blood testis barrier


Summary: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Lui W, Lee W, Cheng C. TGF-betas: their role in testicular function and Sertoli cell tight junction dynamics. Int J Androl. 2003;26:147-60 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes recent advances of studies on TGF-betas in the testis, highlighting their regulatory role in TJ dynamics...
  2. Meng J, Holdcraft R, Shima J, Griswold M, Braun R. Androgens regulate the permeability of the blood-testis barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16696-700 pubmed
    ..Our studies also indicate that hormonal strategies for male contraception may interfere with the blood-testis barrier...
  3. Qian X, Cheng Y, Mruk D, Cheng C. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and the testis--an unexpected turn of events. Asian J Androl. 2013;15:455-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will be carefully evaluated in this brief review. ..
  4. Gao Y, Chen H, Lui W, Lee W, Cheng C. Basement Membrane Laminin α2 Regulation of BTB Dynamics via Its Effects on F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons Is Mediated Through mTORC1 Signaling. Endocrinology. 2017;158:963-978 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, laminin α2-mediated regulation on Sertoli cell BTB dynamics is through mTORC1 signaling. ..
  5. Liu L, He Y, Guo K, Zhou L, Li X, Tseng M, et al. Ggnbp2-Null Mutation in Mice Leads to Male Infertility due to a Defect at the Spermiogenesis Stage. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2508-2519 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study demonstrates that GGNBP2 is critically required for maintenance of the adhesion integrity of the adlumenal germ epithelium and is indispensable for normal spermatid transformation into mature spermatozoa in mice. ..
  6. Siemann D, Strange D, Maharaj P, Shi P, Verma S. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of the In Vitro Blood-Testis Barrier Model. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  7. Lie P, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and the blood-testis barrier integrity in the seminiferous epithelium. FASEB J. 2009;23:2555-67 pubmed publisher
  8. Castilla Cortázar I, Gago A, Muñoz Ã, Ávila Gallego E, Guerra Menéndez L, Sádaba M, et al. Mechanisms Underlying Testicular Damage and Dysfunction in Mice With Partial IGF-1 Deficiency and the Effectiveness of IGF-1 Replacement Therapy. Urology. 2015;86:1241.e1-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Chojnacka K, Zarzycka M, Mruk D. Biology of the Sertoli Cell in the Fetal, Pubertal, and Adult Mammalian Testis. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2016;58:225-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this framework, we provide an overview of the biology of the fetal, pubertal, and adult Sertoli cell, highlighting relevant cell biology studies that have expanded our understanding of mammalian spermatogenesis. ..

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Qiu L, Qian Y, Liu Z, Wang C, Qu J, Wang X, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) disrupts blood-testis barrier by down-regulating junction proteins via p38 MAPK/ATF2/MMP9 signaling pathway. Toxicology. 2016;373:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, the present study highlights a role of the p38/ATF2/MMP9 signaling pathway in PFOS-induced BTB disruption, advancing our understanding of molecular mechanisms for PFOS-induced male reproductive disorders. ..
  2. Whyte Allman S, Hoque M, Jenabian M, Routy J, Bendayan R. Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptors Pregnane X Receptor and Constitutive Androstane Receptor Regulate Antiretroviral Drug Efflux Transporters at the Blood-Testis Barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;363:324-335 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that ABC transporters could be regulated at the BTB during chronic treatment with ARVs that can serve as ligands for PXR and CAR, which could in turn further limit testicular ARV concentrations...
  3. Chen H, Gao Y, Mruk D, Xiao X, John C, Turek P, et al. Rescue of PFOS-induced human Sertoli cell injury by overexpressing a p-FAK-Y407E phosphomimetic mutant. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15810 pubmed publisher
    ..PFOS induces human Sertoli cell injury which can be rescued by overexpressing p-FAK-Y407E mutant. ..
  4. Kodaira H, Kusuhara H, Ushiki J, Fuse E, Sugiyama Y. Kinetic analysis of the cooperation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) in limiting the brain and testis penetration of erlotinib, flavopiridol, and mitoxantrone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the synergistic effect of P-gp and Bcrp on C(brain)/C(plasma) and C(testis)/C(plasma) can be explained by their contribution to the net efflux at the BBB and BTB without any interaction between P-gp and Bcrp...
  5. Li N, Mruk D, Mok K, Li M, Wong C, Lee W, et al. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption. FASEB J. 2016;30:1436-52 pubmed publisher
    ..D., Mok, K.-W., Li, M. W. M., Wong, C. K. C., Lee, W. M., Han, D., Silvestrini, B., Cheng, C. Y. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption. ..
  6. Yan H, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Ectoplasmic specialization: a friend or a foe of spermatogenesis?. Bioessays. 2007;29:36-48 pubmed
    ..We discuss herein the mechanisms that maintain the cross-talk between ES and blood-testis barrier to facilitate cell movement and orientation in the seminiferous epithelium...
  7. Yazama F, Sato H, Sonoda T. Malfunction of spermatogenesis in experimental ischemic mice. J Reprod Dev. 2015;61:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, male infertility caused by the BTB disruption could be associated with heat stress induced by ischemia. ..
  8. Hong F, Zhao X, Si W, Ze Y, Wang L, Zhou Y, et al. Decreased spermatogenesis led to alterations of testis-specific gene expression in male mice following nano-TiO2 exposure. J Hazard Mater. 2015;300:718-728 pubmed publisher
  9. Adegoke E, Wang X, Wang H, Wang C, Zhang H, Zhang G. Selenium (Na2SeO3) Upregulates Expression of Immune Genes and Blood-Testis Barrier Constituent Proteins of Bovine Sertoli Cell In Vitro. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;185:332-343 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study showed that selenium supplementation in the culture medium up to 0.50 mg/L concentration upregulates immune genes and blood-testis barrier constituent proteins of bovine Sertoli cells. ..
  10. Diani S. A new model for chronic diseases. Med Hypotheses. 2018;113:30-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This model can be tested and proved in more ways, I propose here some of them. It could pave the way to a radical change in our comprehension and therapeutic approaches to chronic diseases. ..
  11. Setchell B, Hertel T, Soder O. Postnatal testicular development, cellular organization and paracrine regulation. Endocr Dev. 2003;5:24-37 pubmed
  12. Toyama Y, Maekawa M, Yuasa S. Ectoplasmic specializations in the Sertoli cell: new vistas based on genetic defects and testicular toxicology. Anat Sci Int. 2003;78:1-16 pubmed
  13. Yanai S, Hirano T, Omotehara T, Takada T, Yoneda N, Kubota N, et al. Prenatal and early postnatal NOAEL-dose clothianidin exposure leads to a reduction of germ cells in juvenile male mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2017;79:1196-1203 pubmed publisher
  14. Mruk D, Cheng C. The Mammalian Blood-Testis Barrier: Its Biology and Regulation. Endocr Rev. 2015;36:564-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We review here the biology and regulation of the mammalian blood-testis barrier and highlight research areas that should be expanded in future studies. ..
  15. Zhang Y, Yuan C, Gao J, Liu Y, Wang Z. Testicular transcript responses in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus following different concentrations bisphenol A exposure. Chemosphere. 2016;156:357-366 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicated that BPA did influence rare minnow testicular gene expressing, and the effect BPA effects varied with concentration. ..
  16. Ross D, Nakanishi T. Impact of breast cancer resistance protein on cancer treatment outcomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;596:251-90 pubmed publisher
  17. Hayrabedyan S, Todorova K, Jabeen A, Metodieva G, Toshkov S, Metodiev M, et al. Sertoli cells have a functional NALP3 inflammasome that can modulate autophagy and cytokine production. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18896 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is proof of concept that Sertoli cells, upon specific stimulation, could participate in male infertility pathogenesis via inflammatory cytokine induction. ..
  18. Bilinska B, Hejmej A, Kotula Balak M. Preparation of Testicular Samples for Histology and Immunohistochemistry. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1748:17-36 pubmed publisher
    ..g. in Sertoli cell culture). ..
  19. Li M, Xia W, Mruk D, Wang C, Yan H, Siu M, et al. Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} reversibly disrupts the blood-testis barrier and impairs Sertoli-germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes. J Endocrinol. 2006;190:313-29 pubmed
  20. Rode K, Sieme H, Richterich P, Brehm R. Characterization of the equine blood-testis barrier during tubular development in normal and cryptorchid stallions. Theriogenology. 2015;84:763-72 pubmed publisher
  21. Kurzawski M, Kaczmarek M, Kłysz M, Malinowski D, Kazienko A, Kurzawa R, et al. MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP2 polymorphisms affect sperm parameters but not fertility in Polish males. Andrologia. 2017;49: pubmed publisher
    ..None of the haplotypes showed association with infertility. This study results suggest an association between MMP9 and TIMP2 SNPs with sperm parameters, but not infertility. ..
  22. Fromm M. Importance of P-glycoprotein at blood-tissue barriers. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:423-9 pubmed
  23. McCabe M, Tarulli G, Laven Law G, Matthiesson K, Meachem S, McLachlan R, et al. Gonadotropin suppression in men leads to a reduction in claudin-11 at the Sertoli cell tight junction. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:875-86 pubmed publisher
    ..I.M.) and the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program. None of the authors have any conflicts to disclose. Not applicable. ..
  24. Ghabriel M, Lu J, Hermanis G, Zhu C, Setchell B. Expression of a blood-brain barrier-specific antigen in the reproductive tract of the male rat. Reproduction. 2002;123:389-97 pubmed
    ..However, Sertoli cells, which are the main site of the blood-testis barrier, were negative for EBA. In conclusion, EBA may have a wider role in rat tissues than has been previously appreciated. ..
  25. Huang Y, Hoque M, Jenabian M, Vyboh K, Whyte S, Sheehan N, et al. Antiretroviral drug transporters and metabolic enzymes in human testicular tissue: potential contribution to HIV-1 sanctuary site. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:1954-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest the testes are a complex pharmacological compartment that can restrict the distribution of certain antiretroviral drugs and potentially contribute to HIV-1 persistence. ..
  26. Pelz L, Purfürst B, Rathjen F. The cell adhesion molecule BT-IgSF is essential for a functional blood-testis barrier and male fertility in mice. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:21490-21503 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results indicate that BT-IgSF is expressed at the BTB and is required for male fertility by supporting the functional integrity of the BTB. ..
  27. Chianese R, Viggiano A, Urbanek K, Cappetta D, Troisi J, Scafuro M, et al. Chronic exposure to low dose of bisphenol A impacts on the first round of spermatogenesis via SIRT1 modulation. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2961 pubmed publisher
    ..gain in male offspring at 45 postnatal days and the first round of spermatogenesis, with impairment of blood testis barrier, reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage and decreased expression of SIRT1...
  28. Melaine N, Liénard M, Dorval I, Le Goascogne C, Lejeune H, Jégou B. Multidrug resistance genes and p-glycoprotein in the testis of the rat, mouse, Guinea pig, and human. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:1699-707 pubmed
    ..In contrast, expression of the P-gp in the haploid cells most likely reflects the ability of spermatozoa to assume their own antidrug defense. ..
  29. Liu Y, Li H, Xiao K. Distribution and Biological Effects of Nanoparticles in the Reproductive System. Curr Drug Metab. 2016;17:478-96 pubmed
  30. Legendre A, Elie C, Ramambason C, Manens L, Souidi M, Froment P, et al. Endocrine effects of lifelong exposure to low-dose depleted uranium on testicular functions in adult rat. Toxicology. 2016;368-369:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation should be so useful in subsequent generations to improve risk assessment of uranium exposure. ..
  31. De Angelis C, Galdiero M, Pivonello C, Salzano C, Gianfrilli D, Piscitelli P, et al. The environment and male reproduction: The effect of cadmium exposure on reproductive function and its implication in fertility. Reprod Toxicol. 2017;73:105-127 pubmed publisher
  32. Chihara M, Otsuka S, Ichii O, Hashimoto Y, Kon Y. Molecular dynamics of the blood-testis barrier components during murine spermatogenesis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:630-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate that the integrity of the BTB is maintained throughout spermatogenesis, and the stage-specific localization of claudin-3 protein plays an important role in regulating BTB permeability. ..
  33. Stanton P. Regulation of the blood-testis barrier. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016;59:166-173 pubmed publisher
  34. Chojnacka K, Bilinska B, Mruk D. Annexin A2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and spermatid disengagement in the mammalian testis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:527-545 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ANXA2 is critical for the integrity of the blood-testis barrier and the timely release of spermatids. ..
  35. Gye M. Changes in the expression of claudins and transepithelial electrical resistance of mouse Sertoli cells by Leydig cell coculture. Int J Androl. 2003;26:271-8 pubmed
    ..Interactions between Leydig and Sertoli cells might be involved in the development of functional blood testis barrier in mouse testis.
  36. Vaid K, Guttman J, Babyak N, Deng W, McNiven M, Mochizuki N, et al. The role of dynamin 3 in the testis. J Cell Physiol. 2007;210:644-54 pubmed
  37. Qian X, Mruk D, Wong E, Cheng C. Breast cancer resistance protein regulates apical ectoplasmic specialization dynamics stage specifically in the rat testis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E757-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, a knockdown of Bcrp by RNAi in the testis perturbed the apical ES function, disrupting spermatid polarity and adhesion. In summary, Bcrp is a regulator of the F-actin-rich apical ES in the testis...
  38. Anand S, Bhartiya D, Sriraman K, Mallick A. Underlying Mechanisms that Restore Spermatogenesis on Transplanting Healthy Niche Cells in Busulphan Treated Mouse Testis. Stem Cell Rev. 2016;12:682-697 pubmed
    ..Results provide an alternative strategy to restore spermatogenesis in cancer survivors from endogenous stem cells which needs to be further researched. ..
  39. Harvey M, Hinsch G, Cameron D. Sites of lanthanum occlusion in the testis of the crayfish Procambarus paeninsulanus (Crustacea: Cambaridae). Tissue Cell. 2001;33:562-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first study examining occluding junctions using a barrier penetration method in the testis of a crustacean...
  40. Komljenovic D, Sandhoff R, Teigler A, Heid H, Just W, Gorgas K. Disruption of blood-testis barrier dynamics in ether-lipid-deficient mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:281-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ELs are essential for cyclic BTB dynamics ensuring the sluice mechanism for leptotene translocation into the adluminal compartment...
  41. Curri S, Menchini Fabris F. Evidence and results obtained with a new trans-epidermal barrier (T.E.B.) drug in the medical treatment of vascular impotence. Boll Chim Farm. 1996;135:316-34 pubmed
  42. Toyama Y, Ohkawa M, Oku R, Maekawa M, Yuasa S. Neonatally administered diethylstilbestrol retards the development of the blood-testis barrier in the rat. J Androl. 2001;22:413-23 pubmed
    ..Consequently, during this period, pachytene spermatocytes were exfoliated from the seminiferous epithelium without completion of meiosis...
  43. Lui W, Lee W, Cheng C. Transforming growth factor beta3 regulates the dynamics of Sertoli cell tight junctions via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1597-612 pubmed
    ..These results thus unequivocally demonstrate that TGFbeta3 utilizes the p38 MAP kinase pathway to regulate Sertoli cell TJ dynamics...
  44. Xia W, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Cytokines and junction restructuring during spermatogenesis--a lesson to learn from the testis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005;16:469-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a molecular model is presented regarding how cytokines selectively regulate TJ/AJ restructuring in the epithelium during spermatogenesis...
  45. Mizuno M, Harris C, Morgan B. Spermatogenic cells distal to the blood-testis barrier in rats lack C3 convertase regulators and may be at risk of complement-mediated injury. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;69:23-34 pubmed
  46. Wong C, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Targeted and reversible disruption of the blood-testis barrier by an FSH mutant-occludin peptide conjugate. FASEB J. 2007;21:438-48 pubmed
    ..In summary, the use of an FSH mutant-occludin peptide conjugate is a feasible nanodevice to transiently compromise the BTB...
  47. Cyr D, Gregory M, Dube E, Dufresne J, Chan P, Hermo L. Orchestration of occludins, claudins, catenins and cadherins as players involved in maintenance of the blood-epididymal barrier in animals and humans. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:463-75 pubmed
  48. Yazama F. Continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis: the intermediate compartment theory revisited. J Reprod Dev. 2008;54:299-305 pubmed
    ..From these results, I propose that the BTB is continually maintained during spermatogenesis and suggest a model of ES circulation in the seminiferous epithelium...
  49. Fink C, Weigel R, Fink L, Wilhelm J, Kliesch S, Zeiler M, et al. Claudin-11 is over-expressed and dislocated from the blood-testis barrier in Sertoli cells associated with testicular intraepithelial neoplasia in men. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;131:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In TIN tubules, claudin-11 is up-regulated and dislocated from the BTB. Therefore, the disruption of the BTB is related to a dysfunction of claudin-11 and not to a failure of its expression...
  50. Matsuhisa K, Kondoh M, Takahashi A, Yagi K. Tight junction modulator and drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009;6:509-15 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss recent progress in the development of TJ modulators and the possibility of absorption enhancers and drug-delivery systems based on TJ components...
  51. Xu J, Anuar F, Ali S, Ng M, Phua D, Hunziker W. Zona occludens-2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and male fertility. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4268-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The critical role of ZO-2 for male fertility and blood-testis barrier integrity thus provides a first example for a nonredundant role of an individual ZO protein in adult mice. ..
  52. Mazaud Guittot S, Meugnier E, Pesenti S, Wu X, Vidal H, Gow A, et al. Claudin 11 deficiency in mice results in loss of the Sertoli cell epithelial phenotype in the testis. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:202-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Cldn11(-/-) Sertoli cells exhibit a unique phenotype whereby loss of tight junction integrity results in loss of the epithelial phenotype...
  53. Visser A, Heyns C. Testicular function after torsion of the spermatic cord. BJU Int. 2003;92:200-3 pubmed
  54. Sepaniak S, Forges T, Fontaine B, Gerard H, Foliguet B, Guillet May F, et al. [Negative impact of cigarette smoking on male fertility: from spermatozoa to the offspring]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2004;33:384-90 pubmed
    ..In order to optimize the success rate of assisted reproduction technologies, the deleterious effects of smoking on male fertility and the necessity of cessation have to be explained in detail to these patients...
  55. Wong C, Cheng C. The blood-testis barrier: its biology, regulation, and physiological role in spermatogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;71:263-96 pubmed
    ..This review critically discusses these latest findings in the field in light of their significance in the biology and regulation of the BTB pertinent to spermatogenesis...
  56. Lien C, Hazai D, Yeung D, Tan J, Füchtbauer E, Jancsik V, et al. Expression of alpha-dystrobrevin in blood-tissue barriers: sub-cellular localisation and molecular characterisation in normal and dystrophic mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:67-82 pubmed
  57. Koksal I, Ishak Y, Usta M, Danisman A, Guntekin E, Bassorgun I, et al. Varicocele-induced testicular dysfunction may be associated with disruption of blood-testis barrier. Arch Androl. 2007;53:43-8 pubmed
    ..Reduced E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression at the junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells may be associated with disruption of blood-testis barrier in varicocele...
  58. Guo L, Zhao D, Song Y, Meng Y, Zhao H, Zhao X, et al. Reduced urea flux across the blood-testis barrier and early maturation in the male reproductive system in UT-B-null mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C305-12 pubmed
    ..The UT-B knockout mouse may be a useful experimental model to define the molecular mechanisms of early puberty...
  59. Morrow C, Hostetler C, Griswold M, Hofmann M, Murphy K, Cooke P, et al. ETV5 is required for continuous spermatogenesis in adult mice and may mediate blood testes barrier function and testicular immune privilege. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1120:144-51 pubmed
    ..Preliminary studies suggest that the blood-testis barrier (Sertoli-Sertoli tight junctional complex) is abnormal in the Etv5(-/-) mouse...
  60. Efimova M, Jeanny J, Guillou F. [Immunohistochemical distribution of transferrin receptors of the type 1 (TfR1) in rat seminiferous tubules at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007;43:504-6 pubmed
  61. Gao X, Wang S, Peng R, Gao Y, Li X, Dong H, et al. [High power microwave radiation damages blood-testis barrier in rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:579-82 pubmed
    ..To determine the effect of high power microwave (HPM) radiation on the structure and function of blood-testis barrier (BTB) in rats...
  62. Noguchi J, Toyama Y, Yuasa S, Kikuchi K, Kaneko H. Hereditary defects in both germ cells and the blood-testis barrier system in as-mutant rats: evidence from spermatogonial transplantation and tracer-permeability analysis. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:880-8 pubmed
    ..The gene(s) at the as locus may have a role in both germ cell differentiation and the establishment of the blood-testis barrier...
  63. Lie P, Xia W, Wang C, Mruk D, Yan H, Wong C, et al. Dynamin II interacts with the cadherin- and occludin-based protein complexes at the blood-testis barrier in adult rat testes. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:571-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, this may permit the occludin/ZO-1 complexes to maintain the BTB integrity when the cadherin/catenin complexes are dissociated to facilitate germ cell movement...
  64. Morales A, Mohamed F, Cavicchia J. Apoptosis and blood-testis barrier during the first spermatogenic wave in the pubertal rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:206-14 pubmed
    ..The zygotene-pachytene spermatocytes are left exposed in an open environment instead of being isolated in the adluminal compartment to which they are destined...
  65. Xia W, Wong E, Mruk D, Cheng C. TGF-beta3 and TNFalpha perturb blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics by accelerating the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of integral membrane proteins: a new concept of BTB regulation during spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;327:48-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this report demonstrates for the first time that BTB dynamics are regulated by TGF-beta3 and TNFalpha via an enhancement of protein endocytosis at the BTB...
  66. Yao P, Lin Y, Richburg J. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced disruption of junctional complexes in the seminiferous epithelium of the rodent testis is mediated by MMP2. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:516-27 pubmed publisher
  67. Gruber M, Mathew L, Runge A, Garcia J, Simon M. EPAS1 Is Required for Spermatogenesis in the Postnatal Mouse Testis. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that low O(2) levels in the male gonad regulate germ cell homeostasis in this organ via EPAS1...
  68. Legendre A, Froment P, Desmots S, Lecomte A, Habert R, Lemazurier E. An engineered 3D blood-testis barrier model for the assessment of reproductive toxicity potential. Biomaterials. 2010;31:4492-505 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, the eBTB could be used as an alternative method to animal reprotoxicity studies, and would be of high interest in the scope of regulatory requests for chemical risk assessment...
  69. Su L, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Differential effects of testosterone and TGF-?3 on endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events at the blood-testis barrier. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2945-60 pubmed publisher
  70. Hoffmann A, Bächner D, Betat N, Lauber J, Gross G. Developmental expression of murine Beta-trace in embryos and adult animals suggests a function in maturation and maintenance of blood-tissue barriers. Dev Dyn. 1996;207:332-43 pubmed
  71. Wijnholds J. Drug resistance caused by multidrug resistance-associated proteins. Novartis Found Symp. 2002;243:69-79; discussion 80-2, 180-5 pubmed
    ..Even low concentrations of drug transporters may therefore protect cells against drugs...
  72. Dhawan K. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn.--a brief perspective. Addict Biol. 2003;8:379-86 pubmed
  73. Kim K, Kim H, Lee S, Moon T, Lee S, Lee J, et al. Effect of triolein emulsion on the blood-testis barrier in cats. Invest Radiol. 2004;39:445-9 pubmed
    ..Although the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is beneficial physiologically, it acts as an obstacle to chemotherapy. We wished to determine whether a triolein emulsion could alter the permeability of the BTB in cats...
  74. Liao X, Terada N, Ohno N, Li Z, Fujii Y, Baba T, et al. Immunohistochemical study of serum albumin in normal and cadmium-treated mouse testis organs by "in vivo cryotechnique". Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the structural disruptions of inter-Sertoli TJ barriers could be clearly demonstrated by the "in vivo cryotechnique"...
  75. Fink C, Weigel R, Hembes T, Lauke Wettwer H, Kliesch S, Bergmann M, et al. Altered expression of ZO-1 and ZO-2 in Sertoli cells and loss of blood-testis barrier integrity in testicular carcinoma in situ. Neoplasia. 2006;8:1019-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Sertoli cells associated with CIS show an altered distribution of ZO-1 and ZO-2 and lose their blood-testis barrier function...
  76. Maeda T, Goto A, Kobayashi D, Tamai I. Transport of organic cations across the blood-testis barrier. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:600-7 pubmed
  77. Yan H, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by testosterone and cytokines via their differential effects on the kinetics of protein endocytosis and recycling in Sertoli cells. FASEB J. 2008;22:1945-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The net result of these interactions, in turn, determines the steady-state protein levels at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface at the BTB...
  78. Pan Y, Guo Q, Wang R, Xu C. [Estrogens affect Sertoli cells and the blood-testis barrier in pubertal rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:590-6 pubmed
  79. Stoffel W, Holz B, Jenke B, Binczek E, Günter R, Kiss C, et al. Delta6-desaturase (FADS2) deficiency unveils the role of omega3- and omega6-polyunsaturated fatty acids. EMBO J. 2008;27:2281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The fads2 -/- mouse is an auxotrophic mutant. It is anticipated that FADS2 will become a major focus in membrane, haemostasis, inflammation and atherosclerosis research...
  80. Siu E, Mruk D, Porto C, Cheng C. Cadmium-induced testicular injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men...
  81. Cheng C, Wong E, Yan H, Mruk D. Regulation of spermatogenesis in the microenvironment of the seminiferous epithelium: new insights and advances. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a new window of research for investigators in the field to tackle the functional regulation of spermatogenesis...
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