arbovirus encephalitis


Summary: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)

Top Publications

  1. Patz J, Reisen W. Immunology, climate change and vector-borne diseases. Trends Immunol. 2001;22:171-2 pubmed
    ..Warm temperatures might intensify or extend the transmission season for dengue fever. Immunologists should examine this interplay between human immunocompetence and vector-borne disease risks in a warmer world. ..
  2. Li Y, Zhang H, Zhu B, Ashraf U, Chen Z, Xu Q, et al. Microarray Analysis Identifies the Potential Role of Long Non-Coding RNA in Regulating Neuroinflammation during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1237 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a better understanding of the host response to JEV infection and suggest that the identified lncRNAs may be used as potential therapeutic targets for the management of Japanese encephalitis...
  3. Lobigs M, Larena M, Alsharifi M, Lee E, Pavy M. Live chimeric and inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccines differ in their cross-protective values against Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2009;83:2436-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the live chimeric JEV vaccine will protect against other viruses belonging to the JEV serocomplex, consistent with the observation of cross-protection following live virus infections. ..
  4. Robin S, Ramful D, Le Seach F, Jaffar Bandjee M, Rigou G, Alessandri J. Neurologic manifestations of pediatric chikungunya infection. J Child Neurol. 2008;23:1028-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Two patients died. At discharge and 6 months later, 5 children had neurologic sequelae. Patients with initial severe neurologic presentation and having pathological brain MRI had more sequelae or fatal disease. ..
  5. Solomon T. Flavivirus encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:370-8 pubmed
  6. Turtle L, Tatullo F, Bali T, Ravi V, Soni M, Chan S, et al. Cellular Immune Responses to Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine SA14-14-2 in Adults in a JE/Dengue Co-Endemic Area. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005263 pubmed publisher (NCT01656200). ..
  7. Handy R, Lang S. Flavivirus encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1803-4; author reply 1803-4 pubmed
  8. Patti A, Lippolis M, Vulcano A, Santi A. [Viral zoonoses]. Ann Ig. 2003;15:835-43 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological data outlined that vectorborne viral zoonoses are of particular relevance. This paper review the changes in epidemiology of bat rabies and arbovirus encephalitis.
  9. Vasconcelos P, da Rosa J, da Rosa A, Degallier N, Pinheiro F, Sá Filho G. [Epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the Brazilian Amazonia]. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1991;33:465-76 pubmed
    ..2% died. On the other hand, SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported...

More Information


  1. Doughty C, Yawetz S, Lyons J. Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017;17:12 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss the neuropathogenesis of these viruses, their transmission and geographic distribution, the spectrum of their neurologic manifestations, and the appropriate method of diagnosis. ..
  2. LeDuc J. Epidemiology and ecology of the California serogroup viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;37:60S-68S pubmed
    ..His pioneering work on these viruses, beginning with the discovery of the prototype California encephalitis virus, has helped to establish the foundations upon which our current understanding of these viruses is built...
  3. Hollidge B, Gonzalez Scarano F, Soldan S. Arboviral encephalitides: transmission, emergence, and pathogenesis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:428-42 pubmed publisher
  4. Sangster M, Mackenzie J, Shellam G. Genetically determined resistance to flavivirus infection in wild Mus musculus domesticus and other taxonomic groups in the genus Mus. Arch Virol. 1998;143:697-715 pubmed
  5. Block J, Stubbs H. Reducing the risk of deep wound infection in primary joint arthroplasty with antibiotic bone cement. Orthopedics. 2005;28:1334-45 pubmed
    ..Randomized controlled trials in particular had important methodological limitations. However, the collective results nearly unanimously favored prophylactic use of antibiotic cement in primary arthoplasty procedures. ..
  6. Cui J, Zhao Y, Wang H, Qiu B, Cao Z, Li Q, et al. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')? Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')? passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV. ..
  7. Spencer J, Azoulas J, Broom A, Buick T, Currie B, Daniels P, et al. Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia. National Arbovirus Advisory Committee of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2001;25:33-47 pubmed
    ..Recommendations for further enhancement of national surveillance for Murray Valley encephalitis are described. ..
  8. Triarhou L. The signalling contributions of Constantin von Economo to basic, clinical and evolutionary neuroscience. Brain Res Bull. 2006;69:223-43 pubmed
    ..The companion article covers the remaining 63 works on encephalitis lethargica and sleep regulation. ..
  9. Gustaw Rothenberg K. Cognitive impairment after tick-borne encephalitis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcome of the disease can mimic many neurological diseases. For that reason, the history of farmers with cognitive decline should be carefully examined. There is reasonable likelihood of cognitive decline in patients with TBE. ..
  10. Soldan S, Gonzalez Scarano F. Emerging infectious diseases: the Bunyaviridae. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:412-23 pubmed
    ..International monitoring of the Bunyaviridae and a greater understanding of their ecology and biology are needed to prepare for future outbreaks...
  11. Ye J, Zhang H, He W, Zhu B, Zhou D, Chen Z, et al. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies the critical role of JNK1 in neuroinflammation induced by Japanese encephalitis virus. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra98 pubmed
  12. Lobigs M, Lee E, Ng M, Pavy M, Lobigs P. A flavivirus signal peptide balances the catalytic activity of two proteases and thereby facilitates virus morphogenesis. Virology. 2010;401:80-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Mackenzie J, Barrett A, Deubel V. The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses: a brief introduction to the group. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:1-10 pubmed
  14. McMinn P, Carman P, Smith D. Early diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Pathology. 2000;32:49-51 pubmed
    ..We suggest that MVE-specific RT-PCR provides rapid and specific diagnosis of MVE and should be used more widely for the diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis in cases originating from flavivirus endemic areas. ..
  15. Doherty R. William C. Reeves and arbovirus research in Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;37:87S-93S pubmed
    ..That and the people he influenced in Australia made him a major figure in the development of Australian arbovirus research. ..
  16. Andrews D, Matthews V, Sammels L, Carrello A, McMinn P. The severity of murray valley encephalitis in mice is linked to neutrophil infiltration and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the central nervous system. J Virol. 1999;73:8781-90 pubmed
    ..This study provides strong support for the hypothesis that Murray Valley encephalitis is primarily an immunopathological disease. ..
  17. Bardina S, Michlmayr D, Hoffman K, Obara C, Sum J, Charo I, et al. Differential Roles of Chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 in Monocytosis and Leukocyte Migration during West Nile Virus Infection. J Immunol. 2015;195:4306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments suggest that CCL7 is an important protective signal involved in leukocyte trafficking during WNV infection, and it may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute viral infections of the CNS. ..
  18. Noda Y, Yokoyama H, Katsuki T, Kurashige S, Uchinuno Y, Narita M. Demonstration of Akabane virus antigen using immunohistochemistry in naturally infected newborn calves. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:216-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate AKV antigen by immunohistochemistry in naturally infected newborn calves. ..
  19. Raju R, Kolakofsky D. La Crosse virus infection of mammalian cells induces mRNA instability. J Virol. 1988;62:27-32 pubmed
    ..Viral mRNA synthesis, on the other hand, is not turned off during infection, and the cap-dependent endonuclease involved in viral mRNA initiation may be responsible for the mRNA instability...
  20. McMinn P, Lee E, Hartley S, Roehrig J, Dalgarno L, Weir R. Murray valley encephalitis virus envelope protein antigenic variants with altered hemagglutination properties and reduced neuroinvasiveness in mice. Virology. 1995;211:10-20 pubmed
    ..Parental virus and the neutralization escape variants grew equally well in both vertebrate and invertebrate cell cultures, indicating that the reduced neuroinvasiveness of BHv1 was not due to a major abnormality of replication. ..
  21. Mori I, Yokochi T, Kimura Y. Role of influenza A virus hemagglutinin in neurovirulence for mammalians. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002;191:1-4 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent advances toward understanding of the possible mechanisms of the neuropathogenesis of influenza virus infection, especially focusing on the role of viral hemagglutinin glycoprotein. ..
  22. Day J, Tabachnick W, Smartt C. Factors That Influence the Transmission of West Nile Virus in Florida. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:743-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Florida must remain vigilant to the danger from WNV, because a change in these environmental factors could easily result in a substantial WNV epidemic rivaling those seen elsewhere in the United States. ..
  23. Van Der Weyden M. Researchers as guinea pigs. Med J Aust. 2003;178:52-3 pubmed
  24. Gosztonyi G. Stephan Környey's contribution to the study of encephalitides. Orvostort Kozl. 2003;48:77-91 pubmed
    ..His excellent synthesising ability enabled him to write comprehensive review articles and textbook chapters on the various aspects of encephalitides. ..
  25. Mullbacher A, Lobigs M, Lee E. Immunobiology of mosquito-borne encephalitic flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;60:87-120 pubmed
  26. Gubler D, Reiter P, Ebi K, Yap W, Nasci R, Patz J. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109 Suppl 2:223-33 pubmed
  27. Mackenzie J, Broom A. Australian X disease, Murray Valley encephalitis and the French connection. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:79-90 pubmed
    ..Since the first isolation of MVE and Kunjin viruses, considerable information has been accumulated on their ecology and epidemiology, some aspects of which are briefly described. ..
  28. Keane D, Parent J, Little P. California serogroup and Powassan virus infection of cats. Can J Microbiol. 1987;33:693-7 pubmed
    ..POW virus was not isolated from the brain or spinal cord of either of these two cats. HI antibodies were detected in the sera of all inoculated animals. HI antibodies were not detected in the CSF of any animal...
  29. Urosevic N, Shellam G. Host genetic resistance to Japanese encephalitis group viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:153-70 pubmed
  30. Whelan P, Jacups S, Melville L, Broom A, Currie B, Krause V, et al. Rainfall and vector mosquito numbers as risk indicators for mosquito-borne disease in central Australia. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:110-6 pubmed
  31. Silvia O, Shellam G, Urosevic N. Innate resistance to flavivirus infection in mice controlled by Flv is nitric oxide-independent. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:603-7 pubmed
  32. Chastel C. [Modern Egypt and the history of microbiology. The campaign of Bonaparte]. Hist Sci Med. 2006;40:37-48 pubmed
    ..Many basic contributions to the epidemiology of the viral diseases in the Nile valley have been established during the past forty years, concerning enteroviruses, mosquito and tick-borne arboviruses as well as hepatitis C virus...
  33. van Toorn R, Schoeman J. Encephalitis lethargica in 5 South African children. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2009;13:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition is important as it allows counseling of parents regarding the protracted course but generally favorable outcome of the condition...
  34. Hasegawa H, Yoshida M, Kobayashi Y, Fujita S. Antigenic analysis of Japanese encephalitis viruses in Asia by using monoclonal antibodies. Vaccine. 1995;13:1713-21 pubmed
    ..The KE093 strain isolated from Thailand in 1983 showed immunologically outstanding difference from other strains...
  35. Poidinger M, Hall R, Mackenzie J. Molecular characterization of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of the flavivirus genus. Virology. 1996;218:417-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, the primary sequence data revealed a polymorphic region just downstream of the stop codon in the 3' end of the viral genomes...
  36. Lee E, Pavy M, Young N, Freeman C, Lobigs M. Antiviral effect of the heparan sulfate mimetic, PI-88, against dengue and encephalitic flaviviruses. Antiviral Res. 2006;69:31-8 pubmed
    ..In mouse models for DEN and flaviviral encephalitis, only PI-88 demonstrated a significant beneficial effect in disease outcome...
  37. Reiter P. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease: knowing the horse before hitching the cart. Rev Sci Tech. 2008;27:383-98 pubmed
  38. Straight T, Lazarus A, Decker C. Defending against viruses in biowarfare. How to respond to smallpox, encephalitides, hemorrhagic fevers. Postgrad Med. 2002;112:75-6, 79-80, 85-6 pubmed
    ..Awareness and preparedness are instrumental in reducing viral transmission and improving survival of the victims...
  39. Broom A, Whelan P, Azuolas J, Dwyer D, Hueston L, Mackenzie J, et al. Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Programme in Australia, 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2002. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:428-9 pubmed
    ..Two cases of Murray Valley encephalitis were reported from the north of Western Australia during the 2001/2002 wet season...
  40. Kienzle N, Boyes L. Murray Valley encephalitis: case report and review of neuroradiological features. Australas Radiol. 2003;47:61-3 pubmed
    ..Clinicians need to be aware of MVE in this era of ever-increasing travel. Our aim is to highlight these finding and further define the neuroradiological features...
  41. Lobigs M, Mullbacher A, Wang Y, Pavy M, Lee E. Role of type I and type II interferon responses in recovery from infection with an encephalitic flavivirus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:567-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast, mice deficient in IFN-gamma or nitric oxide production display an only marginally increased susceptibility to infection with the neurotropic virus...
  42. Wong S, Smith D, Fallon M, Kermode A. Murray valley encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:822-4 pubmed
    ..If suspected, antibody testing of serum and CSF, and CSF for MVE-RNA if available, should be undertaken. This case also highlights the potential under-diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis...
  43. Elizan T, Casals J. Astrogliosis in von Economo's and postencephalitic Parkinson's diseases supports probable viral etiology. J Neurol Sci. 1991;105:131-4 pubmed
  44. Silvia O, Pantelic L, Mackenzie J, Shellam G, Papadimitriou J, Urosevic N. Virus spread, tissue inflammation and antiviral response in brains of flavivirus susceptible and resistant mice acutely infected with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:447-64 pubmed
  45. Broom A, Lindsay M, Harrington S, Smith D. Investigation of the southern limits of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in Western Australia during the 2000 wet season. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:87-95 pubmed
    ..The results have implications for managing outbreaks of MVE virus in Western Australia and have enabled us to locate additional sentinel flocks as part of the MVE surveillance program for future years...
  46. Kay B, Farrow R. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) dispersal: implications for the epidemiology of Japanese and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses in Australia. J Med Entomol. 2000;37:797-801 pubmed
  47. Matthews V, Robertson T, Kendrick T, Abdo M, Papadimitriou J, McMinn P. Morphological features of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection in the central nervous system of Swiss mice. Int J Exp Pathol. 2000;81:31-40 pubmed
    ..High mortality rates in the BH3479-infected population of mice correlated with the intense polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocyte inflammatory infiltrate in the CNS...
  48. Lee E, Lobigs M. Mechanism of virulence attenuation of glycosaminoglycan-binding variants of Japanese encephalitis virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2002;76:4901-11 pubmed
    ..The close spatial proximity of amino acids 306 and 390 in the predicted E protein structure strongly suggests that the two residues define a receptor-binding domain involved in virus attachment to sulfated proteoglycans...
  49. Burrow J, Whelan P, Kilburn C, Fisher D, Currie B, Smith D. Australian encephalitis in the Northern Territory: clinical and epidemiological features, 1987-1996. Aust N Z J Med. 1998;28:590-6 pubmed
    ..The last epidemic of Australian encephalitis occurred in 1974. Since then, cases have been reported from the Kimberley of Western Australia (WA)...
  50. Gould E. Evolution of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:391-404 pubmed
  51. Bovo G, Nishizawa T, Maltese C, Borghesan F, Mutinelli F, Montesi F, et al. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of farmed marine fish species in Italy. Virus Res. 1999;63:143-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both juvenile and adult sea bass subject to mass mortality in Italy since summer 1995 are infected with a fish nodavirus and strongly suggest that the identified virus is the cause of the observed mortality...
  52. Sohn Y, Park M, Rho H, Chandler L, Shope R, Tsai T. Primary and booster immune responses to SA14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korean infants. Vaccine. 1999;17:2259-64 pubmed
    ..Live attenuated SA14-14-2 JE vaccine is a promising alternative to the only commercially available JE vaccine for national childhood immunization programs in Asia...
  53. Nalca A, Fellows P, Whitehouse C. Vaccines and animal models for arboviral encephalitides. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:153-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, research on animal models, both past and present, for these diseases are discussed...
  54. Saul A. Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introducing animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching. Malar J. 2003;2:32 pubmed
    ..However, as the number of animals increases, improved availability of blood meals may increase mosquito survival, thereby countering the impact of diverting feeds...
  55. Hall R, Brand T, Lobigs M, Sangster M, Howard M, Mackenzie J. Protective immune responses to the E and NS1 proteins of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in hybrids of flavivirus-resistant mice. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 6):1287-94 pubmed
    ..However, depletion of CD8+ cells prior to virus challenge ablated the protection provided by VV-NS1 indicating some requirement for class I restricted cytotoxic T cells...
  56. McMinn P, Dalgarno L, Weir R. A comparison of the spread of Murray Valley encephalitis viruses of high or low neuroinvasiveness in the tissues of Swiss mice after peripheral inoculation. Virology. 1996;220:414-23 pubmed
    ..BH3479 spread throughout the CNS in a rostral to caudal direction over 3-4 days. In contrast, BHv1 infection in the CNS was restricted to the olfactory lobes and adjacent structures of the forebrain...
  57. Bartholomeusz A, Tomlinson E, Wright P, Birch C, Locarnini S, Weigold H, et al. Use of a flavivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay to investigate the antiviral activity of selected compounds. Antiviral Res. 1994;24:341-50 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of double-stranded replicative form RNA was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of the polyoxometalate HPA-23 [(NH4)18(NaW21Sb9O86)17].14 H2O and several structurally related compounds...
  58. Hall R, Broom A, Hartnett A, Howard M, Mackenzie J. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:201-10 pubmed
    ..These assays are now used routinely in our laboratory for testing chicken sera from sentinel flocks in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of north Western Australia...
  59. Russell R. Mosquito-borne arboviruses in Australia: the current scene and implications of climate change for human health. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:955-69 pubmed
    ..It is likely that some areas will have increases in arbovirus activity and human infection with predicted climate change, but risk of increased transmission will vary with locality, vector, host and human factors...
  60. Mahanta J, Boruah U, Sarmabordoloi J, Baruah H. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody among normal individuals of Dibrugarh area, upper Assam. J Commun Dis. 1996;28:181-4 pubmed
    ..The ratio of apparent to inapparent infection in this study was found to be 9.1 : 100, which is lower than reported in Assam earlier, but slightly higher than predicted for India as a whole...
  61. Calne D, Lees A. Late progression of post-encephalitic Parkinson's syndrome. Can J Neurol Sci. 1988;15:135-8 pubmed
    ..Deterioration was most marked in motor function and largely spared the intellect, special senses and somatosensory system. The findings are discussed in relation to current hypotheses concerning the aetiology of Parkinson's disease...
  62. Studdert M, Azuolas J, Vasey J, Hall R, Ficorilli N, Huang J. Polymerase chain reaction tests for the identification of Ross River, Kunjin and Murray Valley encephalitis virus infections in horses. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:76-80 pubmed
    ..To develop and validate specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tests using RT-PCR for the detection of Ross River virus (RRV), Kunjin virus (KV) and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infections in horses...
  63. Thiery R, Raymond J, Castric J. Natural outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: study by nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Virus Res. 1999;63:11-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, it was possible to monitor the presence of viral genome in asymptomatic carrier fish using this method...
  64. Broom A. Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program in Australia, July 2002 to June 2003. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:367-9 pubmed
    ..This is similar to the previous season. There were no reported cases of disease caused by either virus...
  65. Miller J. The control of mosquito-borne diseases in New York City. J Urban Health. 2001;78:359-66 pubmed
  66. McMinn P, Marshall I, Dalgarno L. Neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of Murray Valley encephalitis virus mutants selected by passage in a monkey kidney cell line. J Gen Virol. 1995;76 ( Pt 4):865-72 pubmed
    ..The phenotypic changes in clone 4 appear to be due to mutation(s) within non-structural protein genes...
  67. Mellor P, Leake C. Climatic and geographic influences on arboviral infections and vectors. Rev Sci Tech. 2000;19:41-54 pubmed
  68. Wonham M, Lewis M, Rencławowicz J, van den Driessche P. Transmission assumptions generate conflicting predictions in host-vector disease models: a case study in West Nile virus. Ecol Lett. 2006;9:706-25 pubmed
    ..For West Nile virus, R(0) estimates for six common North American bird species indicate that all would be effective outbreak hosts...
  69. Cordova S, Smith D, Broom A, Lindsay M, Dowse G, Beers M. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread. Commun Dis Intell. 2000;24:368-72 pubmed
    ..To enable timely warnings to the public, and to institute mosquito control where feasible, continued surveillance in all Australian areas at risk is indicated...
  70. Kroker K. The first modern plague: epidemic encephalitis in America, 1919-39. Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 2002;24:63-7 pubmed
  71. Wallace M, Smith D, Broom A, Mackenzie J, Hall R, Shellam G, et al. Antibody-dependent enhancement of Murray Valley encephalitis virus virulence in mice. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1723-8 pubmed
    ..Should subneutralizing concentrations of antibody remain in the population following JE vaccination, it is possible that enhanced disease may be observed during MVE epidemics...
  72. Broom A, Lindsay M, Wright A, Smith D, Mackenzie J. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:277-83 pubmed
    ..Activity of MVE virus could only be partially correlated with wet season rainfall and flooding, suggesting that a number of other factors must also be considered to accurately predict MVE virus activity at such communities...
  73. Kroeger M, McMinn P. Murray Valley encephalitis virus recombinant subviral particles protect mice from lethal challenge with virulent wild-type virus. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1155-72 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that SVPs derived from the in vitro expression of recombinant MVE prM and E genes are an effective candidate vaccine for the prevention of encephalitis in the mouse model...
  74. Chambers T, Diamond M. Pathogenesis of flavivirus encephalitis. Adv Virus Res. 2003;60:273-342 pubmed
  75. Broom A, Lindsay M, Plant A, Wright A, Condon R, Mackenzie J. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal serologic studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:319-23 pubmed
    ..Our longitudinal study showed that the risk of seroconversion was similar for each age group, not just the young...
  76. Tyor W, Moench T, Griffin D. Characterization of the local and systemic B cell response of normal and athymic nude mice with Sindbis virus encephalitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1989;24:207-15 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that T cells are required for recruitment of B cells into the inflammatory response as well as for normal isotype switching and peripheral B cell maturation during SV encephalitis...
  77. Charles P, Zeller H, Bonnotte B, Decasimacker A, Bour J, Chavanet P, et al. Imported West Nile virus infection in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:750 pubmed
  78. Gaibani P, Pierro A, Cavrini F, Rossini G, Landini M, Sambri V. False-positive transcription-mediated amplification assay detection of West Nile virus in blood from a patient with viremia caused by an Usutu virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3338-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a false-positive result of a WNV transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) in a patient with viremia that was caused by Usutu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus...
  79. Takasaki T. [Flavivirus encephalitis]. Brain Nerve. 2009;61:145-51 pubmed
    ..The West Nile fever/encephalitis epidemic has been active in North and South America since 1999...
  80. Herrington J. Pre-West Nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2003;3:157-73 pubmed
    ..3; 95% CI = 4.3, 12.2). Observed misperceptions and inadequate knowledge regarding insect repellents suggest increased promotion of the safety and efficacy of DEET-containing insect repellents is warranted...
  81. Travassos da Rosa A, Mather T, Takeda T, Whitehouse C, Shope R, Popov V, et al. Two new rhabdoviruses (Rhabdoviridae) isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:614-8 pubmed
    ..Both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for human health is unknown...
  82. Hall R, Khromykh A, MacKenzie J, Scherret J, Khromykh T, Mackenzie J. Loss of dimerisation of the nonstructural protein NS1 of Kunjin virus delays viral replication and reduces virulence in mice, but still allows secretion of NS1. Virology. 1999;264:66-75 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results indicate that mutation from proline to leucine at residue 250 in KUN NS1 ablates dimer formation, slows virus replication, and reduces virulence in mice...
  83. Barletta L, Simonetti F, Karau J, Manni R, Uggetti C, Poloni T, et al. [Encephalitis lethargica]. Nervenarzt. 1995;66:781-4 pubmed
    ..The patient responded to corticosteroid treatment. Two years after the onset of the first clinical signs he had recovered completely and today, after 5 years, he shows no sign of disease...
  84. Trevejo R. Acute encephalitis hospitalizations, California, 1990-1999: unrecognized arboviral encephalitis?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1442-9 pubmed
    ..Active hospital-based surveillance during periods of heightened sylvatic arboviral activity could increase detection of arboviral encephalitis...
  85. Brown A, Bolisetty S, Whelan P, Smith D, Wheaton G. Reappearance of human cases due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus in central Australia after an absence of 26 years. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:39-44 pubmed
    ..This area may also act as a potential source for reintroduction of MVE into south-eastern Australia...
  86. Clark D, Lobigs M, Lee E, Howard M, Clark K, Blitvich B, et al. In situ reactions of monoclonal antibodies with a viable mutant of Murray Valley encephalitis virus reveal an absence of dimeric NS1 protein. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The inability to detect dimeric NS1 in supernatant or cell monolayers of cultures productively infected with mutant virus also suggests that dimerization of the protein may not be essential for virus replication...
  87. Douglas M, Stephens D, Burrow J, Anstey N, Talbot K, Currie B. Murray Valley encephalitis in an adult traveller complicated by long-term flaccid paralysis: case report and review of the literature. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:284-8 pubmed
    ..Our case highlights the potential severity of flavivirus-induced encephalitis and the importance of avoiding mosquito bites while travelling through endemic areas...
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    ..The components of her rehabilitation programme are discussed. She has been able to successfully return to her pre-morbid level of work responsibility within 8 months of her admission...
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