kidney medulla


Summary: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.

Top Publications

  1. Schödel J, Klanke B, Weidemann A, Buchholz B, Bernhardt W, Bertog M, et al. HIF-prolyl hydroxylases in the rat kidney: physiologic expression patterns and regulation in acute kidney injury. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1663-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate the non-uniform expression of HIF-regulating enzymes that modify the hypoxic response in the kidney under both regional and temporal conditions...
  2. Gallazzini M, Yu M, Gunaratne R, Burg M, Ferraris J. c-Abl mediates high NaCl-induced phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP. FASEB J. 2010;24:4325-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, c-Abl is the kinase responsible for high NaCl-induced phosphorylation of TonEBP/OREBP-Y143, which contributes to its increased activity...
  3. Crawford C, Kennedy Lydon T, Sprott C, Desai T, Sawbridge L, Munday J, et al. An intact kidney slice model to investigate vasa recta properties and function in situ. Nephron Physiol. 2012;120:p17-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a live kidney slice model in which pericyte-mediated vasa recta constriction/dilation can be visualized in situ...
  4. Li N, Chen L, Yi F, Xia M, Li P. Salt-sensitive hypertension induced by decoy of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in the renal medulla. Circ Res. 2008;102:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HIF-1alpha-mediated gene activation importantly participates in the regulation of renal medullary function and long-term arterial blood pressure...
  5. Wang Z, Zhu Q, Xia M, Li P, Hinton S, Li N. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase 2 senses high-salt intake to increase hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha levels in the renal medulla. Hypertension. 2010;55:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of PHD-mediated response to high salt may represent a pathogenic mechanism producing salt-sensitive hypertension...
  6. Combet S, Gouraud S, Gobin R, Berthonaud V, Geelen G, Corman B, et al. Aquaporin-2 downregulation in kidney medulla of aging rats is posttranscriptional and is abolished by water deprivation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F1408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the IMCD, no change in AQP2 mRNA was detected with aging but AQP2 protein expression was markedly lower in 30-mo-old animals. In conclusion, there is a posttranscriptional downregulation of AQP2 with aging, which is abolished by WD...
  7. Grases F, Costa Bauza A, Gomila I, Conte A. Origin and types of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi. Urology. 2010;76:1339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the mechanism of formation, we sought to correlate the fine structure of papillary renal calculi with specific pathophysiologic conditions and urinary alterations...
  8. Rosas Rodríguez J, Valenzuela Soto E. Enzymes involved in osmolyte synthesis: how does oxidative stress affect osmoregulation in renal cells?. Life Sci. 2010;87:515-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Kidney medulla cells are exposed to a wide range of changes in the ionic and osmotic composition of their environment as a consequence of the urine concentrating mechanism...
  9. EDWARDS A, Cao C, Pallone T. Cellular mechanisms underlying nitric oxide-induced vasodilation of descending vasa recta. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F441-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that intrinsic generation of NO by the DVR wall may be sufficient to inhibit vasoconstriction by maintaining suppression of MLC phosphorylation...

More Information


  1. Liu Y, Singh R, Usa K, Netzel B, Liang M. Renal medullary 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension. Physiol Genomics. 2008;36:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have demonstrated that suppression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in the renal medulla attenuates salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats...
  2. Ahmeda A, Johns E. The regulation of blood perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla by reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the anaesthetised rat. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012;204:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation examined the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species has both direct and indirect actions, via scavenging NO, to determine the degree of blood perfusion through the renal medulla...
  3. Schneider M, Ge Y, Pollock D, Pollock J, Kohan D. Collecting duct-derived endothelin regulates arterial pressure and Na excretion via nitric oxide. Hypertension. 2008;51:1605-10 pubmed publisher
  4. Li N, Yi F, Dos Santos E, Donley D, Li P. Role of renal medullary heme oxygenase in the regulation of pressure natriuresis and arterial blood pressure. Hypertension. 2007;49:148-54 pubmed
  5. O Connor P, Kett M, Anderson W, Evans R. Renal medullary tissue oxygenation is dependent on both cortical and medullary blood flow. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F688-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, although cortical and medullary blood flow may be independently regulated, medullary oxygenation may be compromised during moderate to severe cortical ischemia even when medullary blood flow is maintained...
  6. Zewde T, Mattson D. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 in the rat renal medulla leads to sodium-sensitive hypertension. Hypertension. 2004;44:424-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of cyclooxygenase-2 in the renal medulla in maintaining blood pressure during high-salt intake...
  7. Zhang Z, Dmitrieva N, Park J, Levine R, Burg M. High urea and NaCl carbonylate proteins in renal cells in culture and in vivo, and high urea causes 8-oxoguanine lesions in their DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9491-6 pubmed
    ..Carbonyl content is high in mouse renal inner medullas where interstitial NaCl and urea concentrations are normally high. There, numerous proteins are carbonylated, and carbonylation occurs in both collecting ducts and thin limbs...
  8. Matlaga B, Coe F, Evan A, Lingeman J. The role of Randall's plaques in the pathogenesis of calcium stones. J Urol. 2007;177:31-8 pubmed
    ..We reviewed in vivo data that have further defined the role of Randall's plaques in stone disease...
  9. Nakano D, Pollock J, Pollock D. Renal medullary ETB receptors produce diuresis and natriuresis via NOS1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F1205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that renal medullary ET(B) receptor activation induces diuretic and natriuretic responses through a NOS1, cGMP, and PKG pathway...
  10. Eppel G, Malpas S, Denton K, Evans R. Neural control of renal medullary perfusion. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;31:387-96 pubmed
    ..Failure of these mechanisms would promote reductions in MBF in response to physiological activation of the renal nerves, which could, in turn, lead to salt and water retention and hypertension...
  11. Abe M, O Connor P, Kaldunski M, Liang M, Roman R, Cowley A. Effect of sodium delivery on superoxide and nitric oxide in the medullary thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F350-7 pubmed
    ..This may lead to reduction in medullary blood flow and promote hypoxia and tubular necrosis within the renal medulla during in hypertension...
  12. Gu J, Wang J, Stockton A, Lokitz B, Henegar L, Hall J. Cytokine gene expression profiles in kidney medulla and cortex of obese hypertensive dogs. Kidney Int. 2004;66:713-21 pubmed
    The molecular mechanisms linking abnormal kidney function and obesity hypertension are poorly understood. This study compared gene expression profiles in the kidney medulla and cortex of obese and lean dogs.
  13. Bergstrom G, Evans R. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive functions of the renal medulla. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;181:475-86 pubmed
  14. Fujimoto Y, Usa K, Sakuma S. Effects of endocrine disruptors on the formation of prostaglandin and arachidonoyl-CoA formed from arachidonic acid in rabbit kidney medulla microsomes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:447-52 pubmed
    ..of PG and AA-CoA from 5 microM AA (close to the physiological concentration of the substrate) in rabbit kidney medulla microsomes. The kidney medulla microsomes were incubated with 5 microM [(14)C]-AA in 0...
  15. Kim S, Coe F, Tinmouth W, Kuo R, Paterson R, Parks J, et al. Stone formation is proportional to papillary surface coverage by Randall's plaque. J Urol. 2005;173:117-9; discussion 119 pubmed
    ..We measured plaque areas in idiopathic CaOx stone formers and nonstone formers (NSF), and identified significant relationships with quantified stone histories...
  16. Layton A, Layton H. A region-based mathematical model of the urine concentrating mechanism in the rat outer medulla. I. Formulation and base-case results. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F1346-66 pubmed
    ..Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289: F1367-F1381, 2005), the impact of model assumptions, medullary anatomy, and tubular segmentation on the UCM was investigated by means of extensive parameter studies...
  17. Yao B, Harris R, Zhang M. Interactions between 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and COX-2 in kidney. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1767-73 pubmed
  18. Zhang W, EDWARDS A. A model of nitric oxide tubulovascular cross talk in a renal outer medullary cross section. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F711-22 pubmed
    ..However, concomitant increases in epithelial superoxide (O(2)(-)) production would counteract this effect. This model confirms the importance of NO and O(2)(-) interactions in mediating tubulovascular cross talk...
  19. O Connor R, Worcester E, Evan A, Meehan S, Kuznetsov D, Laven B, et al. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in rats with small bowel resection. Urol Res. 2005;33:105-15 pubmed
    ..The model allows further studies of the mechanisms of renal crystal formation, and possible therapeutic interventions...
  20. Hao C, Breyer M. Hypertension and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: target: the renal medulla. Hypertension. 2004;44:396-7 pubmed
  21. Ramirez V, Uribe N, García Torres R, Castro C, Rubio J, Gamba G, et al. Upregulation and intrarenal redistribution of heat shock proteins 90alpha and 90beta by low-sodium diet in the rat. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2004;9:198-206 pubmed
    ..Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta upregulation induced by a low-sodium diet together with redistribution in thick ascending limb cells suggests that Hsp90 plays a role in the modulation of sodium reabsorption under these circumstances...
  22. Evan A, Coe F, Rittling S, Bledsoe S, Shao Y, Lingeman J, et al. Apatite plaque particles in inner medulla of kidneys of calcium oxalate stone formers: osteopontin localization. Kidney Int. 2005;68:145-54 pubmed
    ..Thus our purpose here is to detail the structure of the interstitial and membrane-bound plaque and explore the relationship of plaque apatite to osteopontin, a well-known crystal-associated urine protein...
  23. Pruitt M, Knepper M, Graves B, Schmidt Nielsen B. Effect of peristaltic contractions of the renal pelvic wall on solute concentrations of the renal inner medulla in the hamster. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F892-6 pubmed
    ..This procedure also significantly decreased inner medullary osmolality. We conclude that elimination of the contractions of the renal pelvic wall in the hamster significantly impairs inner medullary concentrating ability...
  24. Stimac R, Kerek F, Apell H. Mechanism of the Na,K-ATPase inhibition by MCS derivatives. J Membr Biol. 2005;205:89-101 pubmed
    ..The MCS-inhibited state was found to have bound one cation (H(+), Na(+) or K(+)) in one of the two unspecific binding sites, and at high Na(+) concentrations another Na(+) ion was bound to the highly Na(+)-selective ion-binding site...
  25. Burg M, Ferraris J, Dmitrieva N. Cellular response to hyperosmotic stresses. Physiol Rev. 2007;87:1441-74 pubmed
  26. Li N, Yi F, Sundy C, Chen L, Hilliker M, Donley D, et al. Expression and actions of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the rat kidneys. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F207-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that highly expressed PHDs in the renal medulla make an important contribution to the control of renal Na(+) excretion through regulation of HIF-1alpha and its targeted genes...
  27. Battula S, Hao S, Pedraza P, Stier C, Ferreri N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is an endogenous inhibitor of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) isoform A in the thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Collectively, these findings suggest that TNF plays a role as an endogenous inhibitor of NKCC2 expression and function. ..
  28. Cai Q, Nelson S, McReynolds M, Diamond Stanic M, Elliott D, Brooks H. Vasopressin increases expression of UT-A1, UT-A3, and ER chaperone GRP78 in the renal medulla of mice with a urinary concentrating defect. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F712-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance. ..
  29. Baum M. Effect of catecholamines on rat medullary thick ascending limb chloride transport: interaction with angiotensin II. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with an interaction of both alpha- and beta-catecholamines and ANG II on net chloride transport in the mTAL...
  30. Gallazzini M, Burg M. What's new about osmotic regulation of glycerophosphocholine. Physiology (Bethesda). 2009;24:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider the metabolism of glycerophosphocholine, its osmotic regulation, and the recently discovered molecular identity of the enzymes that osmoregulate its abundance. ..
  31. Kumar R, Wang Z, Forsythe C, Fu Y, Chen Y, Yeh B. Dual energy CT monitoring of the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for monitoring dynamic changes in the renal corticomedullary sodium gradient in swine...
  32. Lee H, Chen S, DOETSCHMAN T, Deng C, D Agati V, Kim M. Sevoflurane protects against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice via the transforming growth factor-beta1 pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we demonstrate in this study that sevoflurane-mediated renal protection in vivo requires the TGF-beta1-->SMAD3 signaling pathway. ..
  33. Larman B, Karolak M, Adams D, Oxburgh L. Chordin-like 1 and twisted gastrulation 1 regulate BMP signaling following kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1020-31 pubmed publisher
    ..As regenerating epithelia differentiate, Chordin-like 1 is again expressed, antagonizing BMP7. These data suggest a mechanism for dynamic regulation of renoprotective BMP7 signaling in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. ..
  34. Bełtowski J. Hypoxia in the renal medulla: implications for hydrogen sulfide signaling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;334:358-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of endogenous H(2)S may contribute to the pathogenesis of these pathologies by compromising medullary oxygenation, and administration of H(2)S donors may be of therapeutic value in these disorders. ..
  35. Adams D, Oxburgh L. The long-term label retaining population of the renal papilla arises through divergent regional growth of the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F809-15 pubmed publisher
  36. Klokkers J, Langehanenberg P, Kemper B, Kosmeier S, von Bally G, Riethmuller C, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide signaling antagonizes vasopressin-mediated water permeability in inner medullary collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that the diuretic action of ANP or NO in the IMCD involves a decreased localization of AQP2 in the plasma membrane which is mediated by cGMP and PKG. ..
  37. Tharaux P. Endothelin in renal injury due to sickle cell disease. Contrib Nephrol. 2011;172:185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, sickle cell nephropathy is an emerging severe disease that requires pathophysiological studies and development of specific therapies. ..
  38. Haase V. Angiotensin II: breathtaking in the renal medulla. Kidney Int. 2011;79:269-71 pubmed publisher
  39. Priyamvada S, Khan S, Khan M, Khan S, Farooq N, Khan F, et al. Studies on the protective effect of dietary fish oil on uranyl-nitrate-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010;82:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, corn oil had no such effects and was not similarly effective. In conclusion, FO appears to protect against UN-induced nephrotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism. ..
  40. Kataoka M, Kido A, Yamamoto A, Nakamoto Y, Koyama T, Isoda H, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging of kidneys with respiratory triggering: optimization of parameters to demonstrate anisotropic structures on fraction anisotropy maps. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29:736-44 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Sw tended to be smaller in the sequence with a b-value of 400 s/mm2. DTI of kidneys with respiratory triggering is feasible with excellent cortex-medulla differentiation. ..
  41. Nishinaga H, Komatsu R, Doi M, Fustin J, Yamada H, Okura R, et al. Circadian expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 in the mouse renal medulla. Biomed Res. 2009;30:87-93 pubmed
    ..The circadian changes of this molecule in the renal medulla may partially contribute to the circadian change of urinary electrolyte secretion. ..
  42. Carlsen I, Nilsson L, Frøkiaer J, Nørregaard R. Changes in phosphorylated heat-shock protein 27 in response to acute ureteral obstruction in rats. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2013;209:167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This may affect the ability of renal cells to mount an effective cytoprotective response. ..
  43. Sangaralingham S, Heublein D, Grande J, Cataliotti A, Rule A, McKie P, et al. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide excretion: a potential novel biomarker for renal fibrosis during aging. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F943-52 pubmed publisher
  44. Tiwari S, Sharma N, Gill P, Igarashi P, Kahn C, Wade J, et al. Impaired sodium excretion and increased blood pressure in mice with targeted deletion of renal epithelial insulin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illuminate a previously uncharacterized role for renal IR to reduce BP and facilitate sodium and water excretion, possibly via NO production. ..
  45. Polichnowski A, Jin C, Yang C, Cowley A. Role of renal perfusion pressure versus angiotensin II on renal oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2010;55:1425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study demonstrates that elevated RPP is directly responsible for the excess albuminuria in Ang II-infused rats, whereas both elevated RPP and Ang II directly contribute to the observed renal oxidative stress. ..
  46. Noda Y, Goshima S, Koyasu H, Shigeyama S, Miyoshi T, Kawada H, et al. Renovascular CT: comparison between adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction. Clin Radiol. 2017;72:901.e13-901.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..0001-0.0016). Reconstruction of renovascular CT images with MBIR significantly reduces background noise, leading to an improvement in SNR and image quality compared with that using ASiR. ..
  47. Karam A, Vijayaraghavan G, Khan A, Ustun B, Hussain S. Renal biopsy: comparative yield of cranial versus caudal needle trajectory. An ex vivo analysis. Nephrology (Carlton). 2013;18:304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..002 comparing the proportion of cortex. The proportion of cortical tissue in the core biopsy specimen using the caudad angle approach was statistically significantly higher, compared with the cephalad needle trajectory. ..
  48. Bibi A, Agarwal N, Dihazi G, Eltoweissy M, Van Nguyen P, Mueller G, et al. Calreticulin is crucial for calcium homeostasis mediated adaptation and survival of thick ascending limb of Henle's loop cells under osmotic stress. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data clearly highlight the crucial role of CALR and its calcium-binding role in TALH adaptation and survival under osmotic stress. ..
  49. Gebauer J, Keene D, Olsen B, Sorokin L, Paulsson M, Wagener R. Mouse AMACO, a kidney and skin basement membrane associated molecule that mediates RGD-dependent cell attachment. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the loss of cell adhesion to the C-terminal part of the human AMACO, due to the unique absence of an RGD sequence in the human protein, suggests that cell adhesion is not AMACO's major function. ..
  50. Cicora F, Lausada N, Vasquez D, Cicora P, Zalazar G, Gonzalez P, et al. Sirolimus in kidney transplant donors and clinical and histologic improvement in recipients: rat model. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Bcl-2 protein was upregulated in the rapamycin group compared with the control group (P < .01). Administration of rapamycin in donors attenuates the I/R injury process after kidney transplantation in a rat model. ..
  51. Hong N, Silva G, Garvin J. PKC-alpha mediates flow-stimulated superoxide production in thick ascending limbs. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..001; n = 6). We concluded that flow stimulates net O(2)(-) production in thick ascending limbs via PKC-alpha-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase...
  52. Liu K. Regulation of renal medullary circulation by the renin-angiotensin system in genetically hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:455-61 pubmed publisher
  53. Abramicheva P, Balakina T, Bulaeva O, Guseva A, Lopina O, Smirnova O. Role of Na+/K+-ATPase in Natriuretic Effect of Prolactin in a Model of Cholestasis of Pregnancy. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:632-641 pubmed publisher
    ..The Na+/K+-ATPase activity in rat kidney medulla, where active sodium reabsorption occurs, decreased in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other ..
  54. Oka M, Medrano S, Sequeira Lόpez M, Gomez R. Chronic Stimulation of Renin Cells Leads to Vascular Pathology. Hypertension. 2017;70:119-128 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, null cells of the renin lineage occupied the walls of the arteries and arterioles in a chaotic, directionless pattern directly contributing to the concentric arterial hypertrophy. ..
  55. Songib N, Nazri M, Yaakup N, Nor H, Sun Z. Multiphase renal CT in the evaluation of renal masses: is the nephrographic phase necessary?. Clin Imaging. 2013;37:1037-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A three-phase CT (plain, corticomedullary, and excretory phase) is therefore adequate in the clinical diagnosis of renal lesions. ..
  56. Li X, Shao Y, Zhuo J. AT1a receptor knockout in mice impairs urine concentration by reducing basal vasopressin levels and its receptor signaling proteins in the inner medulla. Kidney Int. 2009;76:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that AT(1a) receptor deletion causes polyuria and urine concentration defects by decreasing basal AVP release and impairing AVP-induced receptor signaling in the inner medulla...
  57. Jans F, Ameloot M, Wouters P, Steels P. Na-P(i) cotransporter type I activity causes a transient intracellular alkalinization during ATP depletion in rabbit medullary thick ascending limb cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the exact physiological role of Na-P(i) type I still is unresolved, these experiments demonstrate that apical Na-P(i) type I activity is increased at the onset of ATP depletion in MTAL cells...
  58. Taniai E, Hayashi H, Yafune A, Watanabe M, Akane H, Suzuki K, et al. Cellular distribution of cell cycle-related molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, all renal carcinogens examined facilitated proximal tubular proliferation by repeated short-term treatment. Among these, karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens may cause DNA damage and G? arrest in the target tubular cells...
  59. Paliege A, Roeschel T, Neymeyer H, Seidel S, Kahl T, Daigeler A, et al. Group VIA phospholipase A2 is a target for vasopressin signaling in the thick ascending limb. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that iPLA(2)? acts as an inhibitory modulator of NKCC2 activity and suggest that downregulation of iPLA(2)? may be a relevant step in AVP-mediated urine concentration...
  60. Price S, Davies D, Rowlinson R, Copley C, Roche A, Falkenberg F, et al. Characterization of renal papillary antigen 1 (RPA-1), a biomarker of renal papillary necrosis. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38:346-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that RPA-1 is an excellent marker of RPN that can be used to detect this toxicity in preclinical safety testing...
  61. Capasso G, Rizzo M, Garavaglia M, Trepiccione F, Zacchia M, Mugione A, et al. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension...
  62. Steinert D, Kuper C, Bartels H, Beck F, Neuhofer W. PGE2 potentiates tonicity-induced COX-2 expression in renal medullary cells in a positive feedback loop involving EP2-cAMP-PKA signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C75-87 pubmed publisher
  63. Deshmukh M, Shet T, Bakshi G, Desai S. Tubulocystic carcinoma of kidney associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011;54:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, at least a small but definite subset of TCRCC is associated with PRCC, and cases associated with PRCC do seem to have a higher propensity for nodal metastasis as in the case we report...
  64. Prieto M, Gonzalez Villalobos R, Botros F, Martin V, Pagan J, Satou R, et al. Reciprocal changes in renal ACE/ANG II and ACE2/ANG 1-7 are associated with enhanced collecting duct renin in Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F749-55 pubmed publisher
  65. Soodvilai S, Jia Z, Wang M, Dong Z, Yang T. mPGES-1 deletion impairs diuretic response to acute water loading. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F1129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite striking changes in AQP2 protein expression, renal AQP2 mRNA in both genotypes largely remained unchanged. Overall, these data support an important role of mPGES-1 in provoking the diuretic response to acute water loading...
  66. Blessing N, Blount M, Sands J, Martin C, Klein J. Urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to increased hypertonicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this movement is accompanied by, and may require, increased phosphorylation in response to hypertonicity...
  67. Riazi S, Tiwari S, Sharma N, Rash A, Ecelbarger C. Abundance of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 is increased by high-fat feeding in Fischer 344 X Brown Norway (F1) rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, HF feeding increased the abundance of NKCC2. Inappropriately high sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb via NKCC2 may contribute to hypertension with insulin resistance...
  68. Williams J, Sarkis A, Hoagland K, Fredrich K, Ryan R, Moreno C, et al. Transfer of the CYP4A region of chromosome 5 from Lewis to Dahl S rats attenuates renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1764-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the introgression of the CYP4A genes from Lewis rats into the Dahl S rats increases the renal formation of 20-HETE and attenuates the development of hypertension and renal disease...
  69. Borofsky M, Paonessa J, Evan A, Williams J, Coe F, Worcester E, et al. A Proposed Grading System to Standardize the Description of Renal Papillary Appearance at the Time of Endoscopy in Patients with Nephrolithiasis. J Endourol. 2016;30:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of such findings remain unknown. One potential reason is the lack of a standardized system to describe such features. We propose a novel grading scale to describe papillary appearance at the time of renal endoscopy...
  70. Tiselius H. The role of calcium phosphate in the development of Randall's plaques. Urolithiasis. 2013;41:369-77 pubmed publisher
  71. Al Said J, Kamel O. Changes in renal cortical and medullary perfusion in a patient with renal vein thrombosis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010;21:123-7 pubmed
    ..The blood flow to the kidney im-proved within four days after therapy with anticoagulation and pulse steroids. The sequences of events that take place need further studies for validation...
  72. O Connor P, Cowley A. Modulation of pressure-natriuresis by renal medullary reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010;12:86-92 pubmed publisher
  73. Good D, George T, Watts B. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and inhibition of ion transport in renal thick ascending limb. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of TLR2 expression and its interaction with TLR4 may provide new mechanisms for controlling and therapeutic targeting of TLR4-mediated LPS responses...
  74. Schmidt Nielsen B, Schmidt Nielsen B. On the function of the mammalian renal papilla and the peristalsis of the surrounding pelvis. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011;202:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We are left without a full explanation of the concentrating mechanism of the mammalian renal papilla. It is hoped that other researchers will tackle this interesting problem...
  75. Babina A, Lavrinenko V, Shestopalova L, Ivanova L. Morphological characteristics of the inner medullary zone in the kidneys of Brattleboro and Wistar rats during blockade of prostaglandin synthesis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011;151:268-72 pubmed
    ..The absence of a diuretic effect of prostaglandins on the kidneys was accompanied by structural changes in the transepithelial and interstitial barriers for an osmotic flow of water...
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    ..It is concluded that S1P is a novel diuretic factor in the renal medulla and may be an important regulator of sodium homeostasis...
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    ..We hypothesized that functional, not morphological, derangements in Dahl salt-sensitive rats' kidneys cause NaCl retention that leads to hypertension accompanied by renal pathologic changes and proteinuria...