central nervous system viral diseases

Summary

Summary: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.

Top Publications

  1. Kessler H, Mühlbauer G, Rinner B, Stelzl E, Berger A, Dörr H, et al. Detection of Herpes simplex virus DNA by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2638-42 pubmed
    ..There was a correlation between the LC assay and the home-brew assay in 55 of 59 specimens. In conclusion, the LC assay allows very rapid detection of HSV DNA in CSF. It was found to be laborsaving and showed sufficient sensitivity...
  2. Quereda C, Corral I, Laguna F, Valencia M, Tenorio A, Echeverria J, et al. Diagnostic utility of a multiplex herpesvirus PCR assay performed with cerebrospinal fluid from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with neurological disorders. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3061-7 pubmed
    ..This multiplex HV PCR assay is a specific and clinically useful method for the evaluation of HIV-infected patients with neurological disorders related to HV...
  3. Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections caused by herpesviruses. J Clin Virol. 2002;25 Suppl 1:S45-51 pubmed
    ..Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has to be considered one of the most severe diseases. As effective antiviral drugs are available, rapid and reliable diagnosis has become important...
  4. Aberle S, Puchhammer Stöckl E. Diagnosis of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol. 2002;25 Suppl 1:S79-85 pubmed
    ..Human herpesviruses may cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS). The early diagnosis of herpesvirus-associated neurological diseases is of high importance...
  5. Studahl M. Influenza virus and CNS manifestations. J Clin Virol. 2003;28:225-32 pubmed
    ..The pathogenic mechanisms behind the influenza CNS complications are unknown. The treatment is symptomatic, with control of vital functions in the intensive care unit, antiepileptic medication and treatment against brain oedema...
  6. Volpi A. Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus type 8 infections of the central nervous system. Herpes. 2004;11 Suppl 2:120A-127A pubmed
    ..CNS complications of HHV-8 infection are rare, but the virus has been associated with AIDS-dementia complex, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary CNS lymphoma; however these links remain to be proven...
  7. Glaser C, Winter K, Dubray K, Harriman K, Uyeki T, Sejvar J, et al. A population-based study of neurologic manifestations of severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in California. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a population-based study of neurologic manifestations associated with severe and fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (2009 H1N1) cases...
  8. Calvario A, Bozzi A, Scarasciulli M, Ventola C, Seccia R, Stomati D, et al. Herpes Consensus PCR test: a useful diagnostic approach to the screening of viral diseases of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol. 2002;25 Suppl 1:S71-8 pubmed
  9. Wong K, Shieh W, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, et al. Nipah virus infection: pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:2153-67 pubmed
    ..Infection of endothelial cells and neurons as well as vasculitis and thrombosis seem to be critical to the pathogenesis of this new human disease...

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Davies N, Brown L, Gonde J, Irish D, Robinson R, Swan A, et al. Factors influencing PCR detection of viruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected CNS infections. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:82-7 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurological disease. However, data to assist its use or interpretation are limited...
  2. Tishon A, Lewicki H, Andaya A, McGavern D, Martin L, Oldstone M. CD4 T cell control primary measles virus infection of the CNS: regulation is dependent on combined activity with either CD8 T cells or with B cells: CD4, CD8 or B cells alone are ineffective. Virology. 2006;347:234-45 pubmed
    ..TNF-alpha combined with interferon-gamma is more effective in protection than interferon alone. Further, the lack of an interferon-gamma response leads to persistence of MV...
  3. Chua M, MacNamara K, San Mateo L, Shen H, Weiss S. Effects of an epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell response on murine coronavirus central nervous system disease: protection from virus replication and antigen spread and selection of epitope escape mutants. J Virol. 2004;78:1150-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the cytotoxic T-cell response to gp33-41 exerts a strong immune pressure that quickly selects epitope escape mutants to gp33-41. ..
  4. Stasi C, Zignego A, Laffi G, Rosselli M. The liver-cytokine-brain circuit in interferon-based treatment of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:525-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Chang J, Liu L. Catecholamines inhibit microglial nitric oxide production. Brain Res Bull. 2000;52:525-30 pubmed
  6. Mori I, Goshima F, Imai Y, Kohsaka S, Sugiyama T, Yoshida T, et al. Olfactory receptor neurons prevent dissemination of neurovirulent influenza A virus into the brain by undergoing virus-induced apoptosis. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2109-16 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that induction of apoptosis in olfactory receptor neurons at an early stage of infection may provide protective effects against invasion of the neurovirulent virus from the peripheral to the CNS. ..
  7. Silva M, Harab R, Leite A, Schor D, Araujo A, Andrada Serpa M. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in asymptomatic carriers, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and other neurological abnormalities associated with HTLV-1 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:689-92 pubmed
    ..We now demonstrate, for the first time, to our knowledge, that HTLV-1 proviral loads in patients with other neurological abnormalities are also significantly higher than in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers...
  8. Kneeland R, Fatemi S. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;42:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. ..
  9. Lamarão L, Maciel A, Gomes M. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) from Northern Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2003;7:278-81 pubmed
    ..We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent. ..
  10. Gartzonika C, Vrioni G, Levidiotou S. Evaluation of a commercially available reverse transcription-PCR enzyme immunoassay (Enterovirus Consensus kit) for the diagnosis of enterovirus central nervous system infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:131-7 pubmed
    ..01) for the detection of enteroviruses in CSF, and may offer considerable benefits in the clinical management of patients with enterovirus meningitis. ..
  11. Wong D, Scarratt W. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in a 12-year-old American quarter horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2006;22:177-91 pubmed
  12. Hanson K, Alexander B, Woods C, Petti C, Reller L. Validation of laboratory screening criteria for herpes simplex virus testing of cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:721-4 pubmed
    ..Communication between the clinician and the laboratory is imperative for a successful screening program. ..
  13. Chen C, Chou H, Chen C, Shen C, Tsai S. Post-infectious opsoclonus and reversible magnetic resonance imaging changes: a case report and review of the literatures. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2012;21:79-83 pubmed
    ..However, detailed investigations and long-term follow-up are needed to exclude paraneoplastic or other systemic and immunological disorders. ..
  14. Nakai Y, Itoh M, Mizuguchi M, Ozawa H, Okazaki E, Kobayashi Y, et al. Apoptosis and microglial activation in influenza encephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;105:233-9 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis or specific pathological processes that cause apoptosis may give rise to aggravated encephalopathy. ..
  15. Bonaparte K, Hudson C, Wu C, Massa P. Inverse regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase I by the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in CNS glia. Glia. 2006;53:827-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that SHP-1 is a critical regulator of innate immunity to virus infections in CNS cells. ..
  16. Wollish A, Ferris M, Blevins L, Loo Y, Gale M, Heise M. An attenuating mutation in a neurovirulent Sindbis virus strain interacts with the IPS-1 signaling pathway in vivo. Virology. 2013;435:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the control of the nsP1 T538I mutant virus is largely mediated by IPS-1-dependent RLR signaling, with TRIF-dependent TLR signaling also contributing to protection from virus-induced neurologic disease. ..
  17. Brison E, Jacomy H, Desforges M, Talbot P. Novel treatment with neuroprotective and antiviral properties against a neuroinvasive human respiratory virus. J Virol. 2014;88:1548-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that memantine could be used as an antiviral agent while improving neurological symptoms in various neurological diseases with a viral involvement. ..
  18. Reiber H, Peter J. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis: disease-related data patterns and evaluation programs. J Neurol Sci. 2001;184:101-22 pubmed
    ..The principles and rationale of general CSF analysis reported in this review should enable the reader to accurately interpret CSF data profiles, and to plan a proper evaluation of new brain- or blood-derived analytes in CSF. ..
  19. Mankowski J, Clements J, Zink M. Searching for clues: tracking the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system disease by use of an accelerated, consistent simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 Suppl 2:S199-208 pubmed
    ..This model is ideal to track the viral, cellular, and immunologic changes in the brain during acute and asymptomatic infection and during viral recrudescence and SIV encephalitis. ..
  20. Ponticelli C, Campise M. Neurological complications in kidney transplant recipients. J Nephrol. 2005;18:521-8 pubmed
  21. Feng L, Shi H, Liu S, Wu B, Chen J, Sun D, et al. Isolation and molecular characterization of a porcine teschovirus 1 isolate from China. Acta Virol. 2007;51:7-11 pubmed
    ..9% and 99.5% homology of amino acids and nucleotides, respectively, in the ORF of polyprotein. To our knowledge, this is the first report about isolation and identification of a PTV in China. ..
  22. Power C, Johnson R. Current issues in clinical neurovirology: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Preface. Neurol Clin. 2008;26:xiii-xv pubmed publisher
  23. Winter C, Reutiman T, Folsom T, Sohr R, Wolf R, Juckel G, et al. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:712-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows that the serotonergic system is disrupted following prenatal viral infection, potentially modelling disruptions that occur in patients with schizophrenia and autism. ..
  24. Saddawi Konefka R, Crawford J. Chronic viral infection and primary central nervous system malignancy. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:387-403 pubmed publisher
  25. Rocha C, Gouvêa A, Machado D, Cunegundes K, Beltrão S, Bononi F, et al. [Neurological findings in a group of children and adolescents exposed and infected by HIV-1]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2005;63:828-31 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly correlated to clinical deterioration by HIV-1 infection. ..
  26. Vasil eva E, Bakanov M. [Biochemical changes in neurological pathology]. Biomed Khim. 2005;51:581-602 pubmed
    ..Literature data on biochemical changes of structural and functional state of biological membranes seen at neurological pathology have been reviewed. ..
  27. Marten N, Stohlman S, Zhou J, Bergmann C. Kinetics of virus-specific CD8+ -T-cell expansion and trafficking following central nervous system infection. J Virol. 2003;77:2775-8 pubmed
    ..The data further suggest peripheral acquisition of cytolytic function, thus enhancing CD8+ -T-cell effector function upon cognate antigen recognition in the CNS. ..
  28. Fujimoto H, Asaoka K, Imaizumi T, Ayabe M, Shoji H, Kaji M. Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous system. Intern Med. 2003;42:33-40 pubmed
  29. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P. Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:93-108 pubmed
  30. Steel C, Hahto S, Ciavarra R. Peripheral dendritic cells are essential for both the innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses in the central nervous system. Virology. 2009;387:117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both the inflammatory and certain components of the adaptive primary antiviral immune response in the CNS are dependent on peripheral DCs in vivo...
  31. Chakrabarti S, Garvie D, RayChaudhuri K, Rao G. Rationalizing the use of polymerase chain reaction based tests for diagnosis of common viral infections of the central nervous system. J Clin Pathol. 2002;55:560 pubmed
  32. Iturriza Gomara M, Auchterlonie I, Zaw W, Molyneaux P, Desselberger U, Gray J. Rotavirus gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infection: characterization of the VP7 and VP4 genes of rotavirus strains isolated from paired fecal and cerebrospinal fluid samples from a child with CNS disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4797-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of the VP7 and VP4 proteins derived from the fecal and CSF samples were remarkably similar to each other and to G1P[8] rotavirus strains commonly circulating in the community and associated with gastroenteritis. ..
  33. Silvia M, Licht D. Pediatric central nervous system infections and inflammatory white matter disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52:1107-26, ix pubmed
    ..Laboratory and imaging findings in the two conditions also are described. ..
  34. Nickerson J, Richner B, Santy K, Lequin M, Poretti A, Filippi C, et al. Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 2: TORCH, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. J Neuroimaging. 2012;22:e52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Brief discussions of epidemiology and pathophysiology will be followed by a review of the imaging findings and potential differential considerations...
  35. Tang J, Wang M, Qiu J, Wu D, Hu W, Shi B, et al. Building a mouse model hallmarking the congenital human cytomegalovirus infection in central nervous system. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1189-95 pubmed
    ..This new type of mouse model of HCMV inherent CNS infection will help prepare HCMV vaccine and research HCMV congenital infection in CNS. ..
  36. Chen Y, Yu C, Wang Y, Liu C, Su I, Lei H. A murine oral enterovirus 71 infection model with central nervous system involvement. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:69-77 pubmed
    ..Leukocyte infiltration was evident in the spinal cord and brain stem. Furthermore, EV71 virus could be transmitted to littermates within the same cage. ..
  37. Saha S, Ramanathan A, Rangarajan P. Regulation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II inhibitor alpha (CaMKIINalpha) in virus-infected mouse brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:444-9 pubmed
    ..The differential regulation of CaMKIIalpha and CaMKIINalpha during JEV infection suggests a possible role for these proteins in viral infection and/or virus-induced neuropathogenesis in the CNS. ..
  38. Witwer K, Sarbanes S, Liu J, Clements J. A plasma microRNA signature of acute lentiviral infection: biomarkers of central nervous system disease. AIDS. 2011;25:2057-67 pubmed publisher
  39. Anukumar B, Amirthalingam B, Shelke V, Gunjikar R, Shewale P. Neuro-invasion of Chandipura virus mediates pathogenesis in experimentally infected mice. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:1272-81 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the adult mice the nervous terminal might not pick up the virus through footpad infection. The pathogenesis in mice might be due to the virus replication mediated damage in the central nervous system. ..
  40. Huang Y, Chiu P, Chen C, Chen Y, Hsieh K, Liu Y, et al. Cardiac troponin I: a reliable marker and early myocardial involvement with meningoencephalitis after fatal enterovirus-71 infection. J Infect. 2003;46:238-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fatal EV71 CNS infection quickly leads to death due to severe encephalopathy associated with cardiomyopathy. ..
  41. Schultze D, Weder B, Cassinotti P, Vitek L, Krausse K, Fierz W. Diagnostic significance of intrathecally produced herpes simplex and varizella-zoster virus-specific antibodies in central nervous system infections. Swiss Med Wkly. 2004;134:700-4 pubmed
    ..However, in an appreciable proportion of patients a correct diagnosis is hampered by coincidentally detected antibodies in CSF against both virus species. Possible reasons for these equivocal findings are given. ..
  42. Fernandes E, de Andrade H, Lancellotti C, Quaresma J, Demachki S, da Costa Vasconcelos P, et al. In situ apoptosis of adaptive immune cells and the cellular escape of rabies virus in CNS from patients with human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Virus Res. 2011;156:121-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Horien C, Grose C. Neurovirulence of varicella and the live attenuated varicella vaccine virus. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2012;19:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagosome formation is a prominent feature in the skin vesicles during both varicella and herpes zoster. Therefore, autophagy is one of the innate immune mechanisms associated with VZV infection in humans. ..
  44. Munoz Almagro C, Jordan I, Cambra F, Esteban E, Urrea M, Garcia Garcia J, et al. Quantitative real-time PCR in paediatric patients with herpes simplex infections of the central nervous system. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:297-300 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between viral load and other clinical, pathological, and genetic variables. ..
  45. Nagai T, Yu J, Kitahara Y, Nabeshima T, Yamada K. D-Serine ameliorates neonatal PolyI:C treatment-induced emotional and cognitive impairments in adult mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;120:213-27 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that D-serine ameliorates emotional and cognitive impairments of the polyI:C-treated mice through potentiating NMDA receptor activity. ..
  46. St Jean J, Desforges M, Almazán F, Jacomy H, Enjuanes L, Talbot P. Recovery of a neurovirulent human coronavirus OC43 from an infectious cDNA clone. J Virol. 2006;80:3670-4 pubmed
    ..Recombinant virus displayed the same phenotypic properties as the wild-type virus, including infectious virus titers produced in cell culture and neurovirulence in mice. ..
  47. Waruiru C, Slatter M, Taylor C, Ramesh V, Flood T, Abinun M, et al. Outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe combined immune deficiency with central nervous system viral infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:129-33 pubmed
    ..Outcome of viral central nervous system infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency is poor, particularly associated with T cell depleted marrow. ..
  48. Kilic I, Altuglu I, Cicek C, Pullukcu H, Bayram N, Sirin H, et al. [Identification of enteroviruses from central nervous system infections by RT-PCR and cell culture methods]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:468-77 pubmed
    ..An alternative NAT method should be evaluated in parallel with cell culture method especially in CSF samples of children with suspected viral central nervous system infections. ..
  49. Mustonen K, Mustakangas P, Uotila L, Muir P, Koskiniemi M. Viral infections in neonates with seizures. J Perinat Med. 2003;31:75-80 pubmed
    ..In one child unspecified, but evident pleocytosis in the CSF was observed. The incidence of CNS viral infections in association with neonatal seizures may be much higher than previously reported. ..
  50. Konat G, Borysiewicz E, Fil D, James I. Peripheral challenge with double-stranded RNA elicits global up-regulation of cytokine gene expression in the brain. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the endothelial NOS message was initially down-regulated and subsequently up-regulated, indicating stimulation of cerebral vasculature. ..
  51. Sá P, Nunes M, Leite I, Campelo M, Leão C, Souza J, et al. Chikungunya virus infection with severe neurologic manifestations: report of four fatal cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2017;50:265-268 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is important, as very few cases in the literature reporting death due to atypical Chikungunya virus infection are available. ..
  52. Colimon R. Introduction to the virological diagnosis of the most frequent infections of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol. 2002;25 Suppl 1:S1-3 pubmed
  53. Daoud A, Batieha A, Bashtawi M, el Shanti H. Risk factors for childhood epilepsy: a case-control study from Irbid, Jordan. Seizure. 2003;12:171-4 pubmed
    ..The risk factors examined are febrile convulsions, head trauma, central nervous system infections, abnormal perinatal history, family history and parental consanguinity...
  54. Mustonen K, Uotila L, Laitinen R, Koskiniemi M. CSF findings in neonates with seizures; infectious and noninfectious. J Perinat Med. 2003;31:69-74 pubmed
  55. Kimberlin D, Lin C, Sanchez P, Demmler G, Dankner W, Shelton M, et al. Effect of ganciclovir therapy on hearing in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease involving the central nervous system: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2003;143:16-25 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ganciclovir therapy in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease...
  56. Trifilo M, Montalto Morrison C, Stiles L, Hurst K, Hardison J, Manning J, et al. CXC chemokine ligand 10 controls viral infection in the central nervous system: evidence for a role in innate immune response through recruitment and activation of natural killer cells. J Virol. 2004;78:585-94 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CXCL10 expression plays a pivotal role in defense following coronavirus infection of the CNS by enhancing innate immune responses...
  57. Curtis K, Vikram H. 66-year-old man with inarticulate speech. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:1562-5 pubmed
  58. Pewe L, Haring J, Perlman S. CD4 T-cell-mediated demyelination is increased in the absence of gamma interferon in mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus. J Virol. 2002;76:7329-33 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show, in contrast, that demyelination and lymphocyte infiltration were increased in recipients of IFN-gamma(-/-) CD4 T cells when compared to levels in mice receiving C57BL/6 CD4 T cells...
  59. Castillo M, Thurnher M. Imaging viral and prion infections. Semin Roentgenol. 2004;39:482-94 pubmed
  60. Ellis R. Clinical trials in HIV CNS disease and treatment management. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2007;2:20-5 pubmed
    ..Flexner) are described in detail here. The remaining four talks (those by R. Ellis, R. Price, S. Letendre, and R. Robertson) are briefly introduced here, and full-length papers may be found elsewhere in this issue of the Journal...
  61. Lanari M, Capretti M, Lazzarotto T, Gabrielli L, Rizzollo S, Mostert M, et al. Neuroimaging in CMV congenital infected neonates: how and when. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88 Suppl 2:S3-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we will discuss from a neonatological perspective the advantages, disadvantages, risks and limitations of each imaging technique...
  62. Desforges M, Le Coupanec A, Brison E, Meessen Pinard M, Talbot P. Neuroinvasive and neurotropic human respiratory coronaviruses: potential neurovirulent agents in humans. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;807:75-96 pubmed publisher
  63. de la Torre J. Bornavirus and the brain. J Infect Dis. 2002;186 Suppl 2:S241-7 pubmed
    ..Neonatal BDV-infected rats display neurodevelopmental, physiologic, and neurobehavioral abnormalities that closely parallel some of the main features associated with several human mental disorders...
  64. Rojanawiwat A, Miura T, Thaisri H, Pathipvanich P, Umnajsirisuk S, Koibuchi T, et al. Frequent detection of Epstein-Barr Virus and cytomegalovirus but not JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in northern Thailand. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3484-6 pubmed
    ..Despite the low incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma or cytomegalovirus encephalitis among Thai AIDS patients, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections in the central nervous system are common...
  65. de Almeida S, Letendre S, Ellis R. Human immunodeficiency virus and the central nervous system. Braz J Infect Dis. 2006;10:41-50 pubmed
    ..The neurological manifestations directly related to HIV are acute viral meningitis, chronic meningitis, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), vacuolar myelopathy, and involvement of the peripheral nervous system...
  66. Venturi G, Madeddu G, Rezza G, Ciccozzi M, Pettinato M, Cilliano M, et al. Detection of Toscana virus central nervous system infections in Sardinia Island, Italy. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:90-1 pubmed
  67. Moritani T, Capizzano A, Kirby P, Policeni B. Viral infections and white matter lesions. Radiol Clin North Am. 2014;52:355-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroimaging provides many clues for the specific diagnosis. Understanding the underlying disorder and pathophysiology is important for the interpretation of the images and therefore the treatment. ..
  68. Horton J. Neurovisual manifestations of herpesviruses. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42:33-41 pubmed
  69. Neumann H. Molecular mechanisms of axonal damage in inflammatory central nervous system diseases. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003;16:267-73 pubmed
    ..Axonal injury has attracted considerable interest during the past few years because the degree of axonal damage appears to determine long-term clinical outcome...
  70. van den Pol A. Viral infections in the developing and mature brain. Trends Neurosci. 2006;29:398-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com/).]..
  71. Savarin C, Bergmann C. Neuroimmunology of central nervous system viral infections: the cells, molecules and mechanisms involved. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2008;8:472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, owing to the extensive positive and negative feedback signaling cascades linking innate and adaptive immune responses, enhanced anti-viral functions will have to be counterbalanced to avoid pathology...
  72. Christensen T. HERVs in neuropathogenesis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:326-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of anti-HERV-W Gag reactive epitopes is reported to be down-regulated in the brain but up-regulated in the blood from schizophrenia patients. The pathogenic potential of HERVs certainly merits further studies...
  73. Jang H, Boltz D, McClaren J, Pani A, Smeyne M, Korff A, et al. Inflammatory effects of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in the CNS of mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1545-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that H5N1 infection in mice induces a long-lasting inflammatory response in brain and may play a contributing factor in the development of pathologies in neurodegenerative disorders...
  74. Churchill M, Nath A. Where does HIV hide? A focus on the central nervous system. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013;8:165-9 pubmed publisher
  75. Kang B, Lyman M, Kim B. The majority of infiltrating CD8+ T cells in the central nervous system of susceptible SJL/J mice infected with Theiler's virus are virus specific and fully functional. J Virol. 2002;76:6577-85 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, T-cell responses to all three epitopes are restricted by the H-2K(s) molecule, and this skewed class I restriction may be associated with susceptibility to demyelinating disease...
  76. Boriskin Y, Rice P, Stabler R, Hinds J, Al Ghusein H, Vass K, et al. DNA microarrays for virus detection in cases of central nervous system infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5811-8 pubmed
    ..quot; The microarray-based virus detection assay is qualitative and provides a single-format diagnostic tool for the detection of panviral CNS infections...
  77. Overturf G. Defining bacterial meningitis and other infections of the central nervous system. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:S14-8 pubmed
    ..To define central nervous system infections of infants and children that occur as co-morbid or predisposing conditions of sepsis...
  78. Gonzalez J, Bergmann C, Ramakrishna C, Hinton D, Atkinson R, Hoskin J, et al. Inhibition of interferon-gamma signaling in oligodendroglia delays coronavirus clearance without altering demyelination. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:796-804 pubmed
    ..In addition, the absence of a correlation between increased oligodendroglial infection and the extent of demyelination suggests a complex pathobiology of myelin loss in which infection of oligodendroglia is required but not sufficient...
  79. Yarim G, Karahan S, Yarim M. Cerebellum progesterone concentration decreased in canine distemper virus infection. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82:173-80 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that local impairment of progesterone metabolism may be associated with the initiation and progression of cerebellar lesions in CDV infection...
  80. Menge T, Kieseier B, Nessler S, Hemmer B, Hartung H, Stuve O. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an acute hit against the brain. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007;20:247-54 pubmed
    ..ADEM is a para- or postinfectious autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and has been considered a monophasic disease. The highest incidence of ADEM is observed during childhood...
  81. Lo C, Chen C. Neuroimaging of viral infections in infants and young children. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2008;18:119-32; viii pubmed publisher
  82. Durrant D, Ghosh S, Klein R. The Olfactory Bulb: An Immunosensory Effector Organ during Neurotropic Viral Infections. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2016;7:464-9 pubmed publisher
  83. Hukkanen V, Rehn T, Kajander R, Sjöroos M, Waris M. Time-resolved fluorometry PCR assay for rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3214-8 pubmed
    ..The TRF PCR assay for HSV in CSF specimens is a rapid and sensitive method, improves interpretation of PCR results, and is well suited for automation...
  84. Flanagan E, Schoeb T, Wertz G. Vesicular stomatitis viruses with rearranged genomes have altered invasiveness and neuropathogenesis in mice. J Virol. 2003;77:5740-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that gene rearrangement and its consequent alteration of gene expression can, without any other changes, alter the viral spread and cytokine response following intranasal infection...
  85. Mori I, Nishiyama Y, Yokochi T, Kimura Y. Virus-induced neuronal apoptosis as pathological and protective responses of the host. Rev Med Virol. 2004;14:209-16 pubmed
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