tick borne encephalitis

Summary

Summary: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)

Top Publications

  1. Gritsun T, Lashkevich V, Gould E. Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:129-46 pubmed
    ..This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains...
  2. Mansfield K, Johnson N, Phipps L, Stephenson J, Fooks A, Solomon T. Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging zoonosis. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1781-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the factors which may have influenced an apparent increase in the number of reported human cases each year, despite the availability of effective vaccines...
  3. Wang J, Zhang H, Fu S, Wang H, Ni D, Nasci R, et al. Isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from febrile patient, yunnan, china. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:326-8 pubmed
    ..Results of a 1987-1990 seroepidemiologic investigation in Yunnan Province had shown that residents of the Hengduan Mountain region had been infected with Nanjianyin virus. ..
  4. Gelpi E, Preusser M, Garzuly F, Holzmann H, Heinz F, Budka H. Visualization of Central European tick-borne encephalitis infection in fatal human cases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:506-12 pubmed
  5. Heinz F, Holzmann H, Essl A, Kundi M. Field effectiveness of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccine. 2007;25:7559-67 pubmed
    ..Our data confirm the excellent performance of TBE vaccine under field conditions and provide evidence that, in Austria, about 2800 cases were prevented by vaccination in the years 2000-2006. ..
  6. Leschnik M, Kirtz G, Thalhammer J. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in dogs. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:66-9 pubmed
    ..TBE is a seasonal disease, depending on climate related tick activity. Infected ticks are spreading the virus over central Europe with a tendency to expand to new endemic areas in western Europe. ..
  7. Günther G, Haglund M. Tick-borne encephalopathies : epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. CNS Drugs. 2005;19:1009-32 pubmed
    ..RMSF and CTF appear only in North America. RMSF is an important rickettsial disease and is effectively treated with doxycycline. There is no treatment or preventative measure available for CTF...
  8. Romanova L, Gmyl A, Dzhivanian T, Bakhmutov D, Lukashev A, Gmyl L, et al. Microevolution of tick-borne encephalitis virus in course of host alternation. Virology. 2007;362:75-84 pubmed
    ..Host switch results in a change in the ratio of these variants in the population. Plaque purification of the tick-adapted virus resulted in the prompt emergence of new mutants with different virulence for mammals. ..
  9. Ternovoi V, Kurzhukov G, Sokolov Y, Ivanov G, Ivanisenko V, Loktev A, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis with hemorrhagic syndrome, Novosibirsk region, Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:743-6 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed tick-borne encephalitis variants clustered with a Far Eastern subtype (homology 94.7%) but not with the Siberian subtype (82%)...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Lesnicar G, Poljak M, Seme K, Lesnicar J. Pediatric tick-borne encephalitis in 371 cases from an endemic region in Slovenia, 1959 to 2000. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:612-7 pubmed
    ..None of the children with TBE died, and none had permanent sequelae. The results of our study indicate that pediatric TBE is relatively mild disease with favorable outcome. ..
  2. Kunz C. Vaccination against TBE in Austria: the success story continues. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:56-7 pubmed
  3. Beltrame A, Cruciatti B, Ruscio M, Scudeller L, Cristini F, Rorato G, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis in Friuli Venezia Giulia, northeastern Italy. Infection. 2005;33:158-9 pubmed
  4. Zeman P, Bene C. A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in Central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming?. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:48-54 pubmed
    ..Although the dependence of TBE on temperature is not a direct one and various factors could be involved, an impact of climate warming on the vertical disease distribution in Central Europe is evident. ..
  5. Ebel G, Kramer L. Short report: duration of tick attachment required for transmission of powassan virus by deer ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:268-71 pubmed
  6. Daniel M, Danielová V, Kriz B, Kott I. An attempt to elucidate the increased incidence of tick-borne encephalitis and its spread to higher altitudes in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:55-62 pubmed
    ..ricinus. The same conclusion explains the shift of I. ricinus occurrence and of TBE distribution to higher altitudes in Sumava and Krkonose Mountains. ..
  7. Dobson A, Cattadori I, Holt R, Ostfeld R, Keesing F, Krichbaum K, et al. Sacred cows and sympathetic squirrels: the importance of biological diversity to human health. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e231 pubmed
  8. Daniel M, Danielova V, Kriz B, Jirsa A, Nozicka J. Shift of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne encephalitis to higher altitudes in central Europe. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:327-8 pubmed
  9. Pogodina V, Karan L, Koliasnikova N, Levina L, Malenko G, Gamova E, et al. [Evolution of tick-borne encephalitis and a problem of evolution of its causative agent]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:16-21 pubmed
    ..4) original mixed TBEV strains including the gene sites of proteins E and NSI of two subtypes. There is new evidence that the Siberian subtype is able to induce focal TBE forms, leading to death...
  10. Süss J, Schrader C, Abel U, Bormane A, Duks A, Kalnina V. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci in Germany and Latvia (1997-2000). Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:34-42 pubmed
    ..persulcatus two strains have been found, the central European virus subtype (prototype Neudoerfl) and the Siberian virus subtype (prototype Vasilchenko). Sequences of the Far Eastern subtype have not been detected yet...
  11. Pogodina V, Bochkova N, Karan L, Trukhina A, Levina L, Malenko G, et al. [The Siberian and Far-Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus registered in Russia's Asian regions: genetic and antigen characteristics of the strains]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:20-5 pubmed
    ..Lethal TBE outcomes were registered in Siberia (Irkutsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory) and in Russia's European part (Yaroslavl Region)...
  12. Süss J, Klaus C, Diller R, Schrader C, Wohanka N, Abel U. TBE incidence versus virus prevalence and increased prevalence of the TBE virus in Ixodes ricinus removed from humans. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:63-8 pubmed
    ..6% and in the district of Freyung-Grafenau with 18.3%. In recent studies on unfed I. ricinus (nymphs, adults), the average TBEV prevalence in ticks in Bavarian risk areas was between 0.5% and 2%...
  13. Cinco M, Barbone F, Grazia Ciufolini M, Mascioli M, Anguero Rosenfeld M, Stefanel P, et al. Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in forestry rangers from northeastern Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:1056-61 pubmed
    ..Risk factors were similar when a case of Lyme borreliosis was defined either by Western blot positivity or by clinical history...
  14. Sumilo D, Bormane A, Asokliene L, Vasilenko V, Golovljova I, Avsic Zupanc T, et al. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18:81-95 pubmed publisher
    ..533 and 0.716, respectively)...
  15. Tavakoli N, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel G, Gilmore E, et al. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2099-107 pubmed publisher
    ..This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis...
  16. Laursen K, Knudsen J. Tick-borne encephalitis: a retrospective study of clinical cases in Bornholm, Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:354-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the risk of being infected and developing TBE is still low among the population of Bornholm, but information about the disease and its sequelae is needed to form a basis for vaccination recommendations...
  17. Süss J. [Increasing prevalence of early summer meningoencephalitis in Europe]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005;130:1397-400 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological data with respect to the expansion of risk areas and its level of risk are available covering most European countries with TBE risk and can be made available for medical purposes when travelling...
  18. Stefanoff P, Eidson M, Morse D, Zielinski A. Evaluation of tickborne encephalitis case classification in Poland. Euro Surveill. 2005;10:23-5 pubmed
    ..With only 25% of reported cases meeting the definition for confirmed cases, there is a need for more complete follow-up and standardised testing of suspect cases...
  19. Jensen P, Skarphedinsson S, Semenov A. [Densities of the tick (Ixodes ricinus) and coexistence of the Louping ill virus and tick borne encephalitis on the island of Bornholm]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:2563-5 pubmed
  20. Haglund M, Vene S, Forsgren M, Günther G, Johansson B, Niedrig M, et al. Characterisation of human tick-borne encephalitis virus from Sweden. J Med Virol. 2003;71:610-21 pubmed
    ..No apparent correlation was observed in comparison of clinical parameters with genetic data or geographic origin of the strains...
  21. Kim S, Yun S, Han M, Lee I, Lee N, Jeong Y, et al. Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from wild rodents, South Korea. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western subtype (98% identity). This study suggests the possible occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis in Korea...
  22. Sumilo D, Asokliene L, Avsic Zupanc T, Bormane A, Vasilenko V, Lucenko I, et al. Behavioural responses to perceived risk of tick-borne encephalitis: vaccination and avoidance in the Baltics and Slovenia. Vaccine. 2008;26:2580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that risk avoidance through changing human behaviour has driven incidence-dependent decreases in TBE infection, but targeted vaccination campaigns could provide more secure protection...
  23. Waldenstrom J, Lundkvist A, Falk K, Garpmo U, Bergstrom S, Lindegren G, et al. Migrating birds and tickborne encephalitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1215-8 pubmed
    ..4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks...
  24. Juchnowicz D, Rudnik I, Czernikiewicz A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz S. [Mental disorders in the course of lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56 Suppl 1:37-50 pubmed
    ..b>Tick Borne Encephalitis (TBE) is neuroinfection caused by Tick Borne Encephalitis Virus (TBEV).
  25. Schwaiger M, Cassinotti P. Development of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay with internal control for the laboratory detection of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. J Clin Virol. 2003;27:136-45 pubmed
    b>Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a human flavivirus causing tick borne encephalitis (TBE), a viral infection of the central nervous system endemic in Europe and Asia.
  26. Marjelund S, Jaaskelainen A, Tikkakoski T, Tuisku S, Vapalahti O. Gadolinium enhancement of cauda equina: a new MR imaging finding in the radiculitic form of tick-borne encephalitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:995-7 pubmed
  27. Sumilo D, Bormane A, Asokliene L, Lucenko I, Vasilenko V, Randolph S. Tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltic States: identifying risk factors in space and time. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:76-9 pubmed
    ..Further time series analysis of climate, together with analysis of biotic factors, socio-economic conditions, and human behaviour is being undertaken to explain the epidemiological patterns more fully...
  28. Haglund M, Günther G. Tick-borne encephalitis--pathogenesis, clinical course and long-term follow-up. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S11-8 pubmed
  29. Csángó P, Blakstad E, Kirtz G, Pedersen J, Czettel B. Tick-borne encephalitis in southern Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:533-4 pubmed
    ..Serum specimens from 317 dogs in the same geographic area were collected. An enzyme immunoassay demonstrated antibody to human tick-borne encephalitis virus in 52 (16.4%) of the dogs, which supports the notion of an emerging disease...
  30. Carpi G, Cagnacci F, Neteler M, Rizzoli A. Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1416-24 pubmed
    ..The surveillance of tick infestation on roe deer, combined with remotely sensed climatic data, could therefore be used as an inexpensive early risk assessment tool of favourable conditions for TBE emergence and persistence in humans...
  31. Sumilo D, Asokliene L, Bormane A, Vasilenko V, Golovljova I, Randolph S. Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e500 pubmed
    ..For the first time, we analyse climate and TBE epidemiology at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolution to question this assumption...
  32. Randolph S, Rogers D. Fragile transmission cycles of tick-borne encephalitis virus may be disrupted by predicted climate change. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1741-4 pubmed
    ..The observed marked increase in incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in most parts of Europe since 1993 may be due to non-biological causes, such as political and sociological changes...
  33. Daniel M, Zitek K, Danielová V, Kriz B, Valter J, Kott I. Risk assessment and prediction of Ixodes ricinus tick questing activity and human tick-borne encephalitis infection in space and time in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:41-7 pubmed
    ..Simple and multiple linear regression and quadratic regression were used to test the relation between weather modification and I. ricinus host-seeking activity. Two preliminary most suitable 'models' are demonstrated...
  34. Randolph S. Evidence that climate change has caused 'emergence' of tick-borne diseases in Europe?. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:5-15 pubmed
  35. Holzmann H. Diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S36-40 pubmed
  36. Kunze U, Asokliene L, Bektimirov T, Busse A, Chmelik V, Heinz F, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis in childhood--consensus 2004. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2004;154:242-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore immunization should be offered to all children living in or traveling to endemic areas...
  37. Süss J. Epidemiology and ecology of TBE relevant to the production of effective vaccines. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S19-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore the review is a basis for travellers and inhabitants to get background information for their personal risk assessment...
  38. Haglund M. Occurrence of TBE in areas previously considered being non-endemic: Scandinavian data generate an international study by the International Scientific Working Group for TBE (ISW-TBE). Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:50-4 pubmed
    ..In Norway the first verified cases of TBE have now been found. The reason for this changing epidemiology of TBE is discussed...
  39. Kriz B, Benes C, Danielova V, Daniel M. Socio-economic conditions and other anthropogenic factors influencing tick-borne encephalitis incidence in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:63-8 pubmed
    ..In the industrial areas most polluted by SO2 in the past in northern Bohemia the sharp increase in TBE incidence seems to be connected with measures aiming to eliminate SO2 emissions from brown coal power stations...
  40. Charrel R, Attoui H, Butenko A, Clegg J, Deubel V, Frolova T, et al. Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:1040-55 pubmed
    ..Their ability to cause severe disease in man means that these viruses, as well as any clinical samples suspected of containing them, must be handled with specific and stringent precautions...
  41. Gritsun T, Frolova T, Zhankov A, Armesto M, Turner S, Frolova M, et al. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis. J Virol. 2003;77:25-36 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis...
  42. Haemig P, Lithner S, Sjostedt De Luna S, Lundkvist A, Waldenstrom J, Hansson L, et al. Red fox and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans: can predators influence public health?. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We ask what would happen to red foxes and TBE rates in humans if these larger predators were restored to their former abundances...
  43. Khoretonenko M, Vorovitch M, Zakharova L, Pashvykina G, Ovsyannikova N, Stephenson J, et al. Vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gene of tick-borne encephalitis virus non-structural NS1 protein elicits protective activity in mice. Immunol Lett. 2003;90:161-3 pubmed
    ..The recombinant expressed native dimeric form of the NS1 protein in infected cells and protected mice against lethal infection with TBEV...
  44. Pavlidou V, Geroy S, Diza E, Antoniadis A, Papa A. Epidemiological study of tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Greece. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:611-5 pubmed publisher
    ..8%). TBE was not confirmed by laboratory findings in any of the patients with CNS infection. Results of this study revealed that a flavivirus of the TBE serocomplex is circulating in Greece, yet is not a major public health problem...
  45. Hartemink N, Randolph S, Davis S, Heesterbeek J. The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: defining R(0) for tick-borne infections. Am Nat. 2008;171:743-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides further support that transmission between cofeeding ticks is critically important for the establishment of tick-borne encephalitis...
  46. Niedrig M, Avsic T, Aberle S, Ferenczi E, Labuda M, Rozentale B, et al. Quality control assessment for the serological diagnosis of tick borne encephalitis virus infections. J Clin Virol. 2007;38:260-4 pubmed
    The diagnosis of tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is mainly based on the demonstration of specific antibodies in serum when neurological disease is manifested...
  47. Pogodina V, Bochkova N, Karan L, Frolova M, Trukhina A, Malenko G, et al. [Comparative analysis of virulence of the Siberian and Far-East subtypes of the tick-born encephalitis virus]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:24-30 pubmed
    ..The viral RNA was found in the cortex, medulla oblongata, horn and in the cervical part of the spinal cord of those diseased of acute TBE. Sequences of genotyped strains were presented to Gen Bank, NCBI (AY363846-AY363865)...
  48. Kaiser R. Tick-borne encephalitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:561-75, x pubmed publisher
    ..No specific treatment for TBE is known. It can be successfully prevented by active immunization...
  49. Perkins S, Cattadori I, Tagliapietra V, Rizzoli A, Hudson P. Localized deer absence leads to tick amplification. Ecology. 2006;87:1981-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that localized absence of deer (loss of a dilution host) increases tick feeding on rodents, leading to the potential for tick-borne disease hotspots...
  50. Bender A, Schulte Altedorneburg G, Walther E, Pfister H. Severe tick borne encephalitis with simultaneous brain stem, bithalamic, and spinal cord involvement documented by MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:135-7 pubmed
    A case of tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is reported, with simultaneous brain stem, spinal cord, and bilateral thalamic involvement confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  51. Skarphedinsson S, Jensen P, Kristiansen K. Survey of tickborne infections in Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1055-61 pubmed
    ..phagocytophilum is widely distributed and that a marked shift has occurred in the distribution of TBE-complex virus in Denmark. This finding supports studies that predict alterations in distribution due to climatic changes...
  52. Lindquist L, Vapalahti O. Tick-borne encephalitis. Lancet. 2008;371:1861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The serological diagnosis is usually straightforward. No specific treatment for the disease exists, and immunisation is the main preventive measure...
  53. Danielová V, Kliegrová S, Daniel M, Benes C. Influence of climate warming on tickborne encephalitis expansion to higher altitudes over the last decade (1997-2006) in the Highland Region (Czech Republic). Cent Eur J Public Health. 2008;16:4-11 pubmed
    ..ricinus, caused an activation of foci of TBE, increased contacts of humans with the vector, consequently giving rise to an apparent increase in the incidence of human cases of TBE...
  54. Hinten S, Beckett G, Gensheimer K, Pritchard E, Courtney T, Sears S, et al. Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Because no vaccine or specific therapy is available, the basis of prevention is personal protection from ticks (or "tick hygiene") and reduced exposure to peridomestic wild mammals...
  55. Zeman P, Pazdiora P, Cinatl J. HGE antibodies in sera of patients with TBE in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:190-3 pubmed
    ..Corresponding WB-pattern showed significant MSP, p30, and p28 bands. These findings suggest a case of concurrent TBE with HGE. Overall, this study demonstrates that TBE/HGE co-infections could be encountered in central Europe...
  56. Kaiser R. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Germany and clinical course of the disease. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:58-61 pubmed
    ..Prevention of TBE by post exposure prophylaxis with hyperimmunoglobulins is less effective and should therefore not be performed...
  57. Marjelund S, Tikkakoski T, Tuisku S, Raisanen S. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcome in severe tick-borne encephalitis. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Acta Radiol. 2004;45:88-94 pubmed
    ..These are the most northern cases reported from Scandinavia. Experience of turbo fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has not previously been published in this context...
  58. Kunze U. Tick-borne encephalitis: from epidemiology to vaccination recommendations in 2007. New issues--best practices. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157:228-32 pubmed
  59. Jaaskelainen A, Tikkakoski T, Uzcategui N, Alekseev A, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Siberian subtype tickborne encephalitis virus, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1568-71 pubmed
    ..Thus I. persulcatus and the Siberian TBEV are reported in a focus considerably northwest of their previously known range in eastern Europe and Siberia...
  60. Kristiansen K. TBE in Denmark--in particular on Bornholm. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:62-3 pubmed
  61. Golovljova I, Vene S, Sjölander K, Vasilenko V, Plyusnin A, Lundkvist A. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Estonia. J Med Virol. 2004;74:580-8 pubmed
    ..In the 3'-NCR sequence of the Estonian strain Est2546, which belonged to the FE-TBEV subtype, a deletion from position 10461 to 10810 extending approximately 10 nucleotides into the core element, was detected...
  62. Lu Z, Broker M, Liang G. Tick-borne encephalitis in mainland China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on TBE in China and shows that foci of the virus are mostly located in the northern part of China...
  63. Gritsun T, Nuttall P, Gould E. Tick-borne flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:317-71 pubmed
    ..This chapter contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including the trials with live attenuated vaccine and reviews the modern trends in development of vaccine virus strains...
  64. Danielová V, Holubová J, Pejcoch M, Daniel M. Potential significance of transovarial transmission in the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2002;49:323-5 pubmed
  65. Skarpaas T, Ljøstad U, Sundøy A. First human cases of tickborne encephalitis, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2241-3 pubmed
    ..From 1997 to 2003, from zero to two cases of human TBE have been diagnosed per year in Norway, for a total of eight cases. Clinical TBE cases in dogs are not reported in Norway...
  66. Pogodina V. [Monitoring of tick-borne encephalitis virus populations and etiological structure of morbidity over 60 years]. Vopr Virusol. 2005;50:7-13 pubmed
    ..The chronic forms of TBE are mainly associated with the Siberian subtype. These three subtypes (European, Far Eastern, and Siberian) may cause the disease via unpasteurized milk...