urinary bladder


Summary: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.

Top Publications

  1. Badawi A, Hirvonen A, Bell D, Lang N, Kadlubar F. Role of aromatic amine acetyltransferases, NAT1 and NAT2, in carcinogen-DNA adduct formation in the human urinary bladder. Cancer Res. 1995;55:5230-7 pubmed
    ..with the carcinogenic aromatic amines provide an extraordinary model of polymorphisms that can modulate human urinary bladder carcinogenesis...
  2. Robinson J, Seal R, Spady D, Joffres M. Comparison of esophageal, rectal, axillary, bladder, tympanic, and pulmonary artery temperatures in children. J Pediatr. 1998;133:553-6 pubmed
    ..8 degree C +/- 1.0 degree C), rectal probe (mean difference 0.7 degree C +/- 1.7 degrees C), bladder probe (mean difference 0.9 degree C +/- 1.4 degrees C), and axillary probe (mean difference 1.3 degrees C +/- 1.3 degrees C)...
  3. Huddart R, Hall E, Lewis R, Birtle A. Life and death of spare (selective bladder preservation against radical excision): reflections on why the spare trial closed. BJU Int. 2010;106:753-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Oğuz G, Subaşı D, Kaya M, Guven O, Unver S. Intravesical explosion: a rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate. J Anesth. 2013;27:145-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Juri H, Tsuboyama T, Koyama M, Yamamoto K, Nakai G, Nakamoto A, et al. Assessment of the ability of CT urography with low-dose multi-phasic excretory phases for opacification of the urinary system. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174800 pubmed publisher
    ..Opacification scores of the upper urinary tracts and the urinary bladder were assigned for each excretory phase by two radiologists, who recorded whether adequate (>75%) or ..
  6. Taniguchi K, Iida R, Ota K, Nitta M, Tsujino T, Komura K, et al. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB): Recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1584.e5-1584.e7 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB) is rare and results in a lethal condition, i.e., pan peritonitis. However, early and accurate diagnosis of SRUB is very difficult...
  7. Kurzrock E, Baskin L, Cunha G. Ontogeny of the male urethra: theory of endodermal differentiation. Differentiation. 1999;64:115-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, proper mesenchymal signaling may induce differentiation of urothelium into a stratified squamous phenotype, such as during development of the urethra of the glans penis. ..
  8. O Regan S, Yazbeck S, Hamberger B, Schick E. Constipation a commonly unrecognized cause of enuresis. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:260-1 pubmed
    ..Uninhibited bladder contractions, observed in enuretic constipated children, were also noted in children with constipation alone, suggesting that constipation is a commonly unrecognized etiologic factor in enuresis. ..
  9. Noe H. The role of dysfunctional voiding in failure or complication of ureteral reimplantation for primary reflux. J Urol. 1985;134:1172-5 pubmed
    ..Voluntary detrusor-sphincter discoordination seems particularly prevalent in this high risk group. The findings are discussed in relation to the over-all management of these patients. ..

More Information


  1. Glybochko P, Alyaev Y, Shpot E, Pshi Khachev A, Mosyakova K, Nikolaeva A. [Laparoscopic cystoprostatvesiculeectomy with orthotopic excentric ileal bladder substitution]. Urologiia. 2017;:78-83 pubmed
    ..This technique allows us to form a neobladder most resembling the natural urinary bladder in the shape and volume...
  2. Duvergé L, Castelli J, Lizée T, De Crevoisier R, Azria D. [Doses to organs at risk for conformational and stereotactic radiotherapy: Bladder]. Cancer Radiother. 2017;21:597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..In case of conformational radiotherapy of cervix cancer, postoperative endometrium, anal canal and rectum, the recommendations are V40Gy<40% and D2% lower than the prescribed dose. ..
  3. Sugiyama R, Aizawa N, Ito H, Fujimura T, Suzuki M, Nakagawa T, et al. Synergic Suppressive Effect of Silodosin and Imidafenacin on Non-Voiding Bladder Contractions in Male Rats with Subacute Bladder Outlet Obstruction. Low Urin Tract Symptoms. 2017;9:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate a suppressive effect of silodosin or imidafenacin alone and a synergic effect of the combination of these two drugs on NVCs in a subacute BOO model of male rats. ..
  4. Eissa S, Matboli M, Awad N, Kotb Y. Identification and validation of a novel autophagy gene expression signature for human bladder cancer patients. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317698360 pubmed publisher
    ..4% and 86.1%; FYCO1, 87% and 75.7%; ULK1, 85.5% and 75.6%; and TECPR1, 90% and 81.9%). We document and validate a novel autophagy transcript signature for human bladder cancer diagnosis: bilharzial and non-bilharzial types. ..
  5. Potts K, Irwin C, Favis N, Pink D, Vincent K, Lewis J, et al. Deletion of F4L (ribonucleotide reductase) in vaccinia virus produces a selective oncolytic virus and promotes anti-tumor immunity with superior safety in bladder cancer models. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:638-654 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the enhanced safety and selectivity of F4L-deleted VACVs, with application as a promising therapy for patients with BCG-refractory cancers and immune dysregulation. ..
  6. Ozaki T, Matsuoka J, Tsubota M, Tomita S, Sekiguchi F, Minami T, et al. Zinc deficiency promotes cystitis-related bladder pain by enhancing function and expression of Cav3.2 in mice. Toxicology. 2018;393:102-112 pubmed publisher
    ..2 in nociceptors, suggesting a novel therapeutic avenue for treatment of bladder pain, such as zinc supplementation. ..
  7. Thompson S, Giles M. A complicated pelvic fracture in an octogenarian. QJM. 2012;105:81-2 pubmed publisher
  8. Carr E, Schott H, Barrington G, Parish S. Ruptured urinary bladder after dystocia in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;202:631-2 pubmed
    Rupture of the urinary bladder of a cow occurred secondary to prolonged dystocia. Primary surgical closure of the tear was performed after drainage of the uroperitoneum, and the cow recovered without complications.
  9. O DONNELL B, Puri P. Treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by endoscopic injection of Teflon. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;289:7-9 pubmed
    ..Properly carried out, this procedure corrects reflux. It takes less than 15 minutes, may be done as a day procedure, and avoids open surgery. There have been no complications. ..
  10. Colodny A, Lebowitz R. The importance of voiding during a cystourethrogram. J Urol. 1974;111:838-9 pubmed
  11. Scholtmeijer R, Nijman R. Vesicoureteric reflux and videourodynamic studies: results of a prospective study after three years of follow-up. Urology. 1994;43:714-8 pubmed
    ..After treatment of frequently found bladder dysfunction, the reflux will disappear in the majority of cases. ..
  12. Aizawa R, Sakamoto M, Orito N, Kono M, Ogura M, Negoro Y, et al. The Use of External-beam Radiotherapy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer in Elderly or Medically-fragile Patients. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:5761-5766 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the clinical results of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in elderly or medically-fragile patients...
  13. Cleveland R, Constantinou C, Blickman J, Jaramillo D, Webster E. Voiding cystourethrography in children: value of digital fluoroscopy in reducing radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992;158:137-42 pubmed
    ..The use of digital spot films reduced dose approximately 50% compared with 105-mm spot films; the ovarian dose was 0.62 mGy greater than that for radionuclide voiding cystourethrography. ..
  14. Türedi S, Kerimoğlu G, Mercantepe T, Odaci E. Biochemical and pathological changes in the male rat kidney and bladder following exposure to continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field on postnatal days 22-59<sup/>. Int J Radiat Biol. 2017;93:990-999 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that continuous exposure to the effect of 900-MHz EMF for 1?h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive, causes an increase in oxidative stress and various pathological changes in male rat kidney and bladder tissues. ..
  15. De Sadeleer C, De Boe V, Keuppens F, Desprechins B, Verboven M, Piepsz A. How good is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine indirect cystography?. Eur J Nucl Med. 1994;21:223-7 pubmed
    ..The use of 99mTc-MAG3 IRC as the sole technique for the detection of vesicoureteric reflux gives rise to an unacceptable number of false-negative results. ..
  16. Huddart R, Birtle A, Maynard L, Beresford M, Blazeby J, Donovan J, et al. Clinical and patient-reported outcomes of SPARE - a randomised feasibility study of selective bladder preservation versus radical cystectomy. BJU Int. 2017;120:639-650 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the few participants, firm conclusions about disease and toxicity outcomes cannot be drawn. ..
  17. Lee Y, Lin K, Chuang S, Lee Y, Lu M, Wu B, et al. Elucidating Mechanisms of Bladder Repair after Hyaluronan Instillation in Ketamine-Induced Ulcerative Cystitis in Animal Model. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1945-1959 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that HA could modulate inflammatory responses, enhance mucosal regeneration, and improve urothelial lining defects in KIC. ..
  18. Rodel C, Weiss C. Organ-sparing multimodality treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: can we continue to ignore the evidence?. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3787-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Lebowitz R, Lamego C. Rectourethral fistula on the urethrogram. Urol Radiol. 1979;1:53-9 pubmed
    ..After pull-through operation a remnant of the fistula may remain as a small unimportant sinus tract or may cause problems. ..
  20. Solov yov A, Laricheva O, Kulchitskiy O. [Sliding ingvinal haernias in children]. Khirurgiia (Mosk). 2017;:51-54 pubmed publisher
  21. Mohamad Al Ali B, Ponholzer A, Augustin H, Madersbacher S, Pummer K. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9615080 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. ..
  22. Orywal K, Jelski W, Werel T, Szmitkowski M. The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:3537-3541 pubmed
    ..was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals...
  23. Baradaran Ghahfarokhi M, Amouheidari A, Shahbazi Gahrouei D, Baradaran Ghahfarokhi H, Tanderup K, Dörr W, et al. Evaluation of the Effects of Prostate Radiation Therapy on Occludin Expression and Ultrasonography Characteristics of the Bladder. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;99:963-971 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a significant reduction in bladder echogenicity and increase in occludin expression during treatment can be associated with acute urinary complications. ..
  24. Boellaard W, Stoop H, Gillis A, Oosterhuis J, Looijenga L. VASA mRNA (DDX4) detection is more specific than immunohistochemistry using poly- or monoclonal antibodies for germ cells in the male urogenital tract. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7489 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, VASA-mRNA evaluation, using qRT-PCR, is specific for the presence of germ cells, therefore, is an interesting molecular biomarker for germ cell detection in semen. ..
  25. Jansson U, Hanson M, Hanson E, Hellstrom A, Sillen U. Voiding pattern in healthy children 0 to 3 years old: a longitudinal study. J Urol. 2000;164:2050-4 pubmed
    ..per 4 hours). During the first 3 years of life the number of voiding episodes, including interrupted voiding, post-void residual urine and voiding during sleep, decreased while bladder capacity increased. ..
  26. Willemsen J, Nijman R. Vesicoureteral reflux and videourodynamic studies: results of a prospective study. Urology. 2000;55:939-43 pubmed
    ..Breakthrough urinary tract infections occur more often in girls and tend to occur more often in children with bladder instability. ..
  27. Gill I, Soble J, Miller S, Sung G. A novel technique for management of the en bloc bladder cuff and distal ureter during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. J Urol. 1999;161:430-4 pubmed
    ..This technique simulates established open surgical principles of treating the distal ureter during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. ..
  28. Goldman S, Corona B. Co-delivery of micronized urinary bladder matrix damps regenerative capacity of minced muscle grafts in the treatment of volumetric muscle loss injuries. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186593 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this shortcoming, this study sought to evaluate micronized acellular urinary bladder matrix (UBM) as a scaffolding to promote in vivo expansion of this MG therapy in a rat model...
  29. Rainauli Z, Mekokishvili L, de Petriconi R. 15-year history of spontaneous appendico-vesical fistula (case report). Georgian Med News. 2012;:7-11 pubmed
  30. Lax T, Drew R. An unusual case of bladder rupture in a cow. Vet Rec. 1974;94:615-6 pubmed
  31. Hinman F, Baumann F. Complications of vesicoureteral operations from incoordination of micturition. J Urol. 1976;116:638-43 pubmed
  32. Hwang J, San B, Turner N, White L, Faulk D, Badylak S, et al. Molecular assessment of collagen denaturation in decellularized tissues using a collagen hybridizing peptide. Acta Biomater. 2017;53:268-278 pubmed publisher
    ..Staining of the detergent-treated porcine ligament and urinary bladder matrix with carboxyfluorescein-labeled CHP demonstrated that SDS and Triton X-100 denature the triple helical ..
  33. Jackson D. Mechanical basis for lung volume variability in the turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. Am J Physiol. 1971;220:754-8 pubmed
  34. Snodgrass W. Relationship of voiding dysfunction to urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children. Urology. 1991;38:341-4 pubmed
    ..01) and suggest that voiding dysfunction is common in girls with infections, perhaps even predisposing to the development of infections. However, voiding dysfunction in this population did not predispose to reflux. ..
  35. Maddocks R, Fagan W. Paraganglioma of bladder with recurrence ten years later. Urology. 1976;7:430-2 pubmed
  36. Okamura K, Kato N, Takamura S, Tanaka J, Nagai T, Watanabe H, et al. Trigonal splitting is a major complication of endoscopic trigonoplasty at 1-year followup. J Urol. 1997;157:1423-5 pubmed
    ..Cessation rates of vesicoureteral reflux 12 months after endoscopic trigonoplasty were low with a high incidence of trigonal splitting. These unsatisfactory results mandate technical refinements to avoid trigonal splitting. ..
  37. Kaplan W, Nasrallah P, King L. Reflux in complete duplication in children. J Urol. 1978;120:220-2 pubmed
    ..However, in 48 per cent of patients followed with non-operative surveillance reflux has either stopped spontaneously or is medically stable. ..
  38. Chen G, el Gabry E, Bagley D. Surveillance of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: the role of ureteroscopy, retrograde pyelography, cytology and urinalysis. J Urol. 2000;164:1901-4 pubmed
    ..Based on our data we recommend ureteroscopic evaluation as an essential procedure for the surveillance of patients treated endoscopically for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. ..
  39. Sanders D, Evans J, Finlay I. A simple manoeuvre to minimise bladder injury during laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012;94:369 pubmed publisher
  40. Schneider R. Genitourinary trauma. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1993;11:137-45 pubmed
  41. Marshall S, Guthrie T, Jeffs R, Politano V, Lyon R. Ureterovesicoplasty: selection of patients, incidence and avoidance of complications. A review of 3,527 cases. J Urol. 1977;118:829-31 pubmed
    ..While complications do occur resultant damage to the upper urinary tracts should be minimized by its prompt recognition and by institution of appropriate therapy. ..
  42. Hertting O, Lüthje P, Sullivan D, Aspenstrom P, Brauner A. Vitamin D-deficient mice have more invasive urinary tract infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180810 pubmed publisher
    ..with vitamin D can induce the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin during ex vivo infection of human urinary bladder. In rodents, however, cathelicidin expression is not linked to vitamin D and therefore this vitamin D-related ..
  43. Bis K, Slovis T. Accuracy of ultrasonic bladder volume measurement in children. Pediatr Radiol. 1990;20:457-60 pubmed
    ..This technique is still valuable, however, in children with an abnormal bladder for it allows estimation of the extent of emptying without invasive catheterization. ..
  44. Adebayo A, Suryavanshi M, Bhute S, Agunloye A, Isokpehi R, Anumudu C, et al. The microbiome in urogenital schistosomiasis and induced bladder pathologies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005826 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the research study was to determine the microbiome features and changes in urine during urogenital schistosomiasis and induced bladder pathologies...
  45. Griffiths D, Scholtmeijer R. Vesicoureteral reflux and lower urinary tract dysfunction: evidence for 2 different reflux/dysfunction complexes. J Urol. 1987;137:240-4 pubmed
    ..Direct videourodynamic observations of reflux in a second group of children confirmed the existence of these 2 types of reflux/dysfunction complexes. ..
  46. Gonzalez E, Grill W. The effects of neuromodulation in a novel obese-prone rat model of detrusor underactivity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F815-F825 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies characterize a novel animal model of DUA that can be used to determine pathophysiology and suggest that neuromodulation is a potential management option for DUA. ..
  47. Cohen S. The Cohen reimplantation technique. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1977;13:391-5 pubmed
  48. Sillen U, Hjalmas K, Aili M, Bjure J, Hanson E, Hansson S. Pronounced detrusor hypercontractility in infants with gross bilateral reflux. J Urol. 1992;148:598-9 pubmed
  49. Walter J, Andros G, Stokes S, Wheeler J, Damaser M, Sacks J, et al. Urodynamic verification of noninvasive back-pressure recordings from the urinary bladder. Tech Urol. 1998;4:185-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, the modifications have improved back-pressure recording techniques. The use of noninvasive back-pressure recording may be an important adjunct in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. ..
  50. Santos A, Coelho J, Juanes C, Azevedo R, Diniz C, Jamacaru F, et al. Transitional metaplasia in intestinal epithelium of rats submitted to intestinal cystoplasty and treatment with L -lysine. Acta Cir Bras. 2017;32:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The administration of L-lysine to rats accelerated the development of transitional metaplasia in the epithelium of the colon segment in cystoplasty. ..
  51. Hashimoto N, Kiyono T, Saitow F, Asada M, Yoshida M. Reversible differentiation of immortalized human bladder smooth muscle cells accompanied by actin bundle reorganization. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186584 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have established a human SMC line retaining high proliferating potential without compromising differentiation potential...
  52. Wang Z, Chang H, Gao Y, Zhang R, Guo Y, Holschneider D, et al. Effects of water avoidance stress on peripheral and central responses during bladder filling in the rat: A multidisciplinary approach to the study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (MAPP) research network study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182976 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are consistent with recent findings in patients with interstitial cystitis, suggesting that WAS may serve as an animal model to elucidate the mechanisms leading to viscerosensitive brain phenotypes in humans with IC/BPS. ..
  53. Cummings K, Correa R, Gibbons R, Stoll H, Wheelis R, Mason J. Renal pelvic tumors. J Urol. 1975;113:158-62 pubmed
    ..The high incidence of associated urothelial tumors, especially on the involved side, mandated radical nephroureterectomy including a bladder cuff as the treatment of choice. ..