semen used for artificial insemination. Theriogenology. 2008;69:814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetically diverse PCV2 can be encountered in boar semen. Shedder boars cannot be detected on the basis of serology. There is an apparent possibility of PCV2 being transmitted through semen. ..
  2. Guo J, Tian J, Tan X, Yu H, Ding S, Sun H, et al. Pathological observations of an experimental infection of geese with goose circovirus. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ apoptosis detection of all BF samples indicated that GoCV inoculation was associated with an increase in bursal lymphocytic apoptotic events...
  3. Madson D, Patterson A, Ramamoorthy S, Pal N, Meng X, Opriessnig T. Reproductive failure experimentally induced in sows via artificial insemination with semen spiked with porcine circovirus type 2. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:707-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 4/25 mummified fetuses had PCV2 antigen associated with smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The results of this study indicate that intrauterine administration of PCV2 causes reproductive failure in naïve sows. ..
  4. Bhatt P, Shukla S, Mahendran M, Dhama K, Chawak M, Kataria J. Prevalence of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in commercial poultry flocks of northern India: a serological survey. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:458-60 pubmed publisher
  5. Opriessnig T, Gomes Neto J, Hemann M, Shen H, Beach N, Huang Y, et al. An experimental live chimeric porcine circovirus 1-2a vaccine decreases porcine circovirus 2b viremia when administered intramuscularly or orally in a porcine circovirus 2b and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus dual-challenge model. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:863-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Under the conditions of this study, the live attenuated PCV1-2a vaccine was safe and provided immune protection resulting in reduction of viremia. The IM route provided the most effective protection. ..
  6. Fort M, Sibila M, Allepuz A, Mateu E, Roerink F, Segales J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination of conventional pigs prevents viremia against PCV2 isolates of different genotypes and geographic origins. Vaccine. 2008;26:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the vaccine elicited PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies to PCV2 even in the presence of maternally derived immunity. ..
  7. Horlen K, Dritz S, Nietfeld J, Henry S, Hesse R, Oberst R, et al. A field evaluation of mortality rate and growth performance in pigs vaccinated against porcine circovirus type 2. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:906-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggested that vaccination against PCV2 was effective at reducing mortality rate and improving growth performance among pigs in a herd infected with PCV2. ..
  8. Wang F, Guo X, Ge X, Wang Z, Chen Y, Cha Z, et al. Genetic variation analysis of Chinese strains of porcine circovirus type 2. Virus Res. 2009;145:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also showed that PCV-2b became dominating in China in recent years. These data contribute to the understanding of PCV2 molecular epidemiology. ..
  9. Chaiyakul M, Hsu K, Dardari R, Marshall F, Czub M. Cytotoxicity of ORF3 proteins from a nonpathogenic and a pathogenic porcine circovirus. J Virol. 2010;84:11440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the pathogenicity of PCV2 for pigs is either not determined or not solely determined by the ORF3 protein...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Galindo Cardiel I, Grau Roma L, Pérez Maíllo M, Segales J. Characterization of necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with porcine circovirus type 2 infection. J Comp Pathol. 2011;144:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis was not found to be involved in lymphocyte depletion in PMWS or in PMWS-associated necrotizing lymphadenitis. ..
  2. Grau Roma L, Hjulsager C, Sibila M, Kristensen C, López Soria S, Enøe C, et al. Infection, excretion and seroconversion dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs from post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms in Spain and Denmark. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, qPCR appears to be a potential reliable technique to diagnose PMWS on a population basis. ..
  3. Patterson A, Johnson J, Ramamoorthy S, Meng X, Halbur P, Opriessnig T. Comparison of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2)-specific antibodies after vaccination or inoculation of pigs with distinct PCV-1 or PCV-2 isolates. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:744-51 pubmed
    ..One of the ELISAs was able to distinguish pigs vaccinated with vaccine B from pigs inoculated with either PCV-2a or PCV-2b. ..
  4. Wallgren P, Brunborg I, Blomqvist G, Bergström G, Wikström F, Allan G, et al. The index herd with PMWS in Sweden: presence of serum amyloid A, circovirus 2 viral load and antibody levels in healthy and PMWS-affected pigs. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a viral load above 107 PCV2 DNA copies per ml serum was also recorded in 18 out of 34 pigs without any clinical signs of PMWS, suggesting that these pigs were able to initiate a protective immune response to PCV2. ..
  5. Wan C, Huang Y, Cheng L, Fu G, Shi S, Chen H, et al. The development of a rapid SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR for detection of Duck circovirus. Virol J. 2011;8:465 pubmed publisher
    ..The SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR can therefore be practically used as an alternative diagnostic tool and a screening method for ducks infected with duck circovirus...
  6. Lefebvre D, Van Doorsselaere J, Delputte P, Nauwynck H. Recombination of two porcine circovirus type 2 strains. Arch Virol. 2009;154:875-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that PCV2 can undergo recombination. ..
  7. Opriessnig T, Shen H, Pal N, Ramamoorthy S, Huang Y, Lager K, et al. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is eff. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1261-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Taira O, Ogawa H, Nagao A, Tuchiya K, Nunoya T, Ueda S. Prevalence of swine Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2 in Japanese swine with suspected post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and porcine respiratory disease complex. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that swine TTV may be widespread in post-weaning pigs and could play aetiological roles in pig diseases in Japan. This is the first report on the prevalence of swine TTV in Japan. ..
  9. Shearer P, Sharp M, Bonne N, Clark P, Raidal S. A quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for beak and feather disease virus. J Virol Methods. 2009;159:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, the assay should prove to be a useful and sensitive test for the detection of viral DNA in a range of samples. ..
  10. Segales J, Urniza A, Alegre A, Bru T, Crisci E, Nofrarias M, et al. A genetically engineered chimeric vaccine against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) improves clinical, pathological and virological outcomes in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms. Vaccine. 2009;27:7313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Another novelty of this study is the assessment of PMWS-like histological lesions in a large number of vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs under field conditions. ..
  11. Schat K. Chicken anemia virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;331:151-83 pubmed
    ..Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response...
  12. Kundu S, Faulkes C, Greenwood A, Jones C, Kaiser P, Lyne O, et al. Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo parakeet. J Virol. 2012;86:5221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses...
  13. Martelli P, Ardigò P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, De Angelis E, Bonilauri P, et al. Concurrent vaccinations against PCV2 and PRRSV: study on the specific immunity and clinical protection in naturally infected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:558-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that concurrent PRRSV+PCV2 vaccination has no interference with the development of the specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity and it is associated with clinical protection upon natural challenge...
  14. Puvanendiran S, Stone S, Yu W, Johnson C, Abrahante J, Jimenez L, et al. Absence of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) and high prevalence of PCV 2 exposure and infection in swine finisher herds. Virus Res. 2011;157:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PCV1 was only rarely present. Exposure of swine, and therefore humans via pigs, to PCV1 is negligible. We conclude that PCV2 causes a persistent infection in pigs and that PCV1 is absent or rare in swine...
  15. Shen H, Beach N, Huang Y, Halbur P, Meng X, Opriessnig T. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV). Vaccine. 2010;28:5960-6 pubmed publisher
  16. Kixmöller M, Ritzmann M, Eddicks M, Saalmuller A, Elbers K, Fachinger V. Reduction of PMWS-associated clinical signs and co-infections by vaccination against PCV2. Vaccine. 2008;26:3443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that vaccination against PCV2 alone protects pigs from clinical signs and co-infections associated with PMWS...
  17. Wang D, Xie X, Zhang D, Ma G, Wang X, Zhang D. Detection of duck circovirus in China: A proposal on genotype classification. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also showed that genotypes 1 and 2 were co-circulating in China in recent years. The present work contributes to the understanding of DuCV molecular epidemiology...
  18. Chen H, Zhang J, Sun D, Chu Y, Cai X, Liu X, et al. Rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP assay reported can provide a rapid yet simple test of PCV2 suitable for laboratory diagnosis and pen-side detection due to ease of operation and the requirement of only a regular water bath or heat block for the reaction. ..
  19. Zhou S, Han S, Shi J, Wu J, Yuan X, Cong X, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of porcine circovirus type 2. Virol J. 2011;8:497 pubmed publisher
    ..LAMP is an useful rapid detection method with high sensitivity and specificity for PCV2. ..
  20. Trible B, Rowland R. Genetic variation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and its relevance to vaccination, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Virus Res. 2012;164:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, genetic variation in PCV2 and the resulting consequences with respect to vaccination and diagnostics are discussed. ..
  21. Madson D, Opriessnig T. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection on reproduction: disease, vertical transmission, diagnostics and vaccination. Anim Health Res Rev. 2011;12:47-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of boars with PCV2, the potential for PCV2 transmission via semen and prevention of PCV2 shedding are also discussed. ..
  22. Szeredi L, Dan A, Solymosi N, Cságola A, Tuboly T. Association of porcine circovirus type 2 with vascular lesions in porcine pneumonia. Vet Pathol. 2012;49:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PCV2 antigen was commonly colocalized with pulmonary vascular lesions in pneumonia in Hungarian swine, and PCV2b was the dominant subtype...
  23. Opriessnig T, Patterson A, Madson D, Pal N, Rothschild M, Kuhar D, et al. Difference in severity of porcine circovirus type two-induced pathological lesions between Landrace and Pietrain pigs. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:1582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study indicate that a genetic difference exists between these 2 breeds of pigs in susceptibility to PCV2-associated lesions. ..
  24. Sun S, Guo H, Sun D, Yin S, Shang Y, Cai X, et al. Development and validation of an ELISA using a protein encoded by ORF2 antigenic domain of porcine circovirus type 2. Virol J. 2010;7:274 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reported an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) by using an antigenic domain (113-147AA) of ORF2-encoded antigen, expressed in E. coli, for diagnosis of PCV infection...
  25. Opriessnig T, Patterson A, Madson D, Pal N, Ramamoorthy S, Meng X, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of passive (dam) versus active (piglet) immunization against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and impact of passively derived PCV2 vaccine-induced immunity on vaccination. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:177-83 pubmed publisher
  26. Li L, Kapoor A, Slikas B, Bamidele O, Wang C, Shaukat S, et al. Multiple diverse circoviruses infect farm animals and are commonly found in human and chimpanzee feces. J Virol. 2010;84:1674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes...
  27. Julian L, Piasecki T, Chrząstek K, Walters M, Muhire B, Harkins G, et al. Extensive recombination detected among beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1086-95 pubmed publisher
  28. Martelli P, Ferrari L, Morganti M, De Angelis E, Bonilauri P, Guazzetti S, et al. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 subunit vaccine induces humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects against porcine circovirus-associated disease under field conditions. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..5 kg). These effects were associated with virologic and clinical protection from the immunogenicity of the vaccine measured as activation of both a humoral and a cellular immune response...
  29. Gagnon C, Music N, Fontaine G, Tremblay D, Harel J. Emergence of a new type of porcine circovirus in swine (PCV): a type 1 and type 2 PCV recombinant. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the name proposed for this new PCV is PCV1/2a. The prevalence of PCV1/2a seems to be very low in Quebec, Canada (2.5% of PCV positive cases), and its origin is now in debate...
  30. Xujie L, Xiaobo W, Yi S, Jing F, Song G, Xiufan L. A candidate inactivated chimeric vaccine PCV1-2 constructed based on PCV1 and PCV2 isolates originating in China and its evaluation in conventional pigs in regard to protective efficacy against PCV2 infection. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:254-66 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results suggest that inactivated PCV1-2 is effective in inducing protective immunity against PCV2 infection...
  31. Ha Y, Chae C. Optimal probe size and fixation time for the detection of Porcine circovirus-2 DNA by in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:649-54 pubmed
    ..05). The data demonstrates that the optimal probe size and fixation time for detecting PCV-2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph nodes is 473 bp and 1-3 days, respectively...
  32. Kim D, Kim C, Han K, Seo H, Oh Y, Park C, et al. Comparative efficacy of commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines in pigs experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2. Vaccine. 2011;29:3206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..hyopneumoniae bacterins and PCV2 vaccines have the advantages of (i) improving daily weight gain (122.4%) and slaughter weight (120.5%), and (ii) reducing the incidence of clinical signs and lung and lymph node lesions...
  33. Fort M, Sibila M, Perez Martín E, Nofrarias M, Mateu E, Segales J. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) sub-unit vaccine administered to 3-week-old conventional piglets elicits cell-mediated immunity and significantly reduces PCV2 viremia in an experimental model. Vaccine. 2009;27:4031-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the immunity induced by one dose of the product was partly protective against PCV2 infection, since viremia, shedding and viral load in tissues were significantly reduced in vaccinated pigs compared to controls...
  34. Jacobsen B, Krueger L, Seeliger F, Bruegmann M, Segales J, Baumgaertner W. Retrospective study on the occurrence of porcine circovirus 2 infection and associated entities in Northern Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:27-33 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhang X, Jiang S, Wu J, Zhao Q, Sun Y, Kong Y, et al. An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China. Vet Microbiol. 2009;133:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province...
  36. Timmusk S, Wallgren P, Brunborg I, Wikström F, Allan G, Meehan B, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) pre- and post-epizootic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Virus Genes. 2008;36:509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further support the results obtained from earlier in vitro and in vivo experimental models and suggest the association of specific PCV2 genogroups with diseased and nondiseased pigs in the field...
  37. Beach N, Meng X. Efficacy and future prospects of commercially available and experimental vaccines against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Virus Res. 2012;164:33-42 pubmed publisher
  38. Oh Y, Seo H, Han K, Park C, Chae C. Protective effect of the maternally derived porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific cellular immune response in piglets by dam vaccination against PCV2 challenge. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternally derived adaptive cellular immune responses play a critical role in protecting newborn piglets challenged with PCV2 at 3 weeks of age...
  39. Li J, Yuan X, Zhang C, Miao L, Wu J, Shi J, et al. A mouse model to study infection against porcine circovirus type 2: viral distribution and lesions in mouse. Virol J. 2010;7:158 pubmed publisher
    ..Necropsy was checked on every mouse. Sera samples were collected for the test of PCV2 specific antibody. Tissues were collected for histopathology study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  40. Carman S, Cai H, DeLay J, Youssef S, McEwen B, Gagnon C, et al. The emergence of a new strain of porcine circovirus-2 in Ontario and Quebec swine and its association with severe porcine circovirus associated disease--2004-2006. Can J Vet Res. 2008;72:259-68 pubmed
    ..This enhanced virulence in pigs infected with PCV-2 RFLP type 321 strain may be related to the genetic differences in this new strain of PCV-2. This virus is now the dominant strain of PCV-2 virus found in Ontario and Quebec swine...
  41. Hansen M, Hjulsager C, Bille Hansen V, Haugegaard S, Dupont K, Høgedal P, et al. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:203-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2...
  42. Wiederkehr D, Sydler T, Buergi E, Haessig M, Zimmermann D, Pospischil A, et al. A new emerging genotype subgroup within PCV-2b dominates the PMWS epizooty in Switzerland. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, our data support PCV2 genome plasticity as a major contributing factor for PMWS disease manifestation...
  43. Daum I, Finsterbusch T, Härtle S, Göbel T, Mankertz A, Korbel R, et al. Cloning and expression of a truncated pigeon circovirus capsid protein suitable for antibody detection in infected pigeons. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained demonstrate that the rCapPiCV-based indirect ELISA is able to detect PiCV-specific antibodies in pigeon sera and may be a useful tool for PiCV serodiagnosis...
  44. Varsani A, Regnard G, Bragg R, Hitzeroth I, Rybicki E. Global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:752-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our results for the taxonomy and classification of circoviruses are discussed...
  45. Tomas A, Fernandes L, Valero O, Segales J. A meta-analysis on experimental infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:260-73 pubmed publisher
  46. Xu X, Zhao H, Zhang Q, Ding L, Li Z, Li W, et al. Oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing Cap protein of PCV2 and its immunogenicity in mouse and swine models. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that attenuated S. typhimurium X4550/pYA3341-Cap can be a potential vaccine against PCV2 infections...
  47. Juhan N, LeRoith T, Opriessnig T, Meng X. The open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is dispensable for virus infection but evidence of reduced pathogenicity is limited in pigs infected by an ORF3-null PCV2 mutant. Virus Res. 2010;147:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the data from this study do not fully support the conclusion of a previous report regarding PCV2 attenuation by abrogation of ORF3 although the results did show that ORF3 is dispensable for PCV2 replication in pigs...
  48. Moeini H, Omar A, Rahim R, Yusoff K. Development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus by using a bicistronic vector expressing VP1 and VP2 proteins of CAV. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the recombinant DNA plasmid co-expressing VP1 and VP2 can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against CAV...
  49. Gillespie J, Opriessnig T, Meng X, Pelzer K, Buechner Maxwell V. Porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine circovirus-associated disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23:1151-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper provides an overview of current knowledge relating to PCV2 and PCVAD with an emphasis on information relevant to the swine veterinarian...
  50. Kekarainen T, Montoya M, Dominguez J, Mateu E, Segales J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viral components immunomodulate recall antigen responses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;124:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the final immune response upon PCV2 infection seems to depend on the fine balance between the regulatory elements present in viral DNA and structural protein within the host immune system...
  51. Kim H, Kwon Y, Bae Y, Oem J, Lee O. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms...
  52. Steiner E, Balmelli C, Gerber H, Summerfield A, McCullough K. Cellular adaptive immune response against porcine circovirus type 2 in subclinically infected pigs. BMC Vet Res. 2009;5:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the T and B cell responses following PCV2 infection in 3-week old SPF piglets infected with PCV2 or PCV2 plus porcine parvovirus (PPV) were studied...
  53. Dos Santos H, Knak M, de Castro F, Slongo J, Ritterbusch G, Klein T, et al. Variants of the recently discovered avian gyrovirus 2 are detected in Southern Brazil and The Netherlands. Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, circulating viruses display genetic variants whose significance should be further examined, particularly to determine whether AGV2 would play any role in chicken diseases...
  54. Pal N, Huang Y, Madson D, Kuster C, Meng X, Halbur P, et al. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 and an internal control on porcine semen samples. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The duplex qPCR assay was found to be a valuable tool for accurate and quantitative detection of PCV2 DNA in boar semen...
  55. Rose N, Eveno E, Grasland B, Nignol A, Oger A, Jestin A, et al. Individual risk factors for Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in pigs: a hierarchical Bayesian survival analysis. Prev Vet Med. 2009;90:168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The logistic-survival model showed that the majority of the risk factors were mostly related to the odds of PMWS whereas the PCV-2 passive immunity derived from the dam also tended to postpone PMWS appearance later...
  56. Opriessnig T, Patterson A, Madson D, Pal N, Halbur P. Comparison of efficacy of commercial one dose and two dose PCV2 vaccines using a mixed PRRSV-PCV2-SIV clinical infection model 2-3-months post vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:1002-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Viremia was reduced by 78.5% in pigs vaccinated with one dose and by 97.1% in pigs vaccinated with two dose products and overall microscopic lymphoid lesions were reduced by 78.7% and 81.8%, respectively...
  57. Li L, McGraw S, Zhu K, Leutenegger C, Marks S, Kubiski S, et al. Circovirus in tissues of dogs with vasculitis and hemorrhage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs...
  58. Opriessnig T, Madson D, Prickett J, Kuhar D, Lunney J, Elsener J, et al. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and PCV2 coinfection. Vet Microbiol. 2008;131:103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences between intradermal and intramuscular routes of vaccine administration were not observed...
  59. Ducatez M, Chen H, Guan Y, Muller C. Molecular epidemiology of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in southeastern Chinese live birds markets. Avian Dis. 2008;52:68-73 pubmed
    ..A high proportion (87%) of birds was CAV positive, suggesting that many farms in the region were infected. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the economic losses caused by CAV and the cost-benefit of vaccination...
  60. Langohr I, Stevenson G, Nelson E, Lenz S, HogenEsch H, Wei H, et al. Vascular lesions in pigs experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 serogroup B. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:140-7 pubmed publisher
  61. Ramamoorthy S, Meng X. Porcine circoviruses: a minuscule yet mammoth paradox. Anim Health Res Rev. 2009;10:1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..While knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of PCV2 has progressed considerably over the last 12 years since the disease was recognized, many questions still remain to be answered...
  62. Saha D, Lefebvre D, Van Doorsselaere J, Atanasova K, Barbe F, Geldhof M, et al. Pathologic and virologic findings in mid-gestational porcine foetuses after experimental inoculation with PCV2a or PCV2b. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows that PCV2a and PCV2b induce similar gross pathological lesions and replicate to similar high titres in organs of 55-day-old immuno-incompetent porcine foetuses...
  63. Zhai S, Chen S, Wei Z, Zhang J, Huang L, Lin T, et al. Co-existence of multiple strains of porcine circovirus type 2 in the same pig from China. Virol J. 2011;8:517 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report confirming the co-existence of different PCV2 strains in Chinese swine herds. Meanwhile, this study could help us to understand new infection and prevalence forms of PCV2 clinically...
  64. Opriessnig T, Halbur P. Concurrent infections are important for expression of porcine circovirus associated disease. Virus Res. 2012;164:20-32 pubmed publisher
  65. Allan G, Krakowka S, Ellis J, Charreyre C. Discovery and evolving history of two genetically related but phenotypically different viruses, porcine circoviruses 1 and 2. Virus Res. 2012;164:4-9 pubmed publisher
  66. Patterson A, Madson D, Opriessnig T. Efficacy of experimentally produced spray-dried plasma on infectivity of porcine circovirus type 2. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:4078-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that SDP sourced from pigs could represent a biosecurity risk for the industry...
  67. Li L, Shan T, Soji O, Alam M, Kunz T, Zaidi S, et al. Possible cross-species transmission of circoviruses and cycloviruses among farm animals. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:768-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will be required to determine the impact of these highly prevalent infections on the health of farm animals...
  68. Haridy M, Goryo M, Sasaki J, Okada K. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of chickens with co-infection of Marek's disease virus and chicken anaemia virus. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:469-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be concluded that CAV was responsible for bone marrow hypoplasia, severe anaemia and hindrance of lymphoid organ regeneration in MDV-CAV co-infection...
  69. Fraile L, Grau Roma L, Sarasola P, Sinovas N, Nofrarias M, López Jimenez R, et al. Inactivated PCV2 one shot vaccine applied in 3-week-old piglets: improvement of production parameters and interaction with maternally derived immunity. Vaccine. 2012;30:1986-92 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, it was shown that maternally derived antibodies interfered with the development of an active humoral immune response after PCV2 vaccination...
  70. Fachinger V, Bischoff R, Jedidia S, Saalmuller A, Elbers K. The effect of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 in pigs suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex. Vaccine. 2008;26:1488-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that vaccination against PCV2 alone can significantly improve the overall growth performance of pigs in a multi-factorial, late occurring disease complex such as PRDC...
  71. Fraile L, Sibila M, Nofrarias M, López Jimenez R, Huerta E, Llorens A, et al. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters. Vet Microbiol. 2012;161:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group...
  72. Ge M, Luo W, Jiang D, Li R, Zhao W, Chen G, et al. Development and application of a double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to porcine circovirus 2. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1480-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This double-antigen sandwich ELISA should be a useful tool to aid swine industry professionals in deciding the intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated diseases...
  73. Brunborg I, Fossum C, Lium B, Blomqvist G, Merlot E, Jørgensen A, et al. Dynamics of serum antibodies to and load of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs in three finishing herds, affected or not by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study focused on PCV2 load and antibody dynamics in finishing herds with different PMWS status...
  74. Rodríguez Cariño C, Sánchez Chardi A, Segales J. Subcellular immunolocalization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in lymph nodes from pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). J Comp Pathol. 2010;142:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings further support the hypothesis that virus replicates within the histiocytes of lymph nodes...
  75. An D, Song D, Park J, Park B. A DNA miniarray system for simultaneous visual detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) and 2 (PCV2) in pigs. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This system represents an effective alternative method for the differential detection of PCV1 and PCV2 in pigs, as well as the maintenance of PCV-free cell lines and pre-screening of commercial vaccines for possible contamination...
  76. Fort M, Fernandes L, Nofrarias M, Diaz I, Sibila M, Pujols J, et al. Development of cell-mediated immunity to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;129:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the present work suggest that viral clearance might be mediated by the development of PCV2-IFN-gamma-SC in contribution to the PCV2-specific NA...
  77. Gagnon C, del Castillo J, Music N, Fontaine G, Harel J, Tremblay D. Development and use of a multiplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and differentiation of Porcine circovirus-2 genotypes 2a and 2b in an epidemiological survey. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:545-58 pubmed
  78. Shang S, Jin Y, Jiang X, Zhou J, Zhang X, Xing G, et al. Fine mapping of antigenic epitopes on capsid proteins of porcine circovirus, and antigenic phenotype of porcine circovirus type 2. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study first demonstrated the different antigenic phenotype between PCV2 isolates...
  79. Rijsewijk F, Dos Santos H, Teixeira T, Cibulski S, Varela A, Dezen D, et al. Discovery of a genome of a distant relative of chicken anemia virus reveals a new member of the genus Gyrovirus. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1097-100 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, and 32.2%, respectively. Based on these limited similarities, it is proposed that the newly identified virus is a member of a new species in the genus Gyrovirus. For this new species, the name Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) is proposed...
  80. Shearer P, Sharp M, Bonne N, Clark P, Raidal S. A blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies to psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). J Virol Methods. 2009;158:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The bELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide application for the sero-diagnosis of BFDV...
  81. Pujols J, López Soria S, Segales J, Fort M, Sibila M, Rosell R, et al. Lack of transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 to weanling pigs by feeding them spray-dried porcine plasma. Vet Rec. 2008;163:536-8 pubmed
    ..The two groups were housed in separate biosecurity level-3 rooms. None of the pigs in either group developed any clinical signs or became pcv-2 viraemic or seroconverted...
  82. Kapoor A, Dubovi E, Henriquez Rivera J, Lipkin W. Complete genome sequence of the first canine circovirus. J Virol. 2012;86:7018 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the complete genome sequence of the CaCV-1 strain NY214, which will help toward understanding the evolutionary and pathogenic characteristics of mammalian circoviruses...
  83. Madson D, Ramamoorthy S, Kuster C, Pal N, Meng X, Halbur P, et al. Characterization of shedding patterns of Porcine circovirus types 2a and 2b in experimentally inoculated mature boars. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:725-34 pubmed
    ..Differences in shedding patterns between PCV-2a and -2b were not observed under the study conditions...
  84. Duchatel J, Todd D, Willeman C, Losson B. Quantification of pigeon circovirus in serum, blood, semen and different tissues of naturally infected pigeons using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0 x 10(7) copies/ejaculate) and cloacal swabs (up to 3.6 x 10(10) copies/swab), confirming that PiCV may be transmitted by vertical and horizontal routes...
  85. Bonne N, Shearer P, Sharp M, Clark P, Raidal S. Assessment of recombinant beak and feather disease virus capsid protein as a vaccine for psittacine beak and feather disease. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:640-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They were BFDV PCR-positive for up to 41 days post-challenge and qPCR demonstrated reduced virus replication in vaccinated birds compared with non-vaccinated control birds...