distal kidney tubules


Summary: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.

Top Publications

  1. Lourdel S, Paulais M, Cluzeaud F, Bens M, Tanemoto M, Kurachi Y, et al. An inward rectifier K(+) channel at the basolateral membrane of the mouse distal convoluted tubule: similarities with Kir4-Kir5.1 heteromeric channels. J Physiol. 2002;538:391-404 pubmed
    ..At the current state of knowledge, the channel is similar to Kir4.1-Kir5.1 and Kir4.2-Kir5.1 heteromeric channels, but not to Kir4.1 or Kir4.2 homomeric channels. ..
  2. Sauve R, Cai S, Garneau L, Klein H, Parent L. pH and external Ca(2+) regulation of a small conductance Cl(-) channel in kidney distal tubule. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1509:73-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, the present work constitutes the first single channel evidence for a chloride channel regulated by external Ca(2+). ..
  3. Zhang Y, Gorelik J, Sanchez D, Shevchuk A, Lab M, Vodyanoy I, et al. Scanning ion conductance microscopy reveals how a functional renal epithelial monolayer maintains its integrity. Kidney Int. 2005;68:1071-7 pubmed
  4. Kroning R, Katz D, Lichtenstein A, Nagami G. Differential effects of cisplatin in proximal and distal renal tubule epithelial cell lines. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:293-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the relative resistance of renal cells to carboplatin vs cisplatin is mostly due to the differential effects that follow internalization. ..
  5. Arreola Mendoza L, Reyes J, Melendez E, Martin D, Namorado M, Sanchez E, et al. Alpha-tocopherol protects against the renal damage caused by potassium dichromate. Toxicology. 2006;218:237-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast alpha-TOC did not prevent glomerular or distal dysfunction, indicating selectivity of the protection afforded by this compound on the toxicity of dichromate, at the several components of the nephron...
  6. Nantel F, Meadows E, Denis D, Connolly B, Metters K, Giaid A. Immunolocalization of cyclooxygenase-2 in the macula densa of human elderly. FEBS Lett. 1999;457:475-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, COX-2 immunoreactivity was noted in afferent arteries and the macula densa of the renal cortex and was more evident in the kidneys of older adults. ..
  7. Peces R. Long-term follow-up in distal renal tubular acidosis with sensorineural deafness. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15:63-5 pubmed
    ..Although nephrolithiasis led to atrophy of the right kidney, at last follow-up, when the patient was 44 years old, his creatinine clearance was 50 ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface. ..
  8. Abuazza G, Becker A, Williams S, Chakravarty S, Truong H, Lin F, et al. Claudins 6, 9, and 13 are developmentally expressed renal tight junction proteins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F1132-41 pubmed
    ..In summary, we have identified developmentally expressed claudin isoforms, claudin 6, claudin 9, and claudin 13. These paracellular proteins may play a role in the maturational changes in paracellular permeability. ..
  9. Duong Van Huyen J, Bens M, Teulon J, Vandewalle A. Vasopressin-stimulated chloride transport in transimmortalized mouse cell lines derived from the distal convoluted tubule and cortical and inner medullary collecting ducts. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:238-45 pubmed
    ..I(sc) experiments also suggest the presence of a minor component of electrogenic Cl(-) secretion, possibly mediated by CFTR. ..

More Information


  1. Chen L, Yang B, McNulty J, Clifton L, Binz J, Grimes A, et al. GI262570, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, changes electrolytes and water reabsorption from the distal nephron in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;312:718-25 pubmed
    ..This may be an important mechanism for PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention. ..
  2. Liu H, Liao T, Lee T, Chuang L, Guh J, Liu S, et al. Albumin induces cellular fibrosis by upregulating transforming growth factor-beta ligand and its receptors in renal distal tubule cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:956-68 pubmed
    ..These combinational effects might contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. ..
  3. Arndt C, Morgenstern B, Hawkins D, Wilson D, Liedtke R, Miser J. Renal function following combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin in patients with osteogenic sarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999;32:93-6 pubmed
    ..The lack of clinically significant renal abnormalities observed in patients who received combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide and cisplatin for osteosarcoma is encouraging for future osteosarcoma protocol development. ..
  4. Bajwa A, Forster M, Maiti A, Woolbright B, Beckman M. Specific regulation of CYP27B1 and VDR in proximal versus distal renal cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;477:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of promoter activities and VDR protein levels corresponded with the gene expression data. We conclude that PTH-mediated decrease in VDR and increase in renal CYP27B1 is proximal cell-specific. ..
  5. Dai L, Kang H, Kerstan D, Ritchie G, Quamme G. ATP inhibits Mg(2+) uptake in MDCT cells via P2X purinoceptors. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;281:F833-40 pubmed
    ..We conclude from this information that ATP inhibited Mg(2+) uptake in MDCT cells through P2X purinoceptors expressed in this distal convoluted tubule cell line. ..
  6. Chien C, Shyue S, Lai M. Bcl-xL augmentation potentially reduces ischemia/reperfusion induced proximal and distal tubular apoptosis and autophagy. Transplantation. 2007;84:1183-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Adv-bcl-xL gene transfer significantly improves ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction via the downregulation of renal tubular apoptosis and autophagy. ..
  7. Greene E, Farell G, Yu S, Matthews T, Kumar V, Lieske J. Renal cell adaptation to oxalate. Urol Res. 2005;33:340-8 pubmed
    ..Renal cells in vivo may possess adaptive mechanisms to withstand chronic hyperoxaluria, including increased expression of chaperone molecules such as HSP-70. ..
  8. Shan H, Zhang X, Gu R, Luo D, Yang B. Effects of erysimin G on renal tubular function and 70-pS K+ channel activity of thick ascending limb. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22:411-4 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of erysimin G (CH35H52O13) on the thick ascending limb (TAL) 70-pS K+ channel of rat kidney and its effect on diuresis...
  9. Baer P, Gauer S, Wegner B, Schubert R, Geiger H. C-reactive protein induced activation of MAP-K and RANTES in human renal distal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. Clin Nephrol. 2006;66:177-83 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated an activating effect of CRP on DTC in vitro. In vivo, this effect of CRP might be part of the immune activation cascade during episodes of renal graft rejection or bacterial infections. ..
  10. Belge H, Gailly P, Schwaller B, Loffing J, Debaix H, Riveira Munoz E, et al. Renal expression of parvalbumin is critical for NaCl handling and response to diuretics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14849-54 pubmed
    ..They also provide insights into the Ca(2+)-sparing action of thiazides and the pathophysiology of distal tubulopathies. ..
  11. Pedersen N, Hofmeister M, Rosenbaek L, Nielsen J, Fenton R. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule. Kidney Int. 2010;78:160-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that AVP is a potent regulator of NCC activity. ..
  12. Amuzescu B, Segal A, Flonta M, Simaels J, Van Driessche W. Zinc is a voltage-dependent blocker of native and heterologously expressed epithelial Na+ channels. Pflugers Arch. 2003;446:69-77 pubmed
  13. Seidlerova J, Staessen J, Maillard M, Nawrot T, Zhang H, Bochud M, et al. Association between arterial properties and renal sodium handling in a general population. Hypertension. 2006;48:609-15 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that there might be an influence of renal sodium handling on arterial properties or vice versa or that common mechanisms might influence both arterial and renal function. ..
  14. Myrdal S, Johnson K, Steyger P. Cytoplasmic and intra-nuclear binding of gentamicin does not require endocytosis. Hear Res. 2005;204:156-69 pubmed
  15. Wang H, Carretero O, Garvin J. Inhibition of apical Na+/H+ exchangers on the macula densa cells augments tubuloglomerular feedback. Hypertension. 2003;41:688-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is possible that increased apical Na+/H+ exchange caused by increasing the sodium concentration in the lumen of the macula densa activates macula densa nNOS. The link between nNOS and Na+/H+ exchange may be intracellular pH. ..
  16. Gesek F. Alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor control of sodium transport reverses in developing hypertension. Hypertension. 1999;33:524-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a molecular switch of alpha1-AR and alpha2-AR signaling occurs in DT cells during the development of hypertension. ..
  17. Lourdel S, Paulais M, Marvao P, Nissant A, Teulon J. A chloride channel at the basolateral membrane of the distal-convoluted tubule: a candidate ClC-K channel. J Gen Physiol. 2003;121:287-300 pubmed
    ..Since immunohistochemical data indicates that ClC-K2, and perhaps ClC-K1, are present on the DCT basolateral membrane, we suggest that the channel detected in this study may belong to this subfamily of the ClC channel family. ..
  18. Lu P, Boros S, Chang Q, Bindels R, Hoenderop J. The beta-glucuronidase klotho exclusively activates the epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:3397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a modulating effect for klotho primarily restricted to the epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6. ..
  19. Duranton C, Rubera I, L Hoste S, Cougnon M, Poujeol P, Barhanin J, et al. KCNQ1 K+ channels are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of distal kidney cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;25:367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the KCNQ1/KCNE3 K+ current appeared to be an essential step in the LPS-induced apoptosis process since HMR1556 blocked the LPS-induced- cell volume decrease, -caspase-3 activation and -phosphatidylserine exposure. ..
  20. Biller K, Unwin R, Shirley D. Distal tubular electrolyte transport during inhibition of renal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F172-9 pubmed
    ..The reduction in fractional Na(+) excretion during inhibition of 11beta-HSD, in the absence of a change in end-distal Na(+) delivery, suggests enhanced Na(+) reabsorption in the collecting ducts. ..
  21. Piskac Collier A, Smith M. Lindane-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione do not result in necrosis in renal distal tubule cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:1160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, lindane exposure results in oxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant response in renal distal tubule cells, followed by cell death not attributed to necrotic injury. ..
  22. Mori T, Cowley A. Angiotensin II-NAD(P)H oxidase-stimulated superoxide modifies tubulovascular nitric oxide cross-talk in renal outer medulla. Hypertension. 2003;42:588-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that AngII stimulates O2*- production in mTAL via the NAD(P)H oxidase pathway and that interactions of O2*- and NO ultimately determine the effectiveness of in situ free-radical cross-talk between the mTAL and the VR. ..
  23. Komlosi P, Fintha A, Bell P. Unraveling the relationship between macula densa cell volume and luminal solute concentration/osmolality. Kidney Int. 2006;70:865-71 pubmed
  24. Phillips J, Hopwood D, Loxley R, Ghatora K, Coombes J, Tan Y, et al. Temporal relationship between renal cyst development, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in a new rat model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2007;30:129-44 pubmed
  25. Deng A, Munger K, Valdivielso J, Satriano J, Lortie M, Blantz R, et al. Increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase in distal tubules of early diabetic rat kidneys: are polyamines paracrine hypertrophic factors?. Diabetes. 2003;52:1235-9 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the possibility that polyamines produced in the distal nephron may mediate the early diabetic kidney growth of the proximal tubules via a paracrine mechanism. ..
  26. Ward D, Riccardi D. Renal physiology of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Pflugers Arch. 2002;445:169-76 pubmed
    ..The renal expression of CaR will be detailed in this review and its role in integrating [Ca2+]o with the calciotropic signals responsible for Ca2+ homeostasis will be discussed. ..
  27. Bailey S, Roberts A, Brock C, Price L, Craft A, Kilkarni R, et al. Nephrotoxicity in survivors of Wilms' tumours in the North of England. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:1092-8 pubmed
    ..This finding will enable paediatric oncologists to reassure patients and parents that treatment for Wilms' tumour rarely causes long-term renal impairment. ..
  28. Persson A, Ollerstam A, Liu R, Brown R. Mechanisms for macula densa cell release of renin. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;181:471-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, renin release from the afferent arteriole is mediated partly through formation of PGE2, and partly through the reduction of adenosine formation that inhibits renin production. ..
  29. Lu M, Wang T, Yan Q, Wang W, Giebisch G, Hebert S. ROMK is required for expression of the 70-pS K channel in the thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;286:F490-5 pubmed
    ..It is likely that ROMK forms a critical subunit of the 70-pS K channel, accounting for the loss of apical K secretory channel activity in ROMK Bartter syndrome. ..
  30. Weinstein A. A mathematical model of distal nephron acidification: diuretic effects. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..4) The effect of furosemide to enhance distal urinary acidification is not reproduced by the model without major upregulation of CNT alpha-cell transport, perhaps as a result of increased luminal flow. ..
  31. Schaefer L, Grone H, Raslik I, Robenek H, Ugorcakova J, Budny S, et al. Small proteoglycans of normal adult human kidney: distinct expression patterns of decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and lumican. Kidney Int. 2000;58:1557-68 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that these proteoglycans may have distinct pathophysiological roles depending upon whether they are expressed by mesangial cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, or cells of the tubulointerstitium. ..
  32. Veuthey T, D Anna M, Roque M. Role of the kidney in iron homeostasis: renal expression of Prohepcidin, Ferroportin, and DMT1 in anemic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is required to learn more about these regulatory mechanisms. ..
  33. Obineche E, Mensah Brown E, Chandranath S, Ahmed I, Naseer O, Adem A. Morphological changes in the rat kidney following long-term diabetes. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2001;109:241-5 pubmed
  34. Gollob J, Upton M, DeWolf W, Atkins M. Long-term remission in a patient with metastatic collecting duct carcinoma treated with taxol/carboplatin and surgery. Urology. 2001;58:1058 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Taxol/carboplatin chemotherapy and surgery should be considered for the treatment of metastatic collecting duct carcinoma. ..
  35. Blantz R. Making sense of the sensor: mysteries of the macula densa. Kidney Int. 2006;70:828-30 pubmed
    ..MD cell volume increases when increments are isosmotic and shrinks if osmolality increases. This interesting finding introduces additional complexity to the role of the MD in TGF. ..
  36. Verkoelen C, Verhulst A. Proposed mechanisms in renal tubular crystal retention. Kidney Int. 2007;72:13-8 pubmed
    ..Crystal binding to the surface of these cells can be mediated by a number of luminal membrane molecules, including acidic fragment of nucleolin-related protein, annexin-II, osteopontin, and hyaluronan. ..
  37. Wagner C, Loffing Cueni D, Yan Q, Schulz N, Fakitsas P, Carrel M, et al. Mouse model of type II Bartter's syndrome. II. Altered expression of renal sodium- and water-transporting proteins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F1373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These adaptive changes in Romk(-/-) mice may help to limit renal Na(+) loss, and thereby, contribute to survival of these mice. ..
  38. Vincent A, Lim B, Tan J, Whiteman M, Cheung N, Halliwell B, et al. Sulfite-mediated oxidative stress in kidney cells. Kidney Int. 2004;65:393-402 pubmed
    ..Although MDH was similarly inhibited, the impact was buffered by the high level of this enzyme in kidney mitochondria. ..
  39. Kip S, Strehler E. Characterization of PMCA isoforms and their contribution to transcellular Ca2+ flux in MDCK cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F122-32 pubmed
    ..The MDCK system is thus an ideal model for functional studies of the specific role and regulation of PMCA isoforms in Ca(2+) reabsorption in the distal kidney. ..
  40. Zhou B, Zhuang J, Gu D, Wang H, Cebotaru L, Guggino W, et al. WNK4 enhances the degradation of NCC through a sortilin-mediated lysosomal pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:82-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that WNK4 promotes NCC targeting to the lysosome for degradation via a mechanism involving sortilin. ..
  41. Lee D, Riquier A, Yang L, Leong P, Maunsbach A, McDonough A. Acute hypertension provokes acute trafficking of distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) to subapical cytoplasmic vesicles. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DCT NCC may participate in pressure natriuresis-diuresis by retraction out of apical plasma membranes and that the retraction is, at least in part, driven by the fall in ANG II that accompanies acute hypertension...
  42. Nielsen S, Maunsbach A, Ecelbarger C, Knepper M. Ultrastructural localization of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in thick ascending limb and macula densa of rat kidney. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:F885-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the BSC-1 localization in the apical plasma membrane of macula densa cells is consistent with its proposed role in tubuloglomerular feedback. ..
  43. Wesson D. Endogenous endothelins mediate increased acidification in remnant kidneys. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:1826-35 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 0.3 to -0.12 +/- 0.03 microM/ml blood, P < 0.002), consistent with acid retention. The data demonstrate that endogenous ET mediate increased urinary acid excretion in the remnant kidneys of Nx animals. ..
  44. Andersen Beckh B, Dehe M, Schulein R, Wiesner B, Rutz C, Liebenhoff U, et al. Polarized expression of the vasopressin V2 receptor in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Kidney Int. 1999;56:517-27 pubmed
    ..In conjunction with tyramide signal amplification, MDCK II cells constitute a suitable model for the analysis of transport-defective mutants of the V2 receptor. ..
  45. Diamond G, Zalups R. Understanding renal toxicity of heavy metals. Toxicol Pathol. 1998;26:92-103 pubmed
    ..Regional distributions of transport mechanisms for binding proteins appear to be important in the expression of nephrotoxicity of metals. These and other new research developments are reviewed. ..
  46. San Cristobal P, Ponce Coria J, Vazquez N, Bobadilla N, Gamba G. WNK3 and WNK4 amino-terminal domain defines their effect on the renal Na+-Cl- cotransporter. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the effect of chimeras toward NCC follows the amino-terminal domain. Thus the amino terminus of the WNKs contains the sequences that are required for their activating or inhibiting properties on NCC. ..
  47. Podhorska Okolow M, Dziegiel P, Murawska Cialowicz E, Saczko J, Kulbacka J, Gomulkiewicz A, et al. Effects of adaptive exercise on apoptosis in cells of rat renal tubuli. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;99:217-26 pubmed
  48. Miyazaki H, Kaneko T, Uchida S, Sasaki S, Takei Y. Kidney-specific chloride channel, OmClC-K, predominantly expressed in the diluting segment of freshwater-adapted tilapia kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15782-7 pubmed
    ..The localization of OmClC-K and its induction in hypoosmotic media suggest that OmClC-K is involved in Cl(-) reabsorption in the distal tubule of freshwater-adapted tilapia. ..
  49. Dolan N, Waldron M, O Connell M, Eustace N, Carson K, Awan A. Basiliximab induced non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema in two pediatric renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24:2261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Early recognition and appropriate supportive therapy is vital for patient and, where possible, graft survival. ..
  50. San Cristobal P, Dimke H, Hoenderop J, Bindels R. Novel molecular pathways in renal Mg2+ transport: a guided tour along the nephron. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010;19:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent genetic and molecular studies have further elucidated the processes that govern renal Mg transport and hence systemic Mg balance. This has provided us with new tools to understand the molecular pathology behind hypomagnesemia. ..
  51. Lai L, Yong K, Lien Y. Site-specific expression of IQGAP1, a key mediator of cytoskeleton, in mouse renal tubules. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:659-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The site-specific expression pattern of this potent modulator of multiple biological pathways in the renal tubules suggests that IQGAP1 may have multiple important roles in various renal functions. ..
  52. Baer P, Geiger H. Human renal cells from the thick ascending limb and early distal tubule: characterization of primary isolated and cultured cells by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Nephrology (Carlton). 2008;13:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the purity of primary isolates and the differentiation of cultured TALDC, and show that they can be used as an in vitro system studies of the human thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and early distal tubule. ..
  53. Magyar C, White K, Rojas R, Apodaca G, Friedman P. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase and NCX1 Na+/Ca2+ exchanger expression in distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F29-40 pubmed
    ..Basolateral localization of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and MCAs support the idea that multiple PMCA isoforms, in concert with the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, mediate basal or hormone-stimulated Ca2+ efflux by distal tubules. ..