arbovirus infections


Summary: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.

Top Publications

  1. Gubler D. The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems. Arch Med Res. 2002;33:330-42 pubmed
  2. Lord C, Rutledge C, Tabachnick W. Relationships between host viremia and vector susceptibility for arboviruses. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:623-30 pubmed
    ..Relying on assumptions with little support may result in erroneous conclusions about the importance of different hosts...
  3. Petersen L, Busch M. Transfusion-transmitted arboviruses. Vox Sang. 2010;98:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the increasing emergence of arboviral disease globally, it is prudent to prepare for both endemic and exotic arboviruses capable of producing large epidemics and subsequent transfusion transmission risk...
  4. Johnson A, Martin D, Karabatsos N, Roehrig J. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1827-31 pubmed
    ..The tests were standardized for laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections, with the intent that they be used in tandem with the corresponding IgM antibody-capture ELISAs...
  5. Reimann C, Hayes E, DiGuiseppi C, Hoffman R, Lehman J, Lindsey N, et al. Epidemiology of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States, 1999-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:974-9 pubmed
    ..The CAL serogroup virus, SLEV, and EEEV disease are persistent public health concerns in the United States warranting ongoing prevention efforts...
  6. Rodhain F, Gonzalez J, Mercier E, Helynck B, Larouze B, Hannoun C. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:851-4 pubmed
    ..No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area...
  7. Weaver S. Urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I review these urban emergences and potential strategies for their prevention and control. ..
  8. Paupy C, Delatte H, Bagny L, Corbel V, Fontenille D. Aedes albopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:1177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we report conventional and innovative ways to control A. albopictus...
  9. Fagbami A. Epidemiological investigations on arbovirus infections at Igbo-Ora, Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med. 1977;29:187-91 pubmed
    A study of arbovirus infections occurring in Igbo-Ora community was carried out between May and October 1975...

More Information


  1. Hall Mendelin S, Ritchie S, Johansen C, Zborowski P, Cortis G, Dandridge S, et al. Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations...
  2. Fitzsimmons G, Wright P, Johansen C, Whelan P. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2007/08: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2009;33:155-69 pubmed
    ..This annual report presents information on diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia and notified to NNDSS...
  3. Gould E, Higgs S, Buckley A, Gritsun T. Potential arbovirus emergence and implications for the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:549-55 pubmed
    ..While other arboviruses, such as West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, Tahyna virus, and Louping ill virus, apparently circulate in the United Kingdom, they do not appear to present an imminent threat to humans or animals...
  4. Pinheiro F, Hoch A, Gomes M, Roberts D. Oropouche virus. IV. Laboratory transmission by Culicoides paraensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981;30:172-6 pubmed
    ..No evidence of mechanical transmission of ORO virus by C. paraensis was observed when interrupted feeding of Culicoides on viremic hamsters was followed by feeding on susceptible hamsters...
  5. Gubler D. Human arbovirus infections worldwide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:13-24 pubmed
    ..This paper will provide an overview of the medically important arboviruses and discuss several in more detail as case studies to illustrate our tenuous position as we begin the twenty-first century...
  6. Medlock J, Snow K, Leach S. Possible ecology and epidemiology of medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses in Great Britain. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:466-82 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the potential GB-specific disease ecology can aid assessments of risk from mosquito-borne arboviruses...
  7. Ulloa A, Langevin S, Méndez Sánchez J, Arredondo Jiménez J, Raetz J, Powers A, et al. Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandón Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2003;3:3-9 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence for transmission of the other viruses (ROC, ILH, EEE, WEE) in the study area...
  8. Kuno G, Chang G. Biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:608-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, discussion of the diverse range of theories proposed and observations made by many investigators was found to be highly valuable for sorting out the possible mechanism(s) of the emergence of arboviral diseases...
  9. Diallo M, Nabeth P, Ba K, Sall A, Ba Y, Mondo M, et al. Mosquito vectors of the 1998-1999 outbreak of Rift Valley Fever and other arboviruses (Bagaza, Sanar, Wesselsbron and West Nile) in Mauritania and Senegal. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19:119-26 pubmed
    ..poicilipes; 51 Wesselsbron (WSL) from Ae. vexans and 30 strains of West Nile (WN) from Ma. uniformis, showing differential specific virus-vector associations in the circulation activity of these five arboviruses...
  10. Gratz N. Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:215-27 pubmed
    ..albopictus in countries endemic for dengue and other arboviruses (e.g. Chikungunya, EEE, Ross River, WNV, LaCrosse and other California group viruses), for which it would be competent and ecologically suited to serve as a bridge vector...
  11. Ohashi S, Yoshida K, Yanase T, Kato T, Tsuda T. Simultaneous detection of bovine arboviruses using single-tube multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2004;120:79-85 pubmed
    ..The mRT-PCR may be a sensitive and rapid assay for surveillance of bovine arboviruses in field specimens...
  12. Fragkoudis R, Attarzadeh Yazdi G, Nash A, Fazakerley J, Kohl A. Advances in dissecting mosquito innate immune responses to arbovirus infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..with vertebrate immunity, relatively little is known about how vectors such as mosquitoes control arbovirus infections. In this review, we discuss novel findings in the field of mosquito antiviral responses to arboviruses, in ..
  13. Weaver S, Reisen W. Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:328-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to understand the potential of these and other arboviruses to emerge in the future, invade new geographic areas, and become important public and veterinary health problems...
  14. Pinheiro F, Travassos da Rosa A, Travassos Da Rosa J, Ishak R, Freitas R, Gomes M, et al. Oropouche virus. I. A review of clinical, epidemiological, and ecological findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981;30:149-60 pubmed
  15. van den Hurk A, Hall Mendelin S, Johansen C, Warrilow D, Ritchie S. Evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in Australia. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:325659 pubmed publisher
    ..New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data...
  16. Cleton N, Koopmans M, Reimerink J, Godeke G, Reusken C. Come fly with me: review of clinically important arboviruses for global travelers. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:191-203 pubmed publisher
  17. Sautto G, Mancini N, Gorini G, Clementi M, Burioni R. Possible future monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy against arbovirus infections. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:838491 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review are described the main arboviruses infecting humans and candidate mAbs to be possibly used in a future passive immunotherapy. ..
  18. Tsai T. Arboviral infections in the United States. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1991;5:73-102 pubmed
    ..These trends, the periodic epidemic resurgence of arboviral diseases such as St. Louis encephalitis, and the discovery of new arboviruses present a continued challenge to infectious disease clinicians...
  19. Depaquit J, Grandadam M, Fouque F, Andry P, Peyrefitte C. Arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:19507 pubmed
  20. Labuda M, Nuttall P. Tick-borne viruses. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S221-45 pubmed
    ..Key challenges are to determine the molecular adaptations that allow tick-borne viruses to infect and replicate in both tick and vertebrate cells, and to identify the principal ecological determinants of tick-borne virus survival...
  21. Weaver S, Barrett A. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:789-801 pubmed
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
  22. Figueiredo L. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007;40:224-9 pubmed
  23. Martin D, Muth D, Brown T, Johnson A, Karabatsos N, Roehrig J. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1823-6 pubmed
    ..0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques...
  24. Russell R, Dwyer D. Arboviruses associated with human disease in Australia. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:1693-704 pubmed
    ..The flaviviruses Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin and Japanese encephalitis virus are restricted in distribution and activity but may cause life-threatening illness, and dengue viruses are active in some areas...
  25. Fukunaga T, Rojanasuphot S, Pisuthipornkul S, Wungkorbkiat S, Thammanichanon A. Seroepidemiologic study of arbovirus infections in the north-east and south of Thailand. Biken J. 1974;17:169-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that people in Khon-Kaen are exposed to group B arbovirus infections more often in childhood and attain high antibody levels more rapidly than people in Songkhla.
  26. Canali M, Rivas Morales S, Beutels P, Venturelli C. The Cost of Arbovirus Disease Prevention in Europe: Area-Wide Integrated Control of Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..The median cost of one antilarval treatment in public areas was approximately €0.12 per inhabitant. Organizational aspects were also analyzed to identify possible improvements in resource use. ..
  27. Konongoi L, Ofula V, Nyunja A, Owaka S, Koka H, Makio A, et al. Detection of dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 in selected regions of Kenya: 2011-2014. Virol J. 2016;13:182 pubmed, yellow fever, West Nile, consensus and sero type dengue primers were used to detect acute arbovirus infections and determine the infecting serotypes...
  28. Brummer Korvenkontio M. Arboviruses in Finland. V. Serological survey of antibodies against Inkoo virus (California group) in human, cow, reindeer, and wildlife sera. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1973;22:654-61 pubmed
  29. Adelman Z, Miller D, Myles K. Bed bugs and infectious disease: a case for the arboviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003462 pubmed publisher
  30. Knope K, Whelan P, Smith D, Johansen C, Moran R, Doggett S, et al. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2010-11: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2013;37:E1-20 pubmed
    ..There was one human case of Kunjin virus infection. There were 7 notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia and 407 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria during the 2010-11 season. ..
  31. Darnell M, Koprowski H, Lagerspetz K. Genetically determined resistance to infection with group B arboviruses. I. Distribution of the resistance gene among various mouse populations and characteristics of gene expression in vivo. J Infect Dis. 1974;129:240-7 pubmed
  32. Sidenko V, Stepankovskaia L, Solomko R, Poliakov E, Grekov V. [Results of a study of West Nile fever in the South of the European part of the USSR]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1974;00:129 pubmed
  33. Navarrete Espinosa J, Gómez Dantés H. [Arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever at IMSS]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2006;44:347-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, they require intensive epidemiological surveillance to identify them and to know their real occurrence and specific clinical profile. ..
  34. Vodovar N, Bronkhorst A, van Cleef K, Miesen P, Blanc H, Van Rij R, et al. Arbovirus-derived piRNAs exhibit a ping-pong signature in mosquito cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30861 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that these mosquito cells can initiate de novo piRNA production and recapitulate the ping-pong dependent piRNA pathway upon viral infection. The mechanism of viral-piRNA production is discussed...
  35. Tran A, Chastel C. [Mosquito-borne arboviruses and pregnancy: pathological consequences for the mother and infant. A general review]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2008;101:418-24 pubmed
    ..At the therapeutic and preventive levels we are quite unarmed in the face of such severe accidents as their pathogenesis remains presently unclear ..
  36. Toltzis P. Viral encephalitis. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis. 1991;6:111-36 pubmed
    ..Many viruses that directly infect the central nervous system are difficult to recover from the CSF; therefore, viral isolation from the nasopharynx and stool also should be sought.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  37. Varjak M, Donald C, Mottram T, Sreenu V, Merits A, Maringer K, et al. Characterization of the Zika virus induced small RNA response in Aedes aegypti cells. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0006010 pubmed publisher
    RNA interference (RNAi) controls arbovirus infections in mosquitoes...
  38. Dyer W, Williams E, Mignucci Giannoni A, Jimenez Marrero N, Bunkley Williams L, Moore D, et al. Helminth and arthropod parasites of the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, in Puerto Rico, with a compilation of all metazoan parasites reported from this host in the Western Hemisphere. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:441-8 pubmed
    ..sulae are new locality records for the Caribbean. Necrosis produced by C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, and R. ondatrae may have contributed to the emaciation and death of the brown pelicans examined in the present study. ..
  39. Allen R, Taylor S, Sulkin S. Studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in Chiroptera. 8. Evidence of natural St. Louis encephalitis virus infection in bats. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1970;19:851-9 pubmed
  40. Linthicum K, Britch S, Anyamba A. Rift Valley Fever: An Emerging Mosquito-Borne Disease. Annu Rev Entomol. 2016;61:395-415 pubmed publisher
    ..Important directions for future research are also discussed. ..
  41. Daniels P, Sendow I, Soleha E, Sukarsih -, Hunt N, Bahri S. Australian-Indonesian collaboration in veterinary arbovirology--a review. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:151-74 pubmed
    ..Their patterns of mobility among countries in the region are largely undescribed, but there are opportunities for further regional collaboration...
  42. Gu W, Unnasch T, Katholi C, Lampman R, Novak R. Fundamental issues in mosquito surveillance for arboviral transmission. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that these quantitative issues, once addressed by mosquito surveillance programs, can improve the epidemiological intelligence of arbovirus transmission...
  43. Shroyer D. Aedes albopictus and arboviruses: a concise review of the literature. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1986;2:424-8 pubmed
    ..This review compiles previously published studies that have demonstrated an experimental or natural association between Ae. albopictus and specific arboviruses. ..
  44. Lau C, Weinstein P, Slaney D. Imported cases of Ross River virus disease in New Zealand - a travel medicine perspective. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012;10:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Protecting travellers from RRV is important from a travel medicine perspective, but also has potentially significant public health benefits for the general population. ..
  45. Deubel V, Georges Courbot M. [Arboviruses and epizootic viruses]. C R Biol. 2002;325:855-61; discussion 879-83 pubmed
    ..In virology, studies on the interactions of the viruses with their vectors and vertebrate hosts and on the pathophysiology of the infections will allow a better prevention of these diseases. ..
  46. Gray S, Banerjee N. Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:128-48 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. ..
  47. Johansen C, Power S, Broom A. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1167-75 pubmed
    ..3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission. ..
  48. Silva Nunes M, Malafronte R, Luz B, Souza E, Martins L, Rodrigues S, et al. The Acre Project: the epidemiology of malaria and arthropod-borne virus infections in a rural Amazonian population. Cad Saude Publica. 2006;22:1325-34 pubmed
    ..3%) with IgM antibodies to dengue virus detected by ELISA had a putative recent exposure to this virus. ..
  49. Romano Lieber N, Iversson L. [Serological survey on arbovirus infection in residents of an ecological reserve]. Rev Saude Publica. 2000;34:236-42 pubmed
    ..The results suggest the need of further investigation to clarify the role of birds as arbovirus infection amplificators indoors. ..
  50. Iranpour M, Moghadam A, Yazdi M, Ande S, Alizadeh J, Wiechec E, et al. Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2016;18:e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis. ..
  51. Rahim A, Mathew A. Perennial impression of an emerging arbovirus on the epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in south India: insights from the COPCORD study. J Postgrad Med. 2011;57:226-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Barry M, Bezek S, Serpa J, Hotez P, Woc Colburn L. Neglected infections of poverty in Texas and the rest of the United States: management and treatment options. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;92:170-81 pubmed publisher
  53. Bishop A, Spohr L, Barchia I. Effects of altitude, distance and waves of movement on the dispersal in Australia of the arbovirus vector, Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Prev Vet Med. 2004;65:135-45 pubmed
    ..A third model showed that previously described slower movement of C. brevitarsis up the more-southerly Hunter valley relative to movements down the coastal plain also was related to increasing altitude...
  54. Bruno J, Carrillo M, Richarte A, Phillips T, Andrews C, Lee J. Development, screening, and analysis of DNA aptamer libraries potentially useful for diagnosis and passive immunity of arboviruses. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:633 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the reported aptamers may also be able to bind viral envelope proteins in vivo and therefore may have antiviral potential in passive immunity or prophylactic applications...
  55. Duong V, Vong S, Buchy P. [Dengue and other arboviral diseases in South-East Asia]. Med Trop (Mars). 2009;69:339-44 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological data show a steady, sometimes exponential, increase in the number of arbovirus infections in Asia. The spread of these viral infections can be linked to a number of complex factors.
  56. Gadia C, Manirakiza A, Tekpa G, Konamna X, Vickos U, Nakoune E. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:735 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR. ..
  57. Mourya D, Gokhale M, Kumar R. Xenodiagnosis: use of mosquitoes for the diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Vector Borne Dis. 2007;44:233-40 pubmed
    ..The present communication discusses the application of mosquitoes for propagation and assays of arboviruses, the technique of mosquito inoculation and importance of xenodiagnosis...
  58. Derraik J. A scenario for invasion and dispersal of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in New Zealand. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, the possible means of invasion and dispersal of Ae. albopictus in northern New Zealand are discussed, along with the factors that should facilitate its establishment in the event it evades border controls...
  59. Hotez P. Global urbanization and the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005308 pubmed publisher
  60. Ortiz D, Wozniak A, Tolson M, Turner P. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:20-32 pubmed
    ..The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina...
  61. Remoue F, Alix E, Cornelie S, Sokhna C, Cisse B, Doucoure S, et al. IgE and IgG4 antibody responses to Aedes saliva in African children. Acta Trop. 2007;104:108-15 pubmed
    ..These preliminaries results support the potential approach of using anti-saliva Ab responses for evaluating exposure to Aedes vectors and risks of emerging arbovirus infections.
  62. Ayorinde A, Oyeyiga A, Nosegbe N, Folarin O. A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria. J Infect Public Health. 2016;9:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum and P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them. ..
  63. Blanc S, Gutiérrez S. The specifics of vector transmission of arboviruses of vertebrates and plants. Curr Opin Virol. 2015;15:27-33 pubmed publisher
  64. Cao Lormeau V, Musso D. Emerging arboviruses in the Pacific. Lancet. 2014;384:1571-2 pubmed publisher
  65. Lance Parker S, Rebmann C, Kramer S, Kelly R. Arboviruses in Georgia. Emergence of West Nile Virus. J Med Assoc Ga. 2002;91:32-4 pubmed
  66. Tolle M. Mosquito-borne diseases. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2009;39:97-140 pubmed publisher
    ..Travelers to areas endemic for mosquito-borne diseases require special advice on mosquito avoidance, immunizations, and malaria prophylaxis...
  67. Linthicum K. Summary of the symposium Global Perspective on the Culex pipiens Complex in the 21st Century: The Interrelationship of Culex pipiens, quinquefasciatus, molestus and others. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2012;28:152-5 pubmed
    ..A summary of findings, overall conclusions, and research needs will be discussed in relation to mosquito control and interrupting disease transmission caused by these species...
  68. Ramos B, Chiang J, Martins L, Chagas L, Silva F, Ferreira M, et al. Clinical and serological tests for arboviruses in free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:532-536 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence of antibodies against the most prevalent arboviruses...
  69. Cheng M, Su T. Rapid screening for sentinel chicken seroconversions against arboviruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2011;27:437-40 pubmed
  70. Knope K, Kurucz N, Doggett S, Muller M, Johansen C, Feldman R, et al. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2012-13: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2016;40:E17-47 pubmed
  71. de Lavaissiere M, D Ortenzio E, Dussart P, Fontanella J, Djossou F, Carme B, et al. Febrile illness at the emergency department of Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1055-7 pubmed publisher overview of aetiologies of febrile illness in French Guiana, and tropical diseases such as malaria and arbovirus infections are discussed. Almost 30% of fevers remained unexplained...
  72. Gatton M, Kay B, Ryan P. Environmental predictors of Ross River virus disease outbreaks in Queensland, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:792-9 pubmed
    ..Identification of factors leading to RRV disease outbreaks will help local authorities identify periods of high risk, optimizing the provision of additional mosquito control measures...
  73. Shcherbakova S, Golovinskaia O, Kliueva E, Garanina S, Savitskaia L, Kulichenko A, et al. [Anti-arbovirus antibodies positive serum screening in population of Saratov]. Vopr Virusol. 2002;47:32-4 pubmed
    ..The incidence of antibodies to Batai and Sindbis viruses was the highest. Activation of natural foci of these arboviruses can lead to exacerbation of the epidemic situation in the region...
  74. Crabtree M, Kading R, Mutebi J, Lutwama J, Miller B. Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:611-26 pubmed publisher
    ..When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus...
  75. Lord C, Tabachnick W. Influence of nonsystemic transmission on the epidemiology of insect borne arboviruses: a case study of vesicular stomatitis epidemiology in the western United States. J Med Entomol. 2002;39:417-26 pubmed
    ..The data needed to compare the two pathways and their relative roles in virus epidemiology are discussed...
  76. Moore C, Mitchell C. Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:329-34 pubmed
    ..Cache Valley and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses are the only human pathogens isolated from U.S. populations of Ae. albopictus. There is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the United States...
  77. Muturi E, Muriu S, Shililu J, Mwangangi J, Jacob B, Mbogo C, et al. Blood-feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus and other culicines and implications for disease transmission in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:1329-35 pubmed publisher
  78. Reeves W. Partners: serendipity in arbovirus research. J Vector Ecol. 2001;26:1-6 pubmed
    ..The prime time when C. tarsalis, the primary vector of encephalitis, bites people is around sundown which also is primetime for television watching. These sociological changes are a valuable adjunct to vector control programs...
  79. Jennie M. Communicable diseases report, NSW: September 2002. N S W Public Health Bull. 2002;13:219-20 pubmed