adenoviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Ablack J, Pelka P, Yousef A, Turnell A, Grand R, Mymryk J. Comparison of E1A CR3-dependent transcriptional activation across six different human adenovirus subgroups. J Virol. 2010;84:12771-81 pubmed publisher
  2. Wevers D, Leendertz F, Scuda N, Boesch C, Robbins M, Head J, et al. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Virol J. 2010;7:303 pubmed publisher
    ..The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses...
  3. Jeulin H, Salmon A, Bordigoni P, Venard V. Comparison of in-house real-time quantitative PCR to the Adenovirus R-Gene kit for determination of adenovirus load in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3132-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Roy S, Calcedo R, Medina Jaszek A, Keough M, Peng H, Wilson J. Adenoviruses in lymphocytes of the human gastro-intestinal tract. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24859 pubmed publisher
    ..Persistent adenoviral shedding in stools is known to occur past convalescence following acute adenoviral infections. We wished to establish the frequency with which adenoviruses may colonize the gut in normal human subjects...
  5. Guo L, Gonzalez R, Zhou H, Wu C, Vernet G, Wang Z, et al. Detection of three human adenovirus species in adults with acute respiratory infection in China. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1051-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rhinovirus was the most commonly found virus in patients with HAdV infection. These findings provide baseline data for the surveillance and control of HAdV infection in China...
  6. Griffin B, Nagy E. Coding potential and transcript analysis of fowl adenovirus 4: insight into upstream ORFs as common sequence features in adenoviral transcripts. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1260-72 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Xu S, Yu P, Tian X, Wang L, et al. Outbreak of acute respiratory disease in China caused by B2 species of adenovirus type 11. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:697-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the need to establish and improve both epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized...
  8. Tong S, Singh J, Ruone S, Humphrey C, Yip C, Lau S, et al. Identification of adenoviruses in fecal specimens from wild chimpanzees (Pan trogylodytes schweinfurthii) in western Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:967-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The species C adenovirus sequences suggest possible recombination with a human adenovirus. The source of these viruses and disease association is not known...
  9. Ersching J, Hernandez M, Cezarotto F, Ferreira J, Martins A, Switzer W, et al. Neutralizing antibodies to human and simian adenoviruses in humans and New-World monkeys. Virology. 2010;407:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, sera from some New-World monkey species were able to neutralize AdC6 and/or AdC68. A possible explanation for these findings and the implications for the development of Ad-vector vaccines are discussed in detail...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Chen S, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, Luo Q, Liu F, et al. Detection and localization of a goose adenovirus in experimentally infected goslings, using indirect immunofluorescence with paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of positive cells and intensity of fluorescence increased until 15 days p.i. Ultrastructural observation showed that NGVEV particles could be seen from 3 days p.i. onwards...
  2. Zhang Y, Huang W, Ornelles D, Gooding L. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines. J Virol. 2010;84:8799-810 pubmed publisher
  3. Curlin M, Cassis Ghavami F, Magaret A, Spies G, Duerr A, Celum C, et al. Serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 is not associated with risk of HIV infection: a case-control study. AIDS. 2011;25:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between adenovirus serostatus and the rate of incident HIV infection in populations at elevated risk of HIV acquisition...
  4. Watcharananan S, Kiertiburanakul S, Piyatuctsanawong W, Anurathapan U, Sungkanuparph S, Pakakasama S, et al. Cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and polyomavirus co-infection among pediatric recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation: characteristics and outcome. Pediatr Transplant. 2010;14:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood monitoring of CMV, ADV, and BKV is suggested among pediatric patients who develop GvHD or who have rising of CMV or ADV viremia following allo-HSCT...
  5. Chen S, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, Luo Q, Liu F, et al. Immunohistochemical detection and localization of new type gosling viral enteritis virus in paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;130:226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This work may be useful not only for offering a possibility of routine diagnosis of NGVE, but also for better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease...
  6. Levent F, Greer J, Snider M, Demmler Harrison G. Performance of a new immunochromatographic assay for detection of adenoviruses in children. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:173-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenoviruses are a prominent cause of respiratory, ocular, gastrointestinal, and disseminated diseases in healthy and immunocompromised children. An accurate rapid diagnostic assay may impact clinical decision-making...
  7. Banyai K, Esona M, Liu A, Wang Y, Tu X, Jiang B. Molecular detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens of captive monkeys with diarrhea in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:416-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the epidemiology of SAdVs and their potential role in gastroenteritis is critical to the implementation of advanced prevention strategies against AdV infection in captive primates...
  8. Smith J, Silvestry M, Lindert S, Lu W, Nemerow G, Stewart P. Insight into the mechanisms of adenovirus capsid disassembly from studies of defensin neutralization. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000959 pubmed publisher
  9. Strunze S, Engelke M, Wang I, Puntener D, Boucke K, Schleich S, et al. Kinesin-1-mediated capsid disassembly and disruption of the nuclear pore complex promote virus infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, kinesin-1 uncoats viral DNA and compromises NPC integrity, allowing viral genomes nuclear access to promote infection...
  10. George D, El Mallawany N, Jin Z, Geyer M, Della Latta P, Satwani P, et al. Adenovirus infection in paediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients is a major independent factor for significantly increasing the risk of treatment related mortality. Br J Haematol. 2012;156:99-108 pubmed publisher
  11. Schonewille E, Jaspers R, Paul G, Hess M. Specific-pathogen-free chickens vaccinated with a live FAdV-4 vaccine are fully protected against a severe challenge even in the absence of neutralizing antibodies. Avian Dis. 2010;54:905-10 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the present investigation underlines that neutralizing antibodies are not needed to protect chickens against a severe infection with a virulent fowl adenovirus...
  12. Arnberg N. Adenovirus receptors: implications for tropism, treatment and targeting. Rev Med Virol. 2009;19:165-78 pubmed publisher
  13. Roy S, Sandhu A, Medina A, Clawson D, Wilson J. Adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs...
  14. Nguyen Y, Procario M, Ashley S, O Neal W, Pickles R, Weinberg J. Limited effects of Muc1 deficiency on mouse adenovirus type 1 respiratory infection. Virus Res. 2011;160:351-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data therefore suggest that Muc1 may contribute to a physical barrier that protects against MAV-1 respiratory infection. However, our data do not reveal an anti-inflammatory effect of Muc1 that contributes to MAV-1 pathogenesis...
  15. Sun C, Zhang Y, Feng L, Pan W, Zhang M, Hong Z, et al. Epidemiology of adenovirus type 5 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people and AIDS patients in Guangzhou, southern China. Vaccine. 2011;29:3837-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our survey provides useful insights for the future development of Ad5-based vaccination and gene therapy...
  16. Vasconcelos G, Kang M, Pombo De Oliveira M, Schiffman J, Lorey F, Buffler P, et al. Adenovirus detection in Guthrie cards from paediatric leukaemia cases and controls. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to a previous report, AdV DNA was not detected at a higher frequency among neonates who later developed leukaemia, when compared with controls...
  17. Haisma H, Boesjes M, Beerens A, van der Strate B, Curiel D, Plüddemann A, et al. Scavenger receptor A: a new route for adenovirus 5. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of adenoviral SR-A uptake can be utilized in gene therapy applications to increase its efficiency and efficacy...
  18. Grgić H, Sharif S, Haghighi H, Nagy E. Cytokine patterns associated with a serotype 8 fowl adenovirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2013;26:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that these four cytokines might play an important role in driving the immune responses following FAdV-8 infection...
  19. Al Qurashi Y, Alkhalaf M, Lim L, Guiver M, Cooper R. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hexon, fiber, and penton regions of adenoviruses isolated from AIDS patients. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Six isolates appear to be from three new adenovirus types. Five AIDS patients showed sequential infection with different adenovirus variants and six such variants were isolated from a single patient in 2 years...
  20. Lynch J, Fishbein M, Echavarria M. Adenovirus. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;32:494-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines have been shown to be highly efficacious in reducing the risk of respiratory AdV infection but are currently not available...
  21. Lacher M, Shiina M, Chang P, Keller D, Tiirikainen M, Korn W. ZEB1 limits adenoviral infectability by transcriptionally repressing the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:91 pubmed publisher
    ..While EMT is crucial in embryonic development, it has been proposed to contribute to the formation of invasive and metastatic carcinomas by reducing cell-cell contacts and increasing cell migration...
  22. Lukens J, Dolina J, Kim T, Tacke R, Hahn Y. Liver is able to activate naïve CD8+ T cells with dysfunctional anti-viral activity in the murine system. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7619 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also implicate that manipulation of antigen delivery will facilitate the design of improved vaccination strategies to persistent viral infection...
  23. Silvestry M, Lindert S, Smith J, Maier O, Wiethoff C, Nemerow G, et al. Cryo-electron microscopy structure of adenovirus type 2 temperature-sensitive mutant 1 reveals insight into the cell entry defect. J Virol. 2009;83:7375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our structural analyses suggest that these connections to the core inhibit the release of the vertex proteins and lead to the cell entry defect of Ad2ts1...
  24. Belsy A, Odalys V, Alexander P, Clara S, Angel G, Grehete G, et al. Molecular characterization of adenoviral infections in Cuba: report of an unusual association of species D adenoviruses with different clinical syndromes. Arch Virol. 2009;154:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation could be evaluated as a possible indicator of the emergence of a novel strain but further studies are required...
  25. Nguyen E, Nemerow G, Smith J. Direct evidence from single-cell analysis that human {alpha}-defensins block adenovirus uncoating to neutralize infection. J Virol. 2010;84:4041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this assay, we now provide direct evidence that human alpha-defensins block adenovirus infection by preventing uncoating during cell entry...
  26. Mansoor M, Hussain I, Arshad M, Muhammad G. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens...
  27. Anderson B, Barr K, Heil G, Friary J, Gray G. A comparison of viral fitness and virulence between emergent adenovirus 14p1 and prototype adenovirus 14p strains. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent molecular analysis identified very minor genetic differences in HAdV-14p1 compared to prototype HAdV-14p. No studies have evaluated how these differences may affect virulence...
  28. Calcedo R, Vandenberghe L, Roy S, Somanathan S, Wang L, Wilson J. Host immune responses to chronic adenovirus infections in human and nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2009;83:2623-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of adenovirus persistence and immune responses should be considered when using adenoviral vectors in gene therapy and genetic vaccines...
  29. Roy S, Vandenberghe L, Kryazhimskiy S, Grant R, Calcedo R, Yuan X, et al. Isolation and characterization of adenoviruses persistently shed from the gastrointestinal tract of non-human primates. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000503 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the presence of persistent and/or latent adenovirus infections in the gut should be considered in the design and interpretation of human and non-human primate studies with adenovirus vectors...
  30. Bremner K, Scherer J, Yi J, Vershinin M, Gross S, Vallee R. Adenovirus transport via direct interaction of cytoplasmic dynein with the viral capsid hexon subunit. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify hexon as a direct receptor for cytoplasmic dynein and demonstrate that hexon recruits dynein for transport to the nucleus by a mechanism distinct from that for physiological dynein cargo...
  31. Chintakuntlawar A, Chodosh J. Chemokine CXCL1/KC and its receptor CXCR2 are responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis in adenoviral keratitis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both CXCL1 and CXCR2 play an important role in chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration following adenoviral corneal infection, but have a redundant role in the development of keratitis...
  32. Cheng C, Gall J, Nason M, King C, Koup R, Roederer M, et al. Differential specificity and immunogenicity of adenovirus type 5 neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection or immunization. J Virol. 2010;84:630-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for future AIDS vaccine trials and the design of next-generation gene-based vaccine vectors...
  33. Grgić H, Yang D, Nagy E. Pathogenicity and complete genome sequence of a fowl adenovirus serotype 8 isolate. Virus Res. 2011;156:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest virus titers in the feces for orally and intramuscularly inoculated chickens were recorded at days 10 and 3 post-infection, respectively...
  34. Rebetz J, Na M, Su C, Holmqvist B, Edqvist A, Nyberg C, et al. Fiber mediated receptor masking in non-infected bystander cells restricts adenovirus cell killing effect but promotes adenovirus host co-existence. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8484 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also give important clues for understanding mechanisms underlying the natural infection course of various adenoviruses...
  35. Wevers D, Metzger S, Babweteera F, Bieberbach M, Boesch C, Cameron K, et al. Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: a high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. J Virol. 2011;85:10774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Most notably, six chimpanzee AdVs of species HAdV-A to HAdV-F revealed a remarkably close relationship to human AdVs, possibly indicating recent interspecies transmission events...
  36. Kaneko H, Aoki K, Ohno S, Ishiko H, Fujimoto T, Kikuchi M, et al. Complete genome analysis of a novel intertypic recombinant human adenovirus causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this virus is a novel intertypic recombinant, HAdV-15/29/H9, and may be an etiological agent of EKC...
  37. Chen E, Yagi S, Kelly K, Mendoza S, Tarara R, Canfield D, et al. Cross-species transmission of a novel adenovirus associated with a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a new world monkey colony. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002155 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of TMAdV, a novel adenovirus with the capacity to infect both monkeys and humans, suggests that adenoviruses should be monitored closely as potential causes of cross-species outbreaks...
  38. Excoffon K, Gansemer N, Mobily M, Karp P, Parekh K, Zabner J. Isoform-specific regulation and localization of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor in human airway epithelia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9909 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, apical localization of CAR(Ex8) may be responsible for initiation of respiratory adenoviral infections and this localization appears to be regulated by interactions with PDZ-domain containing proteins...
  39. Zandvliet M, Falkenburg J, Van Liempt E, Veltrop Duits L, Lankester A, Kalpoe J, et al. Combined CD8+ and CD4+ adenovirus hexon-specific T cells associated with viral clearance after stem cell transplantation as treatment for adenovirus infection. Haematologica. 2010;95:1943-51 pubmed publisher
  40. Chintakuntlawar A, Zhou X, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Viral capsid is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern in adenovirus keratitis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000841 pubmed publisher
  41. Nilsson E, Storm R, Bauer J, Johansson S, Lookene A, Angstrom J, et al. The GD1a glycan is a cellular receptor for adenoviruses causing epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Nat Med. 2011;17:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows that the knob-GD1a glycan interaction has high affinity. Our findings therefore form a basis for the design and development of sialic acid-containing antiviral drugs for topical treatment of EKC...
  42. Krishnapuram R, Dhurandhar E, Dubuisson O, Kirk Ballard H, Bajpeyi S, Butte N, et al. Template to improve glycemic control without reducing adiposity or dietary fat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This metabolic engineering by Ad36 appears relevant to humans for developing more practical and effective antidiabetic approaches...
  43. Gur S, Acar A. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2009;80:84-6 pubmed
    ..Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3%) were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2%) were found to be positive for CAV serum antibodies...
  44. Guérin El Khourouj V, Dalle J, Pedron B, Yakouben K, Bensoussan D, Cordeiro D, et al. Quantitative and qualitative CD4 T cell immune responses related to adenovirus DNAemia in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17:476-85 pubmed publisher
  45. Sambursky R, Fram N, Cohen E. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Wills Eye Hospital Emergency Room. Optometry. 2007;78:236-9 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was found by PCR to represent 62% of all patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from July 2003 to October 2003. ..
  46. Grgić H, Philippe C, Ojkic D, Nagy E. Study of vertical transmission of fowl adenoviruses. Can J Vet Res. 2006;70:230-3 pubmed
    ..No fowl adenoviruses were isolated in chicken hepatoma cells from any of the 30 samples inoculated. These findings imply that vertical transmission and establishment of latent infection with FAdVs can occur in chickens...
  47. Giaginis C, Zarros A, Papaefthymiou M, Papadopouli A, Sfiniadakis I, Theocharis S. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression in human endometrial adenocarcinoma: possible clinical implications. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:59 pubmed publisher
    ..As CAR appears to modulate the proliferation and characteristics of cancer cells, its expression could be considered of possible clinical importance for future (gene) therapy applications...
  48. Moyo S, Gro N, Kirsti V, Matee M, Kitundu J, Maselle S, et al. Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:359 pubmed
    ..Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania. ..
  49. Wu E, Trauger S, Pache L, Mullen T, von Seggern D, Siuzdak G, et al. Membrane cofactor protein is a receptor for adenoviruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. J Virol. 2004;78:3897-905 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that CD46 serves as an attachment receptor for Ad37 and shed further light on the cell entry pathway of subgroup D Ads...
  50. Engelmann I, Madisch I, Pommer H, Heim A. An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by a new intermediate adenovirus 22/H8 identified by molecular typing. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:e64-6 pubmed
    ..Sequence-based typing of 2 isolates revealed type 22/H8. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a keratoconjunctivitis outbreak caused by an intermediate adenovirus type 22/H8. ..
  51. Ariga T, Shimada Y, Ohgami K, Tagawa Y, Ishiko H, Aoki K, et al. New genome type of adenovirus serotype 4 caused nosocomial infections associated with epidemic conjunctivitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3644-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the nosocomial infection that appeared in 2001 was caused by a new genome type of AdV-4, which was designated AdV-4c...
  52. Excoffon K, Traver G, Zabner J. The role of the extracellular domain in the biology of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;32:498-503 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the D2 domain was required for adenovirus fiber-knob binding and infection. In summary, the entire extracellular domain of CAR is of vital importance to the biology of this highly conserved and important protein...
  53. Kampmann B, Cubitt D, Walls T, Naik P, Depala M, Samarasinghe S, et al. Improved outcome for children with disseminated adenoviral infection following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:595-603 pubmed
    ..Mortality from disseminated AdV infection was 5/26 (19%) in this study, which is significantly lower than previously reported...
  54. Weitzman M, Ornelles D. Inactivating intracellular antiviral responses during adenovirus infection. Oncogene. 2005;24:7686-96 pubmed
  55. Iacobelli Martinez M, Nemerow G. Preferential activation of Toll-like receptor nine by CD46-utilizing adenoviruses. J Virol. 2007;81:1305-12 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a novel mode of host immune recognition of Ad with implications for Ad pathogenesis and for the use of unconventional Ad vectors for gene delivery and vaccine development...
  56. Takayama R, Hatakeyama N, Suzuki N, Yamamoto M, Hayashi T, Ikeda Y, et al. Quantification of adenovirus species B and C viremia by real-time PCR in adults and children undergoing stem cell transplantation. J Med Virol. 2007;79:278-84 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that stem cell transplantation was frequently associated with adenovirus species B or C viremia, although it did not always cause serious infectious complications...
  57. Kajon A, Moseley J, Metzgar D, Huong H, Wadleigh A, Ryan M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of adenovirus type 4 infections in US military recruits in the postvaccination era (1997-2003). J Infect Dis. 2007;196:67-75 pubmed
    ..The discontinuation of Ad vaccination programs in 1999 precipitated the reemergence of Ad in training sites, with Ad4 accounting for 98% of all diagnosed cases...
  58. Weitzel T, Reither K, Mockenhaupt F, Stark K, Ignatius R, Saad E, et al. Field evaluation of a rota- and adenovirus immunochromatographic assay using stool samples from children with acute diarrhea in Ghana. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2695-7 pubmed
    ..Compared to PCR results, sensitivities and specificities were 75% and 95% for rotavirus and 22% and 84% for adenovirus. In resource-poor settings, ICTs may help to overcome difficulties in the diagnosis of rotavirus infection...
  59. Perlman J, Gibson C, Pounds S, Gu Z, Bankowski M, Hayden R. Quantitative real-time PCR detection of adenovirus in clinical blood specimens: a comparison of plasma, whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:295-300 pubmed
    ..Investigators have described the use of whole blood (WB), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), serum and plasma but no studies have compared the utility of these different sample types for use in a clinical diagnostic assay...