viral meningitis

Summary

Summary: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)

Top Publications

  1. Bonsu B, Harper M. Differentiating acute bacterial meningitis from acute viral meningitis among children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: a multivariable regression model. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:511-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we estimate the accuracy of a simple new model with potentially broader applicability...
  2. Chavanet P, Schaller C, Levy C, Flores Cordero J, Arens M, Piroth L, et al. Performance of a predictive rule to distinguish bacterial and viral meningitis. J Infect. 2007;54:328-36 pubmed
    ..In order to help distinguish these two categories, scoring tools have been proposed that are more or less complex and validated...
  3. Peyrefitte C, Devetakov I, Pastorino B, Villeneuve L, Bessaud M, Stolidi P, et al. Toscana virus and acute meningitis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:778-80 pubmed
  4. Mizuno Y, Takada H, Urakami K, Ihara K, Kira R, Suminoe A, et al. Neurotrophin-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, or encephalitis. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:19-21 pubmed
    Neurotrophin-3 levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of 35 patients with bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, or encephalitis by two-site enzyme immunoassay...
  5. Schmidt H, Heimann B, Djukic M, Mazurek C, Fels C, Wallesch C, et al. Neuropsychological sequelae of bacterial and viral meningitis. Brain. 2006;129:333-45 pubmed
    ..patients younger than 70 years, 1-12 years after recovery from bacterial meningitis (BM; n = 59), or from viral meningitis (VM; n = 59). Patients with other potential causes for neuropsychological deficits (e.g...
  6. Abro A, Abdou A, Ustadi A, Saleh A, Younis N, Doleh W. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59:508-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis...
  7. Kastenbauer S, Angele B, Sporer B, Pfister H, Koedel U. Patterns of protein expression in infectious meningitis: a cerebrospinal fluid protein array analysis. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;164:134-9 pubmed
    ..In viral meningitis, new findings were an elevation of CCL8, thrombopoietin, and vascular endothelial growth factor.
  8. Valassina M, Cuppone A, Bianchi S, Santini L, Cusi M. Evidence of Toscana virus variants circulating in Tuscany, Italy, during the summers of 1995 to 1997. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2103-4 pubmed
    ..Their sequence analysis shows four variants of the Toscana virus...
  9. Ihekwaba U, Kudesia G, McKendrick M. Clinical features of viral meningitis in adults: significant differences in cerebrospinal fluid findings among herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, and enterovirus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:783-9 pubmed publisher
    In this retrospective study, our objective was to review the epidemiology of viral meningitis and to compare clinical features associated with enterovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections in ..

More Information

Publications88

  1. Brivet F, Ducuing S, Jacobs F, Chary I, Pompier R, Prat D, et al. Accuracy of clinical presentation for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis in adults: a multivariate approach. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31:1654-60 pubmed
    ..To determine whether bacterial (BM) and viral (VM) meningitis can be differentiated based on initial clinical presentation...
  2. Tada Y, Negoro K, Morimatsu M, Makino H, Nishida T. Findings in a patient with herpes simplex viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1300-2 pubmed
    We report the case of a 41-year-old man with clinical findings of viral meningitis associated with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in his right eye...
  3. Logan S, MacMahon E. Viral meningitis. BMJ. 2008;336:36-40 pubmed publisher
  4. Hviid A, Melbye M. The epidemiology of viral meningitis hospitalization in childhood. Epidemiology. 2007;18:695-701 pubmed
    There have been few long-term population-based studies of viral meningitis, and only a limited number of potential risk factors have been evaluated.
  5. Murawska Ciałowicz E, Szychowska Z, Tr busiewicz B. Nitric oxide production during bacterial and viral meningitis in children. Int J Clin Lab Res. 2000;30:127-31 pubmed
    ..fluid on admission were higher in patients with bacterial meningitis than in controls or in children with viral meningitis. In 10 patients, dexamethasone therapy (0...
  6. Chadwick D. Viral meningitis. Br Med Bull. 2005;75-76:1-14 pubmed
    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease...
  7. Zimmerli W. How to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31:1608-10 pubmed
  8. Brown B, Pallansch M. Complete nucleotide sequence of enterovirus 71 is distinct from poliovirus. Virus Res. 1995;39:195-205 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons in the coding region between the two EV71 strains and other picornaviruses indicate that EV71, coxsackievirus A16 and coxsackievirus A2 comprise a distinct genetic group within the enteroviruses...
  9. Echevarria J, de Ory F, Guisasola M, Sanchez Seco M, Tenorio A, Lozano A, et al. Acute meningitis due to Toscana virus infection among patients from both the Spanish Mediterranean region and the region of Madrid. J Clin Virol. 2003;26:79-84 pubmed
  10. Romero J, Newland J. Viral meningitis and encephalitis: traditional and emerging viral agents. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003;14:72-82 pubmed
    ..and emerging (West Nile virus) viral pathogens...
  11. Kim J, Kang S, Dustin M, McGavern D. Myelomonocytic cell recruitment causes fatal CNS vascular injury during acute viral meningitis. Nature. 2009;457:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a CD8(+) T-cell-dependent disorder can proceed in the absence of direct T-cell effector mechanisms and rely instead on CTL-recruited myelomonocytic cells...
  12. Hayes D. Viral meningitis in adults. Nursing. 2006;36:64 pubmed
  13. Valassina M, Meacci F, Valensin P, Cusi M. Detection of neurotropic viruses circulating in Tuscany: the incisive role of Toscana virus. J Med Virol. 2000;60:86-90 pubmed
    ..analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid samples suggested the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, recognized as viral meningitis in 104 cases by detection of viral DNA or RNA...
  14. Schmidt H, Cohrs S, Heinemann T, Goerdt C, Djukic M, Heimann B, et al. Sleep disorders are long-term sequelae of both bacterial and viral meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77:554-8 pubmed
    ..Neuropsychological symptoms after viral meningitis are observed less frequently. Sleep disturbance has been reported after both viral and bacterial meningitis.
  15. Cunha B. Distinguishing bacterial from viral meningitis: the critical importance of the CSF lactic acid levels. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1272-3; author reply 1274 pubmed
  16. Yoshikawa T, Ihira M, Suzuki K, Suga S, Matsubara T, Furukawa S, et al. Invasion by human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 of the central nervous system in patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Arch Dis Child. 2000;83:170-1 pubmed
    ..Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by nested polymerase chain reaction...
  17. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Nitschko H. Nested RT-PCR for detection of sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, in clinical specimens, with confirmation by nucleotide sequence analysis. Res Virol. 1995;146:355-62 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and nested PCR are useful for laboratory diagnosis and studies of the molecular epidemiology of TOS infection...
  18. Pierart J, Lepage P. [Value of the "Bacterial Meningitis Score" (BMS) for the differential diagnosis of bacterial versus viral meningitis]. Rev Med Liege. 2006;61:581-5 pubmed
    ..23% of the children with BMS < 2 were treated with antibiotics; 17% of children with BMS = 2 were not been treated on admission. The BMS is an easily applicable method that could allow reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics...
  19. Kudalkar D, Thermidor M, Cunha B. Salmonella paratyphi A enteric fever mimicking viral meningitis. Heart Lung. 2004;33:414-6 pubmed
    ..After ruling out malaria, clinicians should suspect enteric fever in patients recently returning from endemic areas, in patients presenting with acute fevers without localizing signs...
  20. Nicoletti L, Verani P, Caciolli S, CIufolini M, Renzi A, Bartolozzi D, et al. Central nervous system involvement during infection by Phlebovirus toscana of residents in natural foci in central Italy (1977-1988). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;45:429-34 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that Toscana virus should be considered as a possible cause of CNS disease in Mediterranean countries where sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus are known to be present...
  21. Brabazon E, O Farrell A, Murray C, Finnegan P. Trends in viral meningitis hospitalisations and notifications in the North Eastern Health Board (1997 - 2001): a cause for concern?. Ir Med J. 2004;97:306-8 pubmed
    This study aimed to compare trends in both hospital admissions and notifications of viral meningitis in the North Eastern Health Board (NEHB)...
  22. Hauri A, Schimmelpfennig M, Walter Domes M, Letz A, Diedrich S, Lopez Pila J, et al. An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:291-8 pubmed
    ..This outbreak demonstrates the potential of nature-like swimming ponds to cause widespread community infection with substantial public health impact...
  23. Noris García E, Dorta Contreras A, Gonzalez Hernandez M, Bu Coifu Fanego R, Padrón Gutiérrez D, Padilla Docal B, et al. [Clinical relevance of haptoglobin/IgG index and Boyer's score to the differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis]. Rev Neurol. 2008;47:394-8 pubmed
    ..The haptoglobin/IgG index and Boyer's score have been use in this purpose...
  24. Khetsuriani N, Quiroz E, Holman R, Anderson L. Viral meningitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1988-1999. Neuroepidemiology. 2003;22:345-52 pubmed
    ..Inpatient Sample of the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project to estimate disease burden associated with viral meningitis hospitalizations in the United States...
  25. Marc E, Menager C, Moulin F, Stos B, Chalumeau M, Guerin S, et al. [Procalcitonin and viral meningitis: reduction of unnecessary antibiotics by measurement during an outbreak]. Arch Pediatr. 2002;9:358-64 pubmed
    b>Viral meningitis are often treated with antibiotics in emergency because routine analysis of CSF is not always efficient for distinguishing between viral and bacterial infection...
  26. Navarro J, Fernández Roldán C, Pérez Ruiz M, Sanbonmatsu S, de la Rosa M, Sanchez Seco M. [Meningitis by Toscana virus in Spain: description of 17 cases]. Med Clin (Barc). 2004;122:420-2 pubmed
    ..We aimed to analyze the clinical and epidemiological data from the first series of patients with meningitis by Toscana virus in Spain...
  27. Krause C, Eastick K, Ogilvie M. Real-time PCR for mumps diagnosis on clinical specimens--comparison with results of conventional methods of virus detection and nested PCR. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:184-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, 88 CSF samples submitted for diagnosis of possible viral meningitis were analysed by real-time PCR...
  28. Miwa C, Sawatari S. [Epidemic of aseptic meningitis with echovirus type 6 in Gifu Prefecture in 1992]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1994;68:1063-7 pubmed
    ..4) In serological studies, the positive rates of neutralizing antibodies to Echovirus 6 in infant sera aged 0-9 years in 1992-1993, was 41.1%. The highest positive rates of antibodies was in the 5 year age group. ..
  29. Lins H, Wallesch C, Wunderlich M. Sequential analyses of neurobiochemical markers of cerebral damage in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in CNS infections. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;112:303-8 pubmed
    ..Comparison between disease groups revealed significant differences between bacterial and viral meningitis and neuroborreliosis for S-100B and also when compared with controls. NSE was not significantly elevated...
  30. Davis L, Beckham J, Tyler K. North American encephalitic arboviruses. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:727-57, ix pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, no antiviral drugs are approved for the treatment of arbovirus infection and current therapy is supportive...
  31. Taggart E, Carroll K, Byington C, Crist G, Hillyard D. Use of heat labile UNG in an RT-PCR assay for enterovirus detection. J Virol Methods. 2002;105:57-65 pubmed
    ..The combined enzymological approach has potential application to a wide variety of assays requiring sensitive RNA detection and stringent contamination control, including those utilizing real time detection methods. ..
  32. Ansari A, Li S, Abzug M, Weinberg A. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 and central nervous system infection in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1450-4 pubmed
    ..HHV-6 was likely pathogenic in two patients with meningitis who lacked evidence of another microbiologic cause. HHV-6 and HHV-7 are uncommon causes of CNS infection in children. HHV-6 may occasionally cause meningitis in young infants. ..
  33. Haargaard B, Lund Andersen H, Milea D. Central nervous system involvement after herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86:806-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Central nervous system involvement after varicella zoster virus infection is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening, complication. Early recognition of neurological complications prompts acute, appropriate antiviral treatment. ..
  34. Marsot Dupuch K, Djouhri H, Meyer B, Pharaboz C, Tran Ba Huy P. [Inner ear and subarachnoid spaces: relations and diseases]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2001;118:171-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in patients referred for cochleovestibular symptoms, MR and CT study should carefully scrutinise not only the IAM but also the aperture of the cochlear and the vestibular aqueducts and the cerebellopontine meninges. ..
  35. Kaiser R. Tick-borne encephalitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:561-75, x pubmed publisher
    ..No specific treatment for TBE is known. It can be successfully prevented by active immunization...
  36. Corey R, Flynn J. Maternal intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection leading to persistent fetal vasculature. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:837-40 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, we report the first case of serologically proven intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection associated with bilateral persistent fetal vasculature in a surviving term infant. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:837-840 ..
  37. Ushigusa T, Ichinose K, Sato S, Michitsuji T, Shimizu T, Umeda M, et al. Soluble α-klotho is a potential biomarker associated with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2016;165:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with SLE without neuropsychiatric manifestations (SLE) (n=25), and patients with viral meningitis (VM) (n=19), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=20) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (n=20) were included as controls...
  38. Kashyap R, Kainthla R, Satpute R, Chandak N, Purohit H, Taori G, et al. Demonstration of IgG antibodies to 30 Kd protein antigen in CSF for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by antibody-capturing ELISA. Neurol India. 2004;52:359-62 pubmed
    ..A simple and rapid immunological assay method has been developed to demonstrate the presence of IgG antibodies to 30Kd protein antigen (30Kdpa) and culture filtrate protein (CFP) in the CSF of patients with Tuberculous meningitis (TBM)...
  39. Dash N, Al Khusaiby S, Behlim T, Mohammadi A, Mohammadi E, Al Awaidy S. Epidemiology of meningitis in Oman, 2000-2005. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:1358-64 pubmed
    ..The incidence of H. influenzae type b decreased by almost 100% after implementation of the national immunization programme in 2001, while the incidence of cases caused by S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis remained steady. ..
  40. de Oliveira D, Candiani T, Franco Luiz A, Almeida G, Abrahao J, Rios M, et al. Etiological agents of viral meningitis in children from a dengue-endemic area, Southeast region of Brazil. J Neurol Sci. 2017;375:390-394 pubmed publisher
    ..The range of viral meningitis severity depends mainly on age, immune status and etiological agent...
  41. Kaiser R, Holzmann H. Laboratory findings in tick-borne encephalitis--correlation with clinical outcome. Infection. 2000;28:78-84 pubmed
    ..At onset of disease the presence of a low concentration of neutralizing antibodies in serum and a high cell count in the CSF might indicate an unfavorable course of TBE. ..
  42. Gorgievski Hrisoho M, Schumacher J, Vilimonovic N, Germann D, Matter L. Detection by PCR of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid during a summer outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2408-12 pubmed
    ..e., considerably higher than the sensitivity of CSF virus culture (24%). We conclude that this commercial RT-PCR assay allows a positive diagnosis with minimal delay and may thus influence clinical decisions. ..
  43. Nolte F. Case studies in cost effectiveness of molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases: pulmonary tuberculosis, enteroviral meningitis, and BK virus nephropathy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1463-7 pubmed
  44. Nazir M, Wani W, Malik M, Mir M, Ashraf Y, Kawoosa K, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate: a differential biomarker for bacterial and viral meningitis in children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2018;94:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children, and to define an optimal CSF lactate concentration that can be called significant for the ..
  45. Francisco A, Glaser C, Frykman E, Cole B, Cheung M, Meyers H, et al. 2004 California pediatric West Nile virus case series. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:81-4 pubmed
    ..We reviewed the clinical characteristics of 23 cases in pediatric patients that occurred in California in 2004 to better understand the infection in this population. ..
  46. Bergallo M, Costa C, Margio S, Sidoti F, Terlizzi M, Cavallo R. Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of major human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid. Can J Microbiol. 2007;53:1117-22 pubmed
    ..The accuracy, reproducibility, specificity, and sensitivity of these assays were established. ..
  47. Chambon M, Archimbaud C, Bailly J, Henquell C, Regagnon C, Charbonne F, et al. Circulation of enteroviruses and persistence of meningitis cases in the winter of 1999-2000. J Med Virol. 2001;65:340-7 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR was not requested. Nine patients were admitted during the cold months. The clinical management of both adult and child patients could be improved by year-round use of enterovirus generic RT-PCR. ..
  48. Bonsu B, Harper M. Explanation of mathematical model. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:893 pubmed
  49. Selekman J. Preventing meningitis. Pediatr Nurs. 2003;29:467-9 pubmed
  50. Czupryna P, Moniuszko Malinowska A, Garkowski A, Dunaj J, Swierzbinska R, Pancewicz S, et al. Usefulness of copeptin as a potential biomarker in TBE. Biomarkers. 2017;22:321-325 pubmed publisher
    ..The control group consisted of 62 patients diagnosed with viral meningitis. Copeptin concentration did not differ in patients with hyponatremia and normonatremia...
  51. Østergaard C, Benfield T. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection. Crit Care. 2009;13:R101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that MIF may play an important role in CNS infection. ..
  52. Christoffersson G, Chodaczek G, Ratliff S, Coppieters K, Von Herrath M. Suppression of diabetes by accumulation of non-islet-specific CD8+ effector T cells in pancreatic islets. Sci Immunol. 2018;3: pubmed publisher
    ..This nonspecific suppression by nonautoreactive CTLs was recapitulated in a model of viral meningitis, may explain viral interference in autoimmunity, and provides insight into the regulation of organ-specific ..
  53. Big C, Reineck L, Aronoff D. Viral infections of the central nervous system: a case-based review. Clin Med Res. 2009;7:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of antiviral therapy is particularly underscored by these cases, as is the variability in response of patients to such agents...
  54. Kamra P, Azad R, Prasad K, Jha S, Pradhan S, Gupta R. Infectious meningitis: prospective evaluation with magnetization transfer MRI. Br J Radiol. 2004;77:387-94 pubmed
    ..Visibility of the meninges on pre-contrast T(1) weighted MT images may be considered highly suggestive of tuberculous meningitis...
  55. Charrel R, Bernit E, Zandotti C, de Lamballerie X. An approach based on RFLP assay to investigate outbreaks of enteroviral meningitis. J Clin Virol. 2004;29:54-8 pubmed
    ..During the last two decades, echovirus type 30 (E-30) has revealed to be one of the most prevalent enteroviruses at the origin of epidemics of EV meningitis...
  56. Miwa C, Watanabe Y. [Epidemic of aseptic meningitis with echovirus type 18 in Gifu Prefecture in 1988]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1990;64:815-21 pubmed
    ..In the serological studies in 1989, the positive rate of neutralizing antibody to echovirus type 18, was raised remarkably in children under 8 years old...
  57. Henquell C, Chambon M, Bailly J, Alcaraz S, De Champs C, Archimbaud C, et al. Prospective analysis of 61 cases of enteroviral meningitis: interest of systematic genome detection in cerebrospinal fluid irrespective of cytologic examination results. J Clin Virol. 2001;21:29-35 pubmed
    Enteroviruses are the most commonly identified cause of viral meningitis. Detection of the enterovirus genome in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved to be useful in diagnosis ..
  58. Perez Martinez A, Molina Cabañero J, Quintero Calcaño V, de Vicente Aymat A, de la Torre Espi M. [Utility of Boyer's score modified for the differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis]. An Esp Pediatr. 2001;55:15-9 pubmed
    Many studies have been performed to establish criteria for the differential diagnosis between bacterial and viral meningitis. In 1980, Thome and Boyer proposed a score that has been widely used.
  59. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Wick M, Kieseier B, Hartung H, Pfister H. CSF and serum levels of soluble fractalkine (CX3CL1) in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;137:210-7 pubmed
    ..and central nervous system (Bell's palsy, BP; Guillain-Barré Syndrome, GBS; multiple sclerosis, MS; viral meningitis, VM; bacterial meningitis, BM) and patients with noninflammatory neurological diseases (controls)...
  60. Jayakrishnan A, Vrees R, Anderson B. Varicella zoster meningitis in a pregnant woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Perinatol. 2008;25:573-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment may provide an opportunity to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes...
  61. Oostenbrink R, Moons K, Moons C, Derksen Lubsen A, Grobbee D, Moll H. A diagnostic decision rule for management of children with meningeal signs. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:109-16 pubmed
    ..This diagnostic decision rule is a valuable tool for the clinician when deciding to treat these children for bacterial meningitis and thus improving their management...
  62. De Cauwer H, Eykens L, Hellinckx J, Mortelmans L. Differential diagnosis between viral and bacterial meningitis in children. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007;14:343-7 pubmed
    The differential diagnosis between viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis is often very difficult. The results of peripheral blood and spinal fluid analysis are not 100% accurate...
  63. Wejse C, Ostergaard L. [Picture of the month: Mollaret meningitis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:3510 pubmed
  64. Naito M, Johkura K, Momoo T, Nomiya T, Kudo Y, Kuroiwa Y. Dementia and capsular genu ischemia in patients with severe bacterial meningitis. Neurol Sci. 2010;31:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 24 patients with viral meningitis, none developed capsular genu ischemia or post-meningitis dementia...
  65. Sawyer M. Enterovirus infections: diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2001;13:65-9 pubmed
    ..New antiviral drugs have been developed that inhibit enterovirus replication, and early clinical trials of these compounds suggest that effective therapy for enterovirus infections is now possible...
  66. Kepa L, Oczko Grzesik B, Błedowski D. [Procalcitonin (PCT) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with purulent and lymphocytic meningoencephalitis--own observations]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2005;59:703-9 pubmed
  67. Lupu V, Saini N, Balish M. CNS myelomatosis. Neurology. 2005;64:1007 pubmed
  68. Onoue H, Kuroda Y. [Viral meningitis and encephalitis]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;95:1232-7 pubmed
  69. Behzad Behbahani A, Klapper P, Vallely P, Cleator G, Bonington A. BKV-DNA and JCV-DNA in CSF of patients with suspected meningitis or encephalitis. Infection. 2003;31:374-8 pubmed
    ..PCR-microplate hybridization method was employed for the detection of BKV-DNA or JCV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from patients with suspected meningitis or encephalitis...
  70. Cabello C F. [Epidemiology and laboratories: the missing link on the plans to study and prevent infectious diseases in Chile]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2008;25:14-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Viral meningitis, hantavirus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections are used as examples to demonstrate that important shortcomings and limitations exist in Chile to study the epidemiology of infectious diseases with modern methods...
  71. Kim Y, Kang J, Youm M, Jong Woo Y. Diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in children with meningitis. Pediatr Neurol. 2003;28:271-6 pubmed
    ..The subjects were classified into four groups; non-meningitis, viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis, and bacterial meningitis suspected group...
  72. Habib A, Gilden D, Schmid D, Safdieh J. Varicella zoster virus meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia in the absence of rash in an immunocompetent woman. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:206-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed the presence of VZV DNA, anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and intrathecal production of anti-VZV IgG antibody...
  73. Defuentes G, Rapp C, Imbert P, Durand J, Debord T. Acute meningitis owing to phlebotomus fever Toscana virus imported to France. J Travel Med. 2005;12:295-6 pubmed
    ..7 We report a case of meningitis caused by Toscana virus imported to France...
  74. Feltracco P, Barbieri S, Furnari M, Milevoj M, Rizzi S, Galligioni H, et al. Central nervous system infectious complications early after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:1216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical response to medical therapy may sometimes be poor because of chronic encapsulation of the pathogen, development of resistance, and/or catastrophic hemorrhagic complications...
  75. Shah S, Hodinka R, Turnquist J, Elliott M, Coffin S. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell predominance is not related to symptom duration in children with enteroviral meningitis. J Pediatr. 2006;148:118-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that factors other than symptom duration influence the composition and evolution of the CSF white blood cell response to enteroviral infection...
  76. Ghotbi F, Shiva F. An assessment of the necessity of lumbar puncture in children with seizure and fever. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59:292-5 pubmed
    ..To assess whether meningitis could be recognized using readily available clinical information...
  77. Weiss D, Carr D, Kellachan J, Tan C, Phillips M, Bresnitz E, et al. Clinical findings of West Nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, New York and New Jersey, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:654-8 pubmed
  78. Ashwell M, Smith D, Phillips P, Rouse I. Viral meningitis due to echovirus types 6 and 9: epidemiological data from Western Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 1996;117:507-12 pubmed
    During the autumn of 1992, Western Australia experienced a large viral meningitis outbreak of dual aetiology...
  79. Kopyta I, Wojaczńska Stanek K, Marszał E. [Chickenpox--neurological complications in children]. Wiad Lek. 2007;60:470-4 pubmed
    ..The neurological complications of chickenpox did not result in permanent sequel but the cost of hospitalization and the exclusion of the child from everyday activity seem to justify the idea of the routine vaccination...