glomerular mesangium


Summary: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.

Top Publications

  1. Reiniger N, Lau K, McCalla D, Eby B, Cheng B, Lu Y, et al. Deletion of the receptor for advanced glycation end products reduces glomerulosclerosis and preserves renal function in the diabetic OVE26 mouse. Diabetes. 2010;59:2043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide compelling evidence for critical roles for RAGE in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and suggest that strategies targeting RAGE in long-term diabetes may prevent loss of renal function. ..
  2. Gomes M, Suzuki H, Brooks M, Tomana M, Moldoveanu Z, Mestecky J, et al. Recognition of galactose-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1 by N-acetylgalactosamine-specific snail lectins: a comparative binding study. Biochemistry. 2010;49:5671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..nephropathy (IgAN), a kidney disease characterized by deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the glomerular mesangium. IgA1 from IgAN patients is characterized by the presence of galactose (Gal)-deficient O-glycans in the ..
  3. Kusaba G, Ohsawa I, Ishii M, Inoshita H, Takagi M, Tanifuji C, et al. Significance of broad distribution of electron-dense deposits in patients with IgA nephropathy. Med Mol Morphol. 2012;45:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with broad distribution of EDD, urinary protein was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Detailed observation of EDD distribution has an impact on evaluation of the disease activity of IgAN. ..
  4. Qian Y, Feldman E, Pennathur S, Kretzler M, Brosius F. From fibrosis to sclerosis: mechanisms of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2008;57:1439-45 pubmed publisher
  5. He W, Kang Y, Dai C, Liu Y. Blockade of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by paricalcitol ameliorates proteinuria and kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:90-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings suggest that paricalcitol prevents podocyte dysfunction, proteinuria, and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin signaling. ..
  6. Abe H, Tominaga T, Matsubara T, Abe N, Kishi S, Nagai K, et al. Scleraxis modulates bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-Smad1 protein-smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) signal transduction in diabetic nephropathy. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20430-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Scx and Id1 are involved in the BMP4-Smad1-SMA signal transduction pathway besides the TGF?1-Smad1-SMA signaling pathway and modulate phenotypic changes in MCs in diabetic nephropathy...
  7. Peng F, Wu D, Gao B, Ingram A, Zhang B, Chorneyko K, et al. RhoA/Rho-kinase contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic renal disease. Diabetes. 2008;57:1683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of this pathway in vivo prevents the pathologic changes of diabetic nephropathy, supporting a potential role for inhibitors of RhoA/Rho in the treatment of diabetic renal disease. ..
  8. Espinosa M, Ortega R, Gómez Carrasco J, Lopez Rubio F, Lopez Andreu M, López Oliva M, et al. Mesangial C4d deposition: a new prognostic factor in IgA nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..0005). Negative mesangial C4d staining in glomeruli in patients with IgA nephropathy helps to identify patients with a good long-term prognostic for whom aggressive treatments are not justified. ..
  9. Kaukinen A, Kuusniemi A, Helin H, Jalanko H. Changes in glomerular mesangium in kidneys with congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the cellular and molecular changes affecting the glomerular mesangium in NPHS1 kidneys...

More Information


  1. Moldoveanu Z, Wyatt R, Lee J, Tomana M, Julian B, Mestecky J, et al. Patients with IgA nephropathy have increased serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels. Kidney Int. 2007;71:1148-54 pubmed
    ..5%, with specificity 94%; the positive predictive value was 88.6% and the negative predictive value was 78.9%. We conclude that this lectin-binding assay may have potential as a noninvasive diagnostic test for IgA nephropathy. ..
  2. Novak J, Moldoveanu Z, Renfrow M, Yanagihara T, Suzuki H, Raska M, et al. IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis: aberrant glycosylation of IgA1, formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and activation of mesangial cells. Contrib Nephrol. 2007;157:134-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, we identified the neoepitopes on IgA1 responsible for formation of the pathogenic immune complexes. These studies may lead to development of noninvasive diagnostic assays and future disease-specific therapy. ..
  3. Lin C, Wang J, Ko J, Huang Y, Kuo Y, Wang F. Dickkopf-1 promotes hyperglycemia-induced accumulation of mesangial matrix and renal dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down DKK1 prevents diabetes-induced renal dysfunction and microstructure deterioration, suggesting that inhibition of DKK1offers therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy. ..
  4. Novak J, Julian B, Tomana M, Mestecky J. IgA glycosylation and IgA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Semin Nephrol. 2008;28:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..By using sophisticated analytic methods, it may be possible to define biomarkers for diagnostic purposes and identify new therapeutic targets for a future disease-specific therapy. ..
  5. Susztak K, Raff A, Schiffer M, Bottinger E. Glucose-induced reactive oxygen species cause apoptosis of podocytes and podocyte depletion at the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2006;55:225-33 pubmed
  6. Chen M, Wang Y, Zhao M, Zhang Y, Wang H. Autoantibodies against glomerular mesangial cells and their target antigens in lupus nephritis. Ren Fail. 2005;27:507-13 pubmed
    Mesangial proliferation and deposition of immunoglobulins and complement components within glomerular mesangium was one of the important pathological features of lupus nephritis...
  7. Wolf G, Chen S, Ziyadeh F. From the periphery of the glomerular capillary wall toward the center of disease: podocyte injury comes of age in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2005;54:1626-34 pubmed
    ..The mainstays of therapy, glycemic control and inhibition of ANG II, are key measures to prevent early podocyte injury and the subsequent development of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  8. Moura I, Arcos Fajardo M, Gdoura A, Leroy V, Sadaka C, Mahlaoui N, et al. Engagement of transferrin receptor by polymeric IgA1: evidence for a positive feedback loop involving increased receptor expression and mesangial cell proliferation in IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2667-76 pubmed
  9. Lu C, He J, Cai W, Liu H, Zhu L, Vlassara H. Advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) receptor 1 is a negative regulator of the inflammatory response to AGE in mesangial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11767-72 pubmed
  10. Lee E, Seo J, Jiang Z, Yu M, Kwon M, Ha H, et al. Reactive oxygen species mediate high glucose-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 up-regulation in mesangial cells and in diabetic kidney. Kidney Int. 2005;67:1762-71 pubmed
    ..Antioxidants can prevent accumulation of ECM protein in diabetic glomeruli partly by abrogating up-regulation of PAI-1 and suppression of plasmin activity. ..
  11. Eremina V, Cui S, Gerber H, Ferrara N, Haigh J, Nagy A, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor a signaling in the podocyte-endothelial compartment is required for mesangial cell migration and survival. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:724-35 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a key role for VEGF-A production in the podocyte for mesangial cell survival and differentiation. ..
  12. Nicholas S, Aguiniga E, Ren Y, Kim J, Wong J, Govindarajan N, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency retards diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2005;67:1297-307 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PAI-1 contributes to diabetic nephropathy by regulating TGF-beta and renal ECM production and may be a therapeutic target in diabetic nephropathy. ..
  13. Wahab N, Schaefer L, Weston B, Yiannikouris O, Wright A, Babelova A, et al. Glomerular expression of thrombospondin-1, transforming growth factor beta and connective tissue growth factor at different stages of diabetic nephropathy and their interdependent roles in mesangial response to diabetic stimuli. Diabetologia. 2005;48:2650-60 pubmed
    ..In contrast to THBS1, CTGF is required for mesangial synthesis of fibronectin stimulated by high glucose or glycated albumin, and is thus a potential therapeutic target. ..
  14. Novak J, Tomana M, Matousovic K, Brown R, Hall S, Novak L, et al. IgA1-containing immune complexes in IgA nephropathy differentially affect proliferation of mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2005;67:504-13 pubmed
    ..Overall, these findings suggest that CIC containing aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 affect proliferation of MC in vitro and, thus, likely play a role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. ..
  15. Renfrow M, Cooper H, Tomana M, Kulhavy R, Hiki Y, Toma K, et al. Determination of aberrant O-glycosylation in the IgA1 hinge region by electron capture dissociation fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19136-45 pubmed
  16. Prianti M, Yokoo M, Saldanha L, Costa F, Goto H. Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi-infected mice as a model for the study of glomerular lesions in visceral leishmaniasis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:819-23 pubmed
    ..Time-dependent IgG deposits were also seen in infected mice. We consider L. (L.) chagasi-infected mice to be a suitable model for studies of the immunopathogenesis of glomerular lesions in VL. ..
  17. Jackson E, Kochanek S, Gillespie D. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV regulates proliferation of preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and mesangial cells. Hypertension. 2012;60:757-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors might entail a risk of renal dysfunction because of abnormal proliferation of cells in the preglomerular microcirculation and glomeruli. ..
  18. Phua Y, Chu J, Marrone A, Bodnar A, Sims Lucas S, Ho J. Renal stromal miRNAs are required for normal nephrogenesis and glomerular mesangial survival. Physiol Rep. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..subset of peritubular capillaries, and multiple supportive vascular cell types including pericytes and the glomerular mesangium. In this study, we generated FoxD1(GC);Dicer(fl/fl) transgenic mice that lack miRNA biogenesis in the FoxD1 ..
  19. Moriyama T, Nitta K. Tonsillectomy and steroid pulse therapy for IgA nephropathy. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;224:243-50 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of the combination therapy depends on the duration of the IgAN. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to examine the efficacy of tonsillectomy plus steroid pulse therapy in different clinical stages of IgAN. ..
  20. Yan Z, Ni Y, Wang P, Chen J, He H, Sun J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta protects against obesity-related glomerulopathy through the P38 MAPK pathway. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:538-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of obesity-related glomerulopathy, which might be partly caused by PPAR? suppression-induced p38 MAPK activation and laminin and type IV collagen secretion was demonstrated. ..
  21. Hsu Y, Chang P, Ho C, Huang Y, Shih Y, Wang C, et al. Protective effects of miR-29a on diabetic glomerular dysfunction by modulation of DKK1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30575 pubmed publisher
    ..expressions of profibrotic gene markers, including DKK1 (a Wnt antagonist), TGF-β1 and fibronectin, in glomerular mesangium. Moreover, in the normal mice treated with miR-29a inhibitor, renal fibrosis was induced with an attenuated ..
  22. Lu M, Yin N, Liu W, Cui X, Chen S, Wang E. Curcumin Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Suppressing NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1516985 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, curcumin, a potent antifibrotic agent, is a promising treatment for DN, and its renoprotective effects appear to be mediated by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activity. ..
  23. Chen G, Wei L, Xiao W, Long H. [Effect of Shenkangwan on mesangial cell NO and TGF-beta1 excretion in rats with early diabetic nephropathy]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006;26:526-8 pubmed
    ..01, respectively). The therapeutic effect of SKW on early DN may rely on the balance modulation of cytokine network by increasing NO production and decreasing TGF-beta(1) excretion to prevent cytokine-induced damage of the MCs. ..
  24. Novak J, Julian B, Mestecky J, Renfrow M. Glycosylation of IgA1 and pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:365-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies of molecular defects of IgA1 can define new biomarkers specific for IgA nephropathy that can be developed into clinical assays to aid in the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and monitoring of disease progression. ..
  25. Pawar R, Pitashny M, Gindea S, Tieng A, Levine B, Goilav B, et al. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is instrumental in the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated nephritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:1620-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to determine whether NGAL is instrumental in the pathogenesis of nephritis, is induced as part of repair, or is irrelevant to damage/repair pathways...
  26. Choi C, Zuckerman J, Webster P, Davis M. Targeting kidney mesangium by nanoparticles of defined size. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Because many diseases originate from this area of the kidney, our findings establish design criteria for constructing nanoparticle-based therapeutics for targeting diseases that involve the mesangium of the kidney. ..
  27. Usha -, Kumar S, Singh R, Tapas S, Prakash J, Garbyal R. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis: an important glomerulonephritis in nephrotic syndrome of young adult. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:337-41 pubmed
  28. Yoshikawa N, Nakanishi K. [Congenital nephrotic syndrome: Pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and therapy]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64 Suppl 2:568-71 pubmed
  29. Tsuchiya N, Torii M, Narama I, Matsui T. Nephrotic syndrome induced by dibasic sodium phosphate injections for twenty-eight days in rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These clinical and morphological changes were similar to features of human nephrotic syndrome. ..
  30. Ikezumi Y, Suzuki T, Karasawa T, Hasegawa H, Yamada T, Imai N, et al. Identification of alternatively activated macrophages in new-onset paediatric and adult immunoglobulin A nephropathy: potential role in mesangial matrix expansion. Histopathology. 2011;58:198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively activated M2 macrophages are present in new-onset paediatric and adult IgAN, and this population may promote the development of fibrotic lesions. ..
  31. Niwa T. Indoxyl sulfate is a nephro-vascular toxin. J Ren Nutr. 2010;20:S2-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, AST-120 may ameliorate the progression of cardiovascular disease as well as of CKD by removing indoxyl sulfate. ..
  32. Wang Y, He Q, Qin H, Xu J, Tong J, Gao L, et al. The complement C5b-9 complexes induced injury of glomerular mesangial cells in rats with Thy-1 nephritis by increasing nitric oxide synthesis. Life Sci. 2006;79:182-92 pubmed
    ..The pathologic changes of GMCs in Thy-1 N are indeed complement C5b-9-dependent, and the glomerular injury can be mediated in part through elevation of NO from the GMCs after the sublytic C5b-9 stimulation...
  33. Okamoto K, Honda K, Doi K, Ishizu T, Katagiri D, Wada T, et al. Glypican-5 Increases Susceptibility to Nephrotic Damage in Diabetic Kidney. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:1889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate the pivotal role of GPC5, identified as a susceptible gene in the genome-wide association study, in hyperglycemia-induced glomerulopathy. ..
  34. Liu D, Liu X, Su Y, Zhang X. Renal expression of proto-oncogene Ets-1 on matrix remodeling in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:527-33 pubmed publisher
    ..01; P<0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that Ets-1 may play a critical role in fine-tuning matrix remodeling of STZ-induced DN. ..
  35. Shin B, Ryu H, Chung J, Lee B, Kim H. The protective effects of green tea extract against L-arginine toxicity to cultured human mesangial cells. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24 Suppl:S204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that GTE has some protective effect for renal cells against oxidative injury possibly by polyphenols contained in GTE. ..
  36. Barsoum R. Hepatitis C virus: from entry to renal injury--facts and potentials. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1840-8 pubmed
  37. L Azou B, Dubus I, Ohayon Courtes C, Cambar J. Human glomerular mesangial IP15 cell line as a suitable model for in vitro cadmium cytotoxicity studies. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2007;23:267-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, the IP15 cell line is a suitable model for study of in vitro cadmium cytotoxicity in mesangial cells and allows sufficient material to be obtained for future studies of the intracellular effects of cadmium exposure. ..
  38. Shim Y, Lee S, Sung S. A case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis with unusual IgM deposits and hypocomplementemia. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case was an atypical form of FGN characterized by unusual IgM deposits, persistent hypocomplementemia, and good prognosis, which suggests that childhood FGN is not necessarily a disease with poor prognosis. ..
  39. Arai H, Nagai K, Doi T. Role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in diabetic nephropathy. Vitam Horm. 2008;78:375-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of the Gas6/Axl pathway in diabetic patients might be beneficial to slow down the progression of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  40. Faraggiana T, Giannakakis C. [Glomerulosclerosis: pathogenetic mechanisms and possibility of regression]. G Ital Nefrol. 2008;25 Suppl 44:S27-S32 pubmed
  41. Riser B, Najmabadi F, Perbal B, Peterson D, Rambow J, Riser M, et al. CCN3 (NOV) is a negative regulator of CCN2 (CTGF) and a novel endogenous inhibitor of the fibrotic pathway in an in vitro model of renal disease. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..CCN3, acting downstream of TGF-beta to block CCN2 and the up-regulation of ECM, may therefore serve to naturally limit fibrosis in vivo and provide opportunities for novel, endogenous-based therapeutic treatments. ..
  42. Koike K, Hamaguchi T, Kitamura H, Imasawa T, Joh K. Galactosialidosis associated with IgA nephropathy: morphological study of renal biopsy. Pathol Int. 2008;58:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to describe light and electron microscopy observations of storage materials in the kidneys in young/adult galactosialidosis. ..
  43. Fenton K, Fismen S, Hedberg A, Seredkina N, Fenton C, Mortensen E, et al. Anti-dsDNA antibodies promote initiation, and acquired loss of renal Dnase1 promotes progression of lupus nephritis in autoimmune (NZBxNZW)F1 mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8474 pubmed publisher
    ..These scenarios may explain the basis for deposition of chromatin-IgG complexes in glomeruli in early and late stages of nephritis, loss of glomerular integrity and finally renal failure. ..
  44. Lin C, Wang J, Ko J, Surendran K, Huang Y, Kuo Y, et al. Superoxide destabilization of beta-catenin augments apoptosis of high-glucose-stressed mesangial cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Controlling oxidative stress and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has potential for protecting renal tissue against the deleterious effect of high glucose. ..
  45. Maruyama M, Toyoda M, Umezono T, Miyauchi M, Yamamoto N, Kimura M, et al. [Clinical significance of IgM deposition in the mesangium and mesangial hypercellularity in adult minimal change nephrotic syndrome]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 2006;48:14-21 pubmed
    ..However, we investigated only 47 samples in this study, therefore, further studies are necessary to identify the importance of IgM deposition in the mesangium and mesangial hypercellularity in adult MCNS. ..
  46. Eroglu E, Kocyigit I, Ates O, Unal A, Sipahioglu M, Akgun H, et al. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in familial Mediterranean fever patient with E148Q mutation: the first case report. Int Urol Nephrol. 2013;45:591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..While the association of mutation E148Q with renal involvement is still obscure, colchicine treatment is useful in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with FMF. ..
  47. Zhao Z, Deocharan B, Scherer P, Ozelius L, Putterman C. Differential binding of cross-reactive anti-DNA antibodies to mesangial cells: the role of alpha-actinin. J Immunol. 2006;176:7704-14 pubmed
    ..Modulation of Ag expression may be a promising approach to down-regulate immune complex formation in the target organ in individuals with circulating pathogenic Abs. ..
  48. Furlong F, Crean J, Thornton L, O Leary R, Murphy M, Martin F. Dysregulated intracellular signaling impairs CTGF-stimulated responses in human mesangial cells exposed to high extracellular glucose. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1691-700 pubmed
    ..Regulation of PKC-zeta by PKC-beta in this instance may establish PKC-zeta as a target for constraining the progression of mesangial cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  49. Li X, Carretero O, Zhuo J. Cross-talk between angiotensin II and glucagon receptor signaling mediates phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK 1/2 in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:1711-9 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect of PD 123319 on glucagon-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation further suggests that AT2 receptors also play a similar role in this response. ..
  50. Doi S, Chilakamarri G, Mendonca M, Araujo M, Nguyen N, Zuhl I, et al. Increased class A scavenger receptor and glomerular lipid precede mesangial matrix expansion in the bGH mouse model. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2010;20:326-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the increased expression of SRA precedes glomerular scarring in this model...
  51. Pearse D, Tian R, Nigro J, Iorgulescu J, Puzis L, Jaimes E. Angiotensin II increases the expression of the transcription factor ETS-1 in mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F1094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, rats infused with ANG II manifested increased glomerular expression of ETS-1. These studies unveil novel pathways that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury when RAS is activated. ..
  52. Fornoni A, Rosenzweig S, Lenz O, Rivera A, Striker G, Elliot S. Low insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 expression is responsible for increased insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation in mesangial cells from mice susceptible to glomerulosclerosis. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3547-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, addition of exogenous IGFBP-2 in ROP MC partially blunted the effect of high glucose on IRS-1 phosphorylation and might have a protective role. ..
  53. Sakata N, Sumi S, Gu Y, Qi M, Yamamoto C, Sunamura M, et al. Hyperglycemia and diabetic renal change in a model of polyvinyl alcohol bioartificial pancreas transplantation. Pancreas. 2007;34:458-65 pubmed
    ..The 1,5-AG was useful to predict urine albumin loss. The level and duration of hyperglycemia determined the degree of renal damage, which were reduced by bioartificial pancreas transplantation. ..