venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis

Summary

Summary: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)

Top Publications

  1. Bronze M, Huycke M, Machado L, Voskuhl G, Greenfield R. Viral agents as biological weapons and agents of bioterrorism. Am J Med Sci. 2002;323:316-25 pubmed
    ..Although the risk of large-scale bioterrorism using viral agents is small, public health programs and health care providers must be prepared for this potentially devastating impact on public health...
  2. Fine D, Roberts B, Teehee M, Terpening S, Kelly C, Raetz J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidate (V3526) safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in horses. Vaccine. 2007;25:1868-76 pubmed
    ..The second study supported that repeat dosing resulted in an increase in serum neutralizing antibody to TrD...
  3. Jackson A, Rossiter J. Apoptotic cell death is an important cause of neuronal injury in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mice. Acta Neuropathol. 1997;93:349-53 pubmed
    ..There is strong morphological and biochemical evidence of apoptotic cell death in this experimental model of VEE virus infection...
  4. Mangiafico J, Rossi C, Ludwig G. Short report: Isolation and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from a human in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:112-3 pubmed
    ..The virus was isolated from the acute phase serum and identified as VEE, subtype ID virus by monoclonal antibodies, and was confirmed by cross plaque-reduction neutralization tests...
  5. Bonilla E, Valero N, Chacin Bonilla L, Pons H, Larreal Y, Medina Leendertz S, et al. Melatonin increases interleukin-1beta and decreases tumor necrosis factor alpha in the brain of mice infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:681-6 pubmed
    ..on the brain levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus infection was determined...
  6. Bondarenko E, Protopopova E, Surovtsev I, Shvalov A, Loktev V. [Inhibition of replication of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis with polyclonal antibodies to laminin-binding protein]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:32-7 pubmed
    A study of temporal and quantitative characteristics of inhibition of replication of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus, strain TC-83, in Vero and CPE on PK cells showed purified polyclonal rabbit antibodies to human ..
  7. Reed D, Lind C, Lackemeyer M, Sullivan L, Pratt W, Parker M. Genetically engineered, live, attenuated vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with a virulent IE strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2005;23:3139-47 pubmed
    ..Genetically engineered, live attenuated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis: testing in animal models. Vaccine 2003;21(25-26):3854-62] and IE strains of VEE viruses...
  8. Charles P, Trgovcich J, Davis N, Johnston R. Immunopathogenesis and immune modulation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-induced disease in the mouse. Virology. 2001;284:190-202 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to other neurovirulent alphaviruses, VEE was directly cytopathic for the cells of the CNS, even in the absence of an immune response...
  9. Ortiz D, Anishchenko M, Weaver S. Susceptibility of Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan Equine encephalitis viruses. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:857-63 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, its high susceptibility, abundance in enzootic and epizootic regions, and feeding behavior suggest that Ps. confinnis is an important bridge vector for both enzootic and epizootic VEEV...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Phillpotts R. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex-specific monoclonal antibody provides broad protection, in murine models, against airborne challenge with viruses from serogroups I, II and III. Virus Res. 2006;120:107-12 pubmed
    ..1985. J. Virol. 55, 594-600]. Development of an analogous human MAB with identical VEEV epitope specificity may be informed and monitored by reference to these properties...
  2. Bonilla E, Rodon C, Valero N, Pons H, Chacin Bonilla L, Garcia Tamayo J, et al. Melatonin prolongs survival of immunodepressed mice infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:207-10 pubmed
    ..the injection of dexamethasone (DEX) were inoculated intraperitoneally with the Guajira strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus...
  3. Valero N, MarinaEspina L, Bonilla E, Mosquera J. Melatonin decreases nitric oxide production and lipid peroxidation and increases interleukin-1 beta in the brain of mice infected by the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Pineal Res. 2007;42:107-12 pubmed
    Melatonin, a potent antioxidant, has shown to be beneficial in murine Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus infection...
  4. Smith D, Carrara A, Aguilar P, Weaver S. Evaluation of methods to assess transmission potential of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes and estimation of mosquito saliva titers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:33-9 pubmed
    ..2 to 1.1 log(10) (mean 0.7-1.4 log(10)) and 0.2 to 3.2 log(10) (mean 1.0-3.6 log(10)) plaque-forming units, respectively. The results of this study will aid in the design of transmission and pathogenesis studies involving arboviruses...
  5. Yanoviak S, Aguilar P, Lounibos L, Weaver S. Transmission of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex Alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:404-8 pubmed
    ..This species, like the other seven proven VEE complex alphavirus vectors, is a member of the Spissipes section of this subgenus. The composition of mosquitoes collected at the site over the sampling period was typical for the region...
  6. Lee J, Pushko P, Parker M, Dertzbaugh M, Smith L, Smith J. Candidate vaccine against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A derived from a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector system. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5709-15 pubmed
    ..The duration of the immunity achieved was tested at 6 months and at 1 year postvaccination, and mice challenged at these times remained refractory to challenge with BoNT/A...
  7. Wang E, Bowen R, Medina G, Powers A, Kang W, Chandler L, et al. Virulence and viremia characteristics of 1992 epizootic subtype IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and closely related enzootic subtype ID strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:64-9 pubmed
    ..Enzootic ID virus infection protected all horses from challenge with epizootic strain P676, supporting the hypothesis that epizootics bypass regions of enzootic transmission due to natural immunization of equines by enzootic VEE viruses...
  8. Duggan J, Coates D, Ulaeto D. Isolation of single-chain antibody fragments against Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from two different immune sources. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:263-73 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus is an important human and veterinary pathogen of Central and South America. The virus can cause widespread epidemics, affecting hundreds of thousands of horses, and thousands of humans...
  9. Casamassima A, Hess L, Marty A. TC-83 Venezuelan equine encephalitis vaccine exposure during pregnancy. Teratology. 1987;36:287-9 pubmed
    ..Maternal seroconversion and the finding of a diffuse mononuclear cell infiltrate on postmortem examination are suggestive of a causative role for TC-83 vaccine...
  10. Ni H, Yun N, Zacks M, Weaver S, Tesh R, da Rosa A, et al. Recombinant alphaviruses are safe and useful serological diagnostic tools. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:774-81 pubmed
    ..Chimeric viruses were produced efficiently in cell culture and were as effective as the parental virus for identifying infection of humans, horses, and rodents in these serological assays...
  11. Fine D, Roberts B, Terpening S, Mott J, Vasconcelos D, House R. Neurovirulence evaluation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) vaccine candidate V3526 in nonhuman primates. Vaccine. 2008;26:3497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..V3526 was immunogenic and essentially nonneurovirulent when administered via the clinically relevant subcutaneous route...
  12. Quiroz E, Aguilar P, Cisneros J, Tesh R, Weaver S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e472 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America...
  13. Aguilar P, Greene I, Coffey L, Medina G, Moncayo A, Anishchenko M, et al. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:880-8 pubmed
    ..Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin...
  14. Phillpotts R, Jones L, Howard S. Monoclonal antibody protects mice against infection and disease when given either before or up to 24 h after airborne challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2002;20:1497-504 pubmed
    ..Antiviral therapy with VEEV-specific human or "humanised" MAB, providing that they are administered early, may offer an alternative means of specific medical intervention for those with a known exposure to VEEV...
  15. Ortiz D, Kang W, Weaver S. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1117-25 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of enzootic VEE complex viruses circulating endemically in Iquitos suggests the possibility of a dengue-like transmission cycle among humans in tropical cities...
  16. MacDonald G, Johnston R. Role of dendritic cell targeting in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis. J Virol. 2000;74:914-22 pubmed
    ..A second-site suppressor mutation that restores viral spread to lymphoid tissues and partially restore virulence likewise restored the ability of VEE to infect dendritic cells in vivo...
  17. Sahu S, Pedersen D, Jenny A, Schmitt B, Alstad A. Pathogenicity of a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis serotype IE virus isolate for ponies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:485-94 pubmed
    The enzootic or endemic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus (ID, IE, IF, and II-VI) are considered avirulent...
  18. Koterski J, Twenhafel N, Porter A, Reed D, Martino Catt S, Sobral B, et al. Gene expression profiling of nonhuman primates exposed to aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;51:462-72 pubmed
    ..Altogether, this work provides novel information on common and tissue-specific host responses against VEEV in a nonhuman primate model of aerosol exposure...
  19. Watts D, Lavera V, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste M, Roehrig J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997;56:661-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that VEE ID virus was one of the causes of illness among Peruvians soldiers and that this was the first association of this VEE subtype with human disease in Peru...
  20. Grieder F, Vogel S. Role of interferon and interferon regulatory factors in early protection against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. Virology. 1999;257:106-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, type I interferon, as well as IRF-1 and IRF-2, appears to play an important and necessary role in the pathogenesis of, and protection against, VEE infection...
  21. Turell M, Dohm D, Fernandez R, Calampa C, O Guinn M. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for a subtype IIIC virus in the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex isolated from mosquitoes captured in Peru. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006;22:70-5 pubmed
    ..in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, for their susceptibility to a subtype IIIC strain of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. This virus had been previously isolated from a pool of mixed Culex vomerifer and Cx...
  22. Grieder F, Davis B, Zhou X, Chen S, Finkelman F, Gause W. Kinetics of cytokine expression and regulation of host protection following infection with molecularly cloned Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Virology. 1997;233:302-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IFN-alpha/beta, but not IL-12, seems to be a major factor in the induction of early protection against VEE infection and disease...
  23. Phillpotts R, O BRIEN L, Appleton R, Carr S, Bennett A. Intranasal immunisation with defective adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus E2 glycoprotein protects against airborne challenge with virulent virus. Vaccine. 2005;23:1615-23 pubmed
  24. Estrada Franco J, Navarro Lopez R, Freier J, Cordova D, Clements T, Moncayo A, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2113-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans...
  25. Brault A, Powers A, Holmes E, Woelk C, Weaver S. Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2002;76:1718-30 pubmed
    ..Maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that one change at E2 position 213 has been influenced by positive selection and convergent evolution of the epizootic phenotype...
  26. Vilcarromero S, Laguna Torres V, Fernandez C, Gotuzzo E, Suarez L, Cespedes M, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:323-5 pubmed
    ..In 2006, VEE virus subtype ID was isolated from a boy with severe febrile disease and gastrointestinal bleeding; the strain contained 2 mutations within the PE2 region...
  27. Hunt A, Frederickson S, Hinkel C, Bowdish K, Roehrig J. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody protects mice either before or after challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2467-76 pubmed
    A humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been developed and its potential to protect from or cure a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) infection was evaluated...
  28. Greene I, Paessler S, Austgen L, Anishchenko M, Brault A, Bowen R, et al. Envelope glycoprotein mutations mediate equine amplification and virulence of epizootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:9128-33 pubmed
  29. Steele K, Seth P, Catlin Lebaron K, Schoneboom B, Husain M, Grieder F, et al. Tunicamycin enhances neuroinvasion and encephalitis in mice infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:904-13 pubmed
    ..The exact mechanism of tunicamycin-enhanced neuroinvasion by VEE viruses requires further study...
  30. Carrara A, Coffey L, Aguilar P, Moncayo A, Da Rosa A, Nunes M, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1158-65 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the geographic origins of cotton rats are important determinants of the outcome of VEE infection and reservoir potential of these rodents...
  31. Morrison A, Forshey B, Notyce D, Astete H, Lopez V, Rocha C, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Iquitos, Peru: urban transmission of a sylvatic strain. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e349 pubmed publisher
  32. Gonzalez Salazar D, Estrada Franco J, Carrara A, Aronson J, Weaver S. Equine amplification and virulence of subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican epizootics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:161-8 pubmed
  33. Moncayo A, Medina G, Kalvatchev Z, Brault A, Barrera R, Boshell J, et al. Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:738-46 pubmed
    ..The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants...
  34. Ferro C, Boshell J, Moncayo A, Gonzalez M, Ahumada M, Kang W, et al. Natural enzootic vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:49-54 pubmed
    ..Our findings contrast with previous studies, which have indicated that a single species usually serves as the principal enzootic VEEV vector at a given location...
  35. Valero N, Bonilla E, Pons H, Chacin Bonilla L, Añez F, Espina L, et al. Melatonin induces changes to serum cytokines in mice infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:348-51 pubmed
    ..tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) on mice infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Levels of IFN-gamma in the MLT-treated group were significantly increased (P < 0...
  36. Anishchenko M, Bowen R, Paessler S, Austgen L, Greene I, Weaver S. Venezuelan encephalitis emergence mediated by a phylogenetically predicted viral mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4994-9 pubmed
    ..VEE also demonstrates the unpredictable risks to human health of anthropogenic changes such as the introduction of equines and humans into habitats that harbor zoonotic RNA viruses...
  37. Turell M, O Guinn M, Navarro R, Romero G, Estrada Franco J. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:306-10 pubmed
    ..Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus...
  38. Fernandez Z, Moncayo A, Carrara A, Forattini O, Weaver S. Vector competence of rural and urban strains of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil for IC, ID, and IF subtypes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:522-7 pubmed
    ..Significant survival rate differences were observed between uninfected and infected mosquitoes, but there were no differences in survival between rural and urban mosquito strains...
  39. Anishchenko M, Paessler S, Greene I, Aguilar P, Carrara A, Weaver S. Generation and characterization of closely related epizootic and enzootic infectious cDNA clones for studying interferon sensitivity and emergence mechanisms of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:1-8 pubmed
  40. Roehrig J, Bolin R. Monoclonal antibodies capable of distinguishing epizootic from enzootic varieties of subtype 1 Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in a rapid indirect immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1887-90 pubmed
    ..Because VEE virus virulence has been associated in part with the E2 glycoprotein, this observed antigenic change in the 1E virus E2 glycoprotein may explain the apparent equine virulence of this unusual VEE 1E virus...
  41. Ludwig G, Turell M, Vogel P, Kondig J, Kell W, Smith J, et al. Comparative neurovirulence of attenuated and non-attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:49-55 pubmed
    ..c. inoculation of V3526 were consistently less severe and of shorter duration than those observed in TC-83-inoculated mice. Based on these results, V3526 is stable and appears to be significantly less neurovirulent in mice than TC-83...
  42. Martin S, Bakken R, Lind C, Reed D, Price J, Koeller C, et al. Telemetric analysis to detect febrile responses in mice following vaccination with a live-attenuated virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:6814-23 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies, we conclude, outbred mouse strains implanted with telemeters are a sensitive model for predicting responses in humans following vaccination...
  43. Pratt W, Davis N, Johnston R, Smith J. Genetically engineered, live attenuated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis: testing in animal models. Vaccine. 2003;21:3854-62 pubmed
    ..Based on results from this assessment, one of the PE2 cleavage-signal mutants, V3526, was determined to be the best vaccine candidate for further evaluation for human use...
  44. Weaver S, Barrett A. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:789-801 pubmed
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
  45. Salas R, Garcia C, Liria J, Barrera R, Navarro J, Medina G, et al. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:84-92 pubmed
    ..Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence...
  46. Muehlenbein M, Cogswell F, James M, Koterski J, Ludwig G. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques. Virol J. 2006;3:19 pubmed
    ..Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions...
  47. White L, Wang J, Davis N, Johnston R. Role of alpha/beta interferon in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis: effect of an attenuating mutation in the 5' untranslated region. J Virol. 2001;75:3706-18 pubmed
  48. Wang E, Paessler S, Aguilar P, Smith D, Coffey L, Kang W, et al. A novel, rapid assay for detection and differentiation of serotype-specific antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:805-10 pubmed
    ..It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism...
  49. Brault A, Powers A, Medina G, Wang E, Kang W, Salas R, et al. Potential sources of the 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis subtype IC epidemic. J Virol. 2001;75:5823-32 pubmed
    ..This subtype IC VEEV conservation, combined with phylogenetic relationships, suggests the possibility that the 1995 outbreak was initiated by a laboratory strain...
  50. Brault A, Powers A, Ortiz D, Estrada Franco J, Navarro Lopez R, Weaver S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11344-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence...
  51. Weaver S, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro J. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol. 2004;49:141-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, enzootic VEEV strains are highly specialized and appear to utilize vectors exclusively in the Spissipes section of the Culex (Melanoconion) subgenus...
  52. Reynaud J, Lulla V, Kim D, Frolova E, Frolov I. The SD1 Subdomain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein Plays a Critical Role in Nucleocapsid and Particle Assembly. J Virol. 2016;90:2008-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It functions synergistically with the following SD2 (helix I) and appears to form a core in the center of nucleocapsid. The core formation is one of the driving forces of alphavirus particle assembly. ..
  53. Campos Gomez J, Ahmad F, Rodriguez E, Saeed M. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease. Virology. 2016;496:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate potential utility of the assay in identification of nsP2pro inhibitors, as well as in investigations related to molecular characterization of nsP2pro. ..
  54. Jones L, Bennett A, Moss S, Gould E, Phillpotts R. Cytotoxic T-cell activity is not detectable in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-infected mice. Virus Res. 2003;91:255-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that VEEV infection of mice does not elicit detectable CTL activity, and that CTL are unlikely to play a role in protection against virulent VEEV...
  55. Vilcarromero S, Aguilar P, Halsey E, Laguna Torres V, Razuri H, Perez J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and 2 human deaths, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:553-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Deaths of 2 persons with evidence of acute VEE virus infection indicate that fatal VEEV infection in Peru is likely. Cases may remain underreported...