seminal vesicles


Summary: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Hoshi A, Nakamura E, Higashi S, Segawa T, Ito N, Yamamoto S, et al. Epithelial stromal tumor of the seminal vesicle. Int J Urol. 2006;13:640-2 pubmed
    Primary tumors of the seminal vesicles are rare neoplasms; there have been only 69 accepted cases. The histologic features are usually adenocarcinoma; however, there are rarely reported epithelial stromal tumors of the seminal vesicles...
  2. Nadal M, Pera G, Pujadas J, Abril J, Gonzalez L, Aguiló F, et al. Aneuploidy of chromosome Y in prostate tumors and seminal vesicles: a possible sign of aging rather than an indicator of carcinogenesis?. Mol Carcinog. 2007;46:543-52 pubmed
    ..A total of 72 samples have been studied: 17 tumors, 25 nontumor prostate tissues, 1 BPH, 21 seminal vesicles samples obtained along with the prostate when patients underwent radical prostatectomy and prostate tissues ..
  3. Masterson T, Pettus J, Middleton R, Stephenson R. Isolated seminal vesicle invasion imparts better outcomes after radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: prognostic stratification of pt3b disease by nodal and margin status. Urology. 2005;66:152-5 pubmed
  4. Greco C, Castiglioni S, Fodor A, De Cobelli O, Longaretti N, Rocco B, et al. Benefit on biochemical control of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with pathologically involved seminal vesicles after radical prostatectomy. Tumori. 2007;93:445-51 pubmed
  5. Kee K, Lee M, Shen S, Suh J, Lee O, Cho H, et al. Amyloidosis of seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts: a histologic analysis of 21 cases among 447 prostatectomy specimens. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:235-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the incidence of amyloidosis of seminal vesicles and ejaculatory system including ejaculatory ducts and vasa deferentia, we reviewed the whole mount sections of 447 radical prostatectomy specimens removed for prostatic ..
  6. Poon D, Kam M, Leung C, Chau R, Wong S, Lee W, et al. Dosimetric advantages and superior treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc over conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles and pelvic nodes. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2013;25:706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the dosimetry and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer...
  7. Lotti F, Corona G, Colpi G, Filimberti E, Innocenti S, Mancini M, et al. Seminal vesicles ultrasound features in a cohort of infertility patients. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:974-82 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies concerning ultrasound evaluation of the seminal vesicles (SV) were performed on a limited series of subjects, and considered few parameters, often only before ejaculation and without assessing the patients' sexual ..
  8. Gluck I, Vineberg K, Ten Haken R, Sandler H. Evaluating the relationships between rectal normal tissue complication probability and the portion of seminal vesicles included in the clinical target volume in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:334-40 pubmed publisher
    To compare dose-volume consequences of the inclusion of various portions of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in the clinical target volume (CTV) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with prostate cancer.
  9. Sahlén G, Nilsson O, Larsson A, Carlsson L, Norlen B, Ronquist G. Secretions from seminal vesicles lack characteristic markers for prostasomes. Ups J Med Sci. 2010;115:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Although biochemical studies support this, some immunohistochemical findings indicate that also the seminal vesicles could be a source of prostasomes...

More Information


  1. Smitsmans M, de Bois J, Sonke J, Catton C, Jaffray D, Lebesque J, et al. Residual seminal vesicle displacement in marker-based image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer and the impact on margin design. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:590-6 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were to quantify residual interfraction displacement of seminal vesicles (SV) and investigate the efficacy of rotation correction on SV displacement in marker-based prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT)...
  2. Berney D, Wheeler T, Grignon D, Epstein J, Griffiths D, Humphrey P, et al. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 4: seminal vesicles and lymph nodes. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Issues relating to the infiltration of tumor into the seminal vesicles and regional lymph nodes were coordinated by working group 4...
  3. van der Wielen G, Mutanga T, Incrocci L, Kirkels W, Vasquez Osorio E, Hoogeman M, et al. Deformation of prostate and seminal vesicles relative to intraprostatic fiducial markers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:1604-1611.e3 pubmed publisher
    To quantify the residual geometric uncertainties after on-line corrections with intraprostatic fiducial markers, this study analyzed the deformation of the prostate and, in particular, the seminal vesicles relative to such markers.
  4. Secin F, Bianco F, Cronin A, Eastham J, Scardino P, Guillonneau B, et al. Is it necessary to remove the seminal vesicles completely at radical prostatectomy? decision curve analysis of European Society of Urologic Oncology criteria. J Urol. 2009;181:609-13; discussion 614 pubmed publisher
    A publication on behalf of the European Society of Urological Oncology questioned the need for removing the seminal vesicles during radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml except when biopsy ..
  5. Liang J, Wu Q, Yan D. The role of seminal vesicle motion in target margin assessment for online image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:935-43 pubmed publisher
    For patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, the seminal vesicles (SVs) are included in the clinical target volume (CTV)...
  6. Yeh I, Reddick R, Kumar A. Malignancy arising in seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Prostate. 2009;69:755-60 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, epithelial-stromal (ES) tumors resembling phyllodes tumors have been described in the seminal vesicles of TRAMP mice. We report malignancy arising in these ES tumors of the seminal vesicles in TRAMP mice.
  7. Yoo S, Wu Q, Lee W, Yin F. Radiotherapy treatment plans with RapidArc for prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles and lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Dosimetric results and treatment delivery efficiency of RapidArc plans to those of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were compared using the Eclipse treatment planning system for high-risk prostate cancer...
  8. La Vignera S, Vicari E, Condorelli R, D Agata R, Calogero A. Ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles in infertile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Radiol. 2011;80:e64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05) lower in patients with DM. In conclusion, this study showed that infertile patients with DM have peculiar SV ultrasound features suggestive of functional atony...
  9. Hejmej A, Kotula Balak M, Galas J, Bilinska B. Effects of 4-tert-octylphenol on the testes and seminal vesicles in adult male bank voles. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:95-105 pubmed publisher
    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) on male testes and seminal vesicles of bank vole...
  10. Mutanga T, de Boer H, van der Wielen G, Hoogeman M, Incrocci L, Heijmen B. Margin evaluation in the presence of deformation, rotation, and translation in prostate and entire seminal vesicle irradiation with daily marker-based setup corrections. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:1160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop a method for margin evaluation accounting for all measured displacements during treatment of prostate cancer...
  11. Song W, Yang J, Wang Y, Liang Q. Primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumor of the seminal vesicles. Urology. 2012;79:e36-7 pubmed publisher
    Primary tumors originating from the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. We report a unique, previously unreported primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) of the seminal vesicles in a 40-year-old man.
  12. Chiang H, Lin Y, Wu Y, Wu C, Liu M, Lin C. Advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the seminal vesicles and intra-abdominal vas deferens in patients with congenital absence of the vas deferens. Urology. 2013;82:345-51 pubmed publisher
  13. Pinkawa M, Piroth M, Fischedick K, Holy R, Klotz J, Nussen S, et al. Impact of the target volume (prostate alone vs. prostate with seminal vesicles) and fraction dose (1.8 Gy vs. 2.0 Gy) on quality of life changes after external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2009;185:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the impact of the clinical target volume (CTV) and fraction dose on quality of life (QoL) after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer...
  14. Deléage C, Moreau M, Rioux Leclercq N, Ruffault A, Jégou B, Dejucq Rainsford N. Human immunodeficiency virus infects human seminal vesicles in vitro and in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..The seminal vesicles, the secretions of which constitute more than 60% of the seminal fluid, could represent a major source of ..
  15. Nikodemus D, Lazic D, Bach M, Bauer T, Pfeiffer C, Wiltzer L, et al. Paramount levels of ergothioneine transporter SLC22A4 mRNA in boar seminal vesicles and cross-species analysis of ergothioneine and glutathione in seminal plasma. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:411-9 pubmed
    ..The highest levels of ETTp mRNA were detected by real-time RT-PCR in seminal vesicles, eye, and kidney; much less was present in bulbourethral gland, testis, and prostate...
  16. Zhang K, Li S, He Z, Jin J, Na Y. [Long-term efficacy of TRUS-guided transperineal needle aspiration and irrigation on persistent hematospermia]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2005;11:452-4 pubmed
    ..The last follow-up showed hematospermia recurrence in 2 cases. TRUS-guided transperineal irrigation of antibiotics into SV is effective to a certain extent for persistent hematospermia. ..
  17. Baines H, Nwagwu M, Hastie G, Wiles R, Mayhew T, Ebling F. Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg) mouse. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:4 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on this tissue, and did not augment the actions of estradiol...
  18. Möhring C, Bach P, Kosciesza S, Goepel M. [A primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. Case report of a rare malignancy]. Urologe A. 2008;47:616-9 pubmed publisher
    Primary malignancies of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare. They must be strictly differentiated from surrounding malignancies that may infiltrate the seminal vesicles from outside (e.g. prostate, rectum, and bladder carcinoma)...
  19. Soler García A, Maitra R, Kumar V, Ise T, Nagata S, Beers R, et al. The PATE gene is expressed in the accessory tissues of the human male genital tract and encodes a secreted sperm-associated protein. Reproduction. 2005;129:515-24 pubmed
  20. Williams K, Fisher J, Turner K, McKinnell C, Saunders P, Sharpe R. Relationship between expression of sex steroid receptors and structure of the seminal vesicles after neonatal treatment of rats with potent or weak estrogens. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:1227-35 pubmed
    ..androgen environment of the neonatal male rat on subsequent immunoexpression of sex steroid receptors in the seminal vesicles (SVs) at age 18 days...
  21. Gonzales G. Function of seminal vesicles and their role on male fertility. Asian J Androl. 2001;3:251-8 pubmed
    The present review has been designed to update the recent developments on the function of seminal vesicles and their role on male fertility...
  22. Chapman T, Davies S. Functions and analysis of the seminal fluid proteins of male Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Peptides. 2004;25:1477-90 pubmed
    ..These and similar techniques promise to reveal the function of naturally-occurring variants of these proteins and hence the evolutionary significance of genetic variation for them...
  23. Bloom K, Richie J, Schultz D, Renshaw A, Saegaert T, D Amico A. Invasion of seminal vesicles by adenocarcinoma of the prostate: PSA outcome determined by preoperative and postoperative factors. Urology. 2004;63:333-6 pubmed
    ..SVI by prostate cancer is associated with high PSA failure rates after RRP and subsequent distant metastases...
  24. Upreti L, Bhargava S, Kumar A. Imaging of primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. Australas Radiol. 2003;47:70-2 pubmed
    ..The prostate gland was displaced inferiorly and to the left. Surgical resection and subsequent histology confirmed the diagnosis. The role of imaging in retrovesical masses is also discussed...
  25. Mourvaki E, Collodel G, Moretti E, Cosci I, Castellini C. Distribution of alpha-, gamma (+beta)- and delta-tocopherol in the seminal plasma, spermatozoa and seminal vesicles of rabbit. Andrologia. 2008;40:282-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the biological function of this compound in semen remains to be cleared. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at identifying alpha-tocopherol homologues in rabbit semen fractions...
  26. Arora S, Breiman R, Webb E, Westphalen A, Yeh B, Coakley F. CT and MRI of congenital anomalies of the seminal vesicles. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:130-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this article is to provide a current review of the spectrum of CT and MRI findings seen in common congenital anomalies of the seminal vesicles.
  27. Basillote J, Shanberg A, Woo D, Perer E, Rajpoot D, Clayman R. Laparoscopic excision of a seminal vesicle cyst in a child. J Urol. 2004;171:369-71 pubmed
  28. Machtens S, Ckert S, Stief C, Tsikas D, Frlich J, Jonas U. Effects of various nitric oxide-donating drugs on adrenergic tension of human seminal vesicles in vitro. Urology. 2003;61:479-83 pubmed
    ..However, information on the significance of NO-mediated signal transduction in the functional control of the mammalian seminal vesicles is still sparse.
  29. Bianco J, Handelsman D, Pedersen J, Risbridger G. Direct response of the murine prostate gland and seminal vesicles to estradiol. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4922-33 pubmed
  30. Lee C, Choi H, Cho D, Ha U. Cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1138-40 pubmed
    ..However, benign tumors of the seminal vesicle are extremely rare. We report a case of a cystadenomas of the seminal vesicles in a 46-year-old asymptomatic man, which was detected incidentally by computed tomography.
  31. Deurloo K, Steenbakkers R, Zijp L, de Bois J, Nowak P, Rasch C, et al. Quantification of shape variation of prostate and seminal vesicles during external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:228-38 pubmed
    ..of this article to develop a method to determine shape variation of complex organs and apply it to determine shape variation during external beam radiotherapy of a GTV (gross tumor volume) consisting of prostate and seminal vesicles.
  32. Patel B, Gujral S, Jefferson K, Evans S, Persad R. Seminal vesicle cysts and associated anomalies. BJU Int. 2002;90:265-71 pubmed
  33. Court L, Dong L, Lee A, Cheung R, Bonnen M, O Daniel J, et al. An automatic CT-guided adaptive radiation therapy technique by online modification of multileaf collimator leaf positions for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;62:154-63 pubmed
    ..computed tomography (CT) imaging that detects changes in the target position and shape of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) and then automatically modifies the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf pairs in a slice-by-slice fashion.
  34. Hyun J, Baig M, Yang D, Leungwattanakij S, Kim K, Abdel Mageed A, et al. Localization of peripheral dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat and human seminal vesicles. J Androl. 2002;23:114-20 pubmed
    ..of peripheral dopamine D1 and D2 receptor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and corresponding proteins in rat and human seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicle tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats and human radical prostatectomy specimens were used ..
  35. Kestin L, Goldstein N, Vicini F, Yan D, Korman H, Martinez A. Treatment of prostate cancer with radiotherapy: should the entire seminal vesicles be included in the clinical target volume?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54:686-97 pubmed
    When treating high-risk prostate cancer with radiation therapy, inclusion of the seminal vesicles (SVs) within the clinical target volume (CTV) can dramatically increase the volume of radiated normal tissues and hinder dose escalation...
  36. Zanetti G, Gazzano G, Trinchieri A, Magri V, Bosari S, Montanari E. A rare case of benign fibroepithelial tumor of the seminal vesicle. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2003;75:164-5 pubmed
    Primary tumors of seminal vesicles are rare. We report on a benign tumor of the seminal vesicle with fibroepithelial and cystic features. We performed a laparoscopic transperitoneal approach...
  37. Agrawal V, Kumar S, Sharma D, Singh U, Gupta A. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the seminal vesicle. Int J Urol. 2004;11:253-5 pubmed
    ..The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and sandwiched radiotherapy. He is well and free of tumor 20 months after surgery...
  38. Nishino T, Wedel T, Schmitt O, Bühlmeyer K, Schönfelder M, Hirtreiter C, et al. Androgen-dependent morphology of prostates and seminal vesicles in the Hershberger assay: evaluation of immunohistochemical and morphometric parameters. Ann Anat. 2004;186:247-53 pubmed
    ..Sections obtained from prostates and seminal vesicles were stained with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the androgen receptor (AR) and assessed ..
  39. Tani Y, Suttie A, Flake G, Nyska A, Maronpot R. Epithelial-stromal tumor of the seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:306-14 pubmed
    ..In addition to prostatic neoplasms, the TRAMP mouse develops tumors in the seminal vesicles. This study was conducted to evaluate the pathology and histogenesis of TRAMP seminal vesicle neoplasms...
  40. Weckermann D, Hamm M, Dorn R, Wagner T, Wawroschek F, Harzmann R. [Sentinel lymph node dissection in prostate cancer. Experience after more than 800 interventions]. Urologe A. 2006;45:723-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is useful to perform lymph node dissection in every patient. Men with positive nodes could have a better prognosis, when sentinel and extended lymph node dissection are performed...
  41. Thomson A, Marker P. Branching morphogenesis in the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Differentiation. 2006;74:382-92 pubmed
    The prostate gland and seminal vesicles are the major exocrine glands in the male reproductive tracts of mammals...
  42. Son H, Jeong Y, Kim J, Chung M. Phyllodes tumor of the seminal vesicle: case report and literature review. Pathol Int. 2004;54:924-9 pubmed
    ..A combination of stromal cellularity, atypia and mitosis might be used for the histological grading, and a prostatic origin might be excluded by the location of the primary lesion itself and by the failure to show PSA...
  43. Malendowicz W, Rucinski M, Macchi C, Spinazzi R, Ziolkowska A, Nussdorfer G, et al. Leptin and leptin receptors in the prostate and seminal vesicles of the adult rat. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:615-8 pubmed
    ..chain reaction showed the expression of mRNAs of leptin, Ob-Ra, Ob-Rb, Ob-Rc, Ob-Re and Ob-Rf in adult rat seminal vesicles and prostate (coagulating, dorsal, ventral and lateral lobes)...
  44. O Daniel J, Dong L, Zhang L, de Crevoisier R, Wang H, Lee A, et al. Dosimetric comparison of four target alignment methods for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66:883-91 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric consequences of 4 treatment delivery techniques for prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
  45. Thompson M, Lapointe J, Choi Y, Ong D, Higgins J, Brooks J, et al. Identification of candidate prostate cancer genes through comparative expression-profiling of seminal vesicle. Prostate. 2008;68:1248-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that gene-expression differences between prostate and seminal vesicle might inform mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of prostate cancer...
  46. Cherullo E, Meraney A, Bernstein L, Einstein D, Thomas A, Gill I. Laparoscopic management of congenital seminal vesicle cysts associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis. J Urol. 2002;167:1263-7 pubmed
    Congenital cysts of the seminal vesicles associated with ipsilateral renal abnormalities are rare. When they are symptomatic, open surgical excision has been the treatment of choice...
  47. Thiel R, Effert P. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicles. J Urol. 2002;168:1891-6 pubmed
    ..We provide an overview of seminal vesicle carcinoma, a rare entity that is difficult to diagnose and traditionally has been associated with a poor prognosis...
  48. Abe H, Nishimura T, Miura T, Uchikoba T, Ohno T, Ishikawa N, et al. Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the seminal vesicle. Int J Urol. 2002;9:599-601 pubmed
    ..We report here an extremely rare case of cystosarcoma phyllodes of the seminal vesicle...
  49. Sofer M, Savoie M, Kim S, Civantos F, Soloway M. Biochemical and pathological predictors of the recurrence of prostatic adenocarcinoma with seminal vesicle invasion. J Urol. 2003;169:153-6 pubmed
    ..We assessed biochemical and pathological factors as predictors of recurrence in men with seminal vesicle invasion...
  50. Cerruto M, Novella G, Antoniolli S, Zattoni F. Use of transperineal fine needle aspiration of seminal vesicles to retrieve sperm in a man with obstructive azoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1764.e7-9 pubmed
    To report the successful and feasible use of transperineal fine needle aspiration of seminal vesicles (FNASV) for sperm retrieval in obstructive azoospermia.
  51. Fraietta R, Mori M, De Oliveira J, Cedenho A, Srougi M. Tuberculosis of seminal vesicles as a cause of aspermia. J Urol. 2003;169:1472 pubmed
  52. Ono Y, Suzuki K, Kashiwagi B, Shibata Y, Ito K, Fukabori Y, et al. Role of androgen on blood flow and capillary structure in rat seminal vesicles. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004;202:193-201 pubmed
    To clarify the effect of androgen on the microcirculation in seminal vesicles of adult Wistar rats, we investigated the organ blood flow and morphological features in the capillaries after castration and subsequent testosterone ..
  53. Zubkova E, Robaire B. Effect of glutathione depletion on antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, and liver and on spermatozoa motility in the aging brown Norway rat. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1002-8 pubmed
    ..of this study were to determine how aging affects the response of antioxidant enzymes in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, and liver to l-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) mediated glutathione (GSH) depletion, and to examine the ..
  54. Frank S, Dong L, Kudchadker R, de Crevoisier R, Lee A, Cheung R, et al. Quantification of prostate and seminal vesicle interfraction variation during IMRT. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:813-20 pubmed publisher
  55. Yamamoto S, Kawakami S, Yonese J, Fujii Y, Tsukamoto T, Ohkubo Y, et al. Prognostic significance of cancer volume involving seminal vesicles in patients with pT3bpN0 prostate cancer. Urology. 2008;72:1224-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prognostic effect of the prostate cancer (PCa) volume involving the seminal vesicles (CVSVs) in the radical prostatectomy specimen from patients with Stage pT3bpN0 PCa.
  56. Al Saeed O, Sheikh M, Kehinde E, Makar R. Seminal vesicle masses detected incidentally during transrectal sonographic examination of the prostate. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;31:201-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to review the incidence and type of seminal vesicle (SV) masses discovered during transrectal sonography (TRUS) of the prostate...
  57. Vasileios R, Athanasios P, Stavros T. Echinococcal cyst of the seminal vesicles: a case-report and literature review. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;34:527-30 pubmed
    Solitary echinococcal cysts of the seminal vesicles are very uncommon. The use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aids considerably in the differential diagnosis...
  58. Heemsbergen W, Hoogeman M, Witte M, Peeters S, Incrocci L, Lebesque J. Increased risk of biochemical and clinical failure for prostate patients with a large rectum at radiotherapy planning: results from the Dutch trial of 68 GY versus 78 Gy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:1418-24 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether a large rectum filling visible on the planning CT scan was associated with a decrease in freedom from any failure (FFF) and freedom from clinical failure (FFCF) for prostate cancer patients...
  59. Bayman N, Wylie J. When should the seminal vesicles be included in the target volume in prostate radiotherapy?. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2007;19:302-7 pubmed
    External beam radiotherapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles as a radical treatment for prostate cancer can result in a significant dose being delivered to the rectum. This can be reduced if the target volume includes the prostate only...