Summary: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.

Top Publications

  1. Singh I, Ansari M. Extensive balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) involving the anterior urethra and scrotum. Int Urol Nephrol. 2006;38:505-6 pubmed
    We describe an unusual case of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) involving the entire anterior urethra and the scrotum that had presented as a palpable nodular scrotal mass with obstructive voiding symptoms in middle aged man...
  2. Aganovic L, Cassidy F. Imaging of the scrotum. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;50:1145-65 pubmed publisher
    ..features of various intratesticular and extratesticular lesions including acute and nonacute conditions of the scrotum. Nonneoplastic lesions that can mimic scrotal malignancy are discussed...
  3. Menon A, Barkema H, Wilde R, Kastelic J, Thundathil J. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls. Can J Vet Res. 2011;75:241-7 pubmed
    ..6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance...
  4. Tsili A, Argyropoulou M, Giannakis D, Tsampalas S, Sofikitis N, Tsampoulas K. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal and abnormal scrotum: preliminary results. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:649-54 pubmed publisher
    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the scrotum represents an important supplemental diagnostic tool in the evaluation of scrotal diseases...
  5. Dai B, Kong Y, Ye D, Xu X, Yao X, Zhang S. Basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum: clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:783-90 pubmed publisher
    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) located on the scrotum is rare.
  6. Massanyi E, McMahon D. Technique for preservation of penile skin in genital reconstruction: free graft to the scrotum. Urology. 2011;78:659-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a new technique to preserve the penile epithelium with good cosmetic results when additional surgery is a significant possibility. Complex genital reconstruction can require multiple procedures...
  7. Hinton B, Galdamez M, Sutherland A, Bomgardner D, Xu B, Abdel Fattah R, et al. How do you get six meters of epididymis inside a human scrotum?. J Androl. 2011;32:558-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell proliferation in the Wolffian duct appears to be dependent on the presence of androgens and mesenchymal factors during embryonic development, but lumicrine factors play an additional role during postnatal development...
  8. Aktas C, Kanter M. A morphological study on Leydig cells of scrotal hyperthermia applied rats in short-term. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of lipid droplets was very considerably increased in most LC when compared to control group. As a conclusion, we claim that temperatures higher than the body temperature may cause infertility by damaging LC. ..
  9. Yang W, Kim D, Im Y, Cho K, Rha K, Cho N, et al. Extramammary Paget's disease of penis and scrotum. Urology. 2005;65:972-5 pubmed
    ..No patient had underlying adnexal carcinoma. The results of our study indicate that local wide excision with intraoperative frozen biopsy analysis is essential to the complete treatment of EMPD. ..

More Information


  1. Wan S, Lau H, Patil N, Lo W, Lui S. Peritoneal computed tomography: a diagnostic tool for genital oedema in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Hong Kong Med J. 2007;13:82-3 pubmed
  2. Reddy N, Gerscovich E, Jain K, Le Petross H, Brock J. Vasectomy-related changes on sonographic examination of the scrotum. J Clin Ultrasound. 2004;32:394-8 pubmed
    ..These findings are most likely attributable to postvasectomy obstructive changes and increased intraluminal pressure in the efferent ducts, epididymis, and vas deferens. ..
  3. Godoy G, Mufarrij P, TSOU H, Torre P, Taneja S. Granular cell tumor of scrotum: a rare tumor of the male external genitalia. Urology. 2008;72:716.e7-9 pubmed publisher
    We report a rare case of granular cell tumor in the scrotum. Granular cell tumors are soft-tissue neoplasms originating from Schwann cells that rarely affect male external genitalia...
  4. Zhang N, Gong K, Zhang X, Yang Y, Na Y. Extramammary Paget's disease of scrotum--report of 25 cases and literature review. Urol Oncol. 2010;28:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluate the clinical manifestations, management, and prognostic characteristics of scrotal extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD)...
  5. Goshima J, Hara H, Okada T, Suzuki H. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum arising on the scrotum. Eur J Dermatol. 2003;13:271 pubmed
  6. El Saadi A, Al Wadan A, Hamerna S. Approach to a giant inguinoscrotal hernia. Hernia. 2005;9:277-9 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the problems encountered in management of huge hernias. ..
  7. Xu K, Fang Z, Zheng J, Lu Y, Li B, Sun C, et al. Intraoperative frozen biopsy in wide surgical excision of Paget's disease of the scrotum. Urol Oncol. 2009;27:483-5 pubmed publisher
    To determine if there is an advantage to performing intraoperative frozen biopsy to ascertain clear surgical margins in wide surgical excision for Paget's disease of the scrotum.
  8. Paul C, Teng S, Saunders P. A single, mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes hypoxia and oxidative stress in mouse testes, which induces germ cell death. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:913-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Yasui T, Fukui K, Nara T, Habata I, Meyer W, Tsukise A. Immunocytochemical localization of lysozyme and beta-defensin in the apocrine glands of the equine scrotum. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007;299:393-7 pubmed
    ..The presence and secretion of such substances that may serve as a non-specific defense against microorganisms are suggestive of the protective effect of the secretory production elaborated by the apocrine glands...
  10. Kovachev L, Paul A, Chowdhary P, Choudhary P, Filipov E. Regarding extremely large inguinal hernias with a contribution of two cases. Hernia. 2010;14:193-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These hernias demand interdisciplinary teamwork and their treatment has to be adapted to the individual condition of the patient using all therapeutic options. ..
  11. Sevilla Chica F, Meseguer García P, Roca Estellés M, Gómez Castro A, Mola Arizo M, Sala Aznar A. [Atypical or bizarre leiomyoma of the scrotum. Report of one case and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol. 2004;57:428-31 pubmed
    ..Although it is a form of leiomyoma which is extremely infrequently found in the scrotum, it is necessary to know it can occur and to know that we are dealing with a benign tumour that should be treated ..
  12. Jung A, Schill W, Schuppe H. Improvement of semen quality by nocturnal scrotal cooling in oligozoospermic men with a history of testicular maldescent. Int J Androl. 2005;28:93-8 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests nocturnal scrotal cooling as a therapeutic option to improve semen quality. In a further controlled prospective study the influence on pregnancy rates should be evaluated. ..
  13. Maricic A, Katunarić M, Sutalo N, Tomic S, Jurisic D, Petkovic M, et al. Primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the scrotum. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2010;122:360-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The recurrent tumor revealed tumor tissue concurrent with the primary lesion. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previously published case reports on neuroendocrine tumor of the scrotum.
  14. Wright J, Morgan T, Lin D. Primary scrotal cancer: disease characteristics and increasing incidence. Urology. 2008;72:1139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a population-based cancer registry, we describe the demographic and pathologic characteristics of scrotal cancer and report the incidence trends over time...
  15. Quinn A, Sienko A, Basrawala Z, Campbell S. Extramammary Paget disease of the scrotum with features of Bowen disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:84-6 pubmed
    The scrotum is an uncommon site for the presentation of extramammary Paget disease (EMPD)...
  16. Trickett R, Dowd H. Angiokeratoma of the scrotum: a case of scrotal bleeding. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:e57 pubmed
    ..There were numerous (>50) 1-2 mm dark red, erythematous papules over the scrotum, sparing the shaft of penis, inner thigh and abdomen...
  17. John T, Portenier D, Auster B, Mehregan D, Drelichman A, Telmos A. Leiomyosarcoma of scrotum--case report and review of literature. Urology. 2006;67:424.e13-424.e15 pubmed
    Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum is a rare tumor. Cutaneous and subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas constitute the two subtypes. We report a case of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum in a 73-year-old man...
  18. Perez Crespo M, Pintado B, Gutierrez Adan A. Scrotal heat stress effects on sperm viability, sperm DNA integrity, and the offspring sex ratio in mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:40-7 pubmed
    ..These findings point to a higher sensitivity of spermatocytes to heat exposure and also suggest a different response of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa to heat stress that warrants further investigation...
  19. Ptochos A, Iosifidis N. Lithiasic inguinoscrotal herniation of the bladder secondary to prostate enlargement. Acta Radiol. 2002;43:543-4 pubmed
  20. Kendirci M, Horasanli K, Miroglu C. Accessory scrotum with multiple skeletal abnormalities. Int J Urol. 2006;13:648-50 pubmed
    Accessory scrotum is very uncommon. Here we report a 5-year old Caucasian boy presenting with an accessory scrotum localized to the left side of the pubic area...
  21. Pepe P, Panella P, Pennisi M, Aragona F. Does color Doppler sonography improve the clinical assessment of patients with acute scrotum?. Eur J Radiol. 2006;60:120-4 pubmed
    Our experience concerning the use of color Doppler sonography (CDS) in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotum is reported.
  22. Chan P, Tripathi S, Low S, Robinson L. Case report--ancient schwannoma of the scrotum. BMC Urol. 2007;7:1 pubmed
    ..Scrotal schwannoma is a rare neoplasm and poses a diagnostic challenge to urologists. This article describes a rare case of ancient scrotal schwannoma and reviews the current modality of investigation and treatment of this tumour...
  23. Sherwani R, Rahman K, Akhtar K, Zaheer S, Hassan M, Haider A. Leiomyoma of scrotum. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:72-3 pubmed
    Leiomyoma is a benign tumor of smooth muscles. Leiomyoma originating from the scrotum is a rare entity. We report here a case of 50-year-old male who presented with a 4-cm lump in the left side of scrotum...
  24. Park C, Chun E, Lee J. Median raphe cyst on the scrotum and perineum. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:S114-5 pubmed
  25. Vasiliadis K, Knaebel H, Djakovic N, Nyarangi Dix J, Schmidt J, Buchler M. Challenging surgical management of a giant inguinoscrotal hernia: report of a case. Surg Today. 2010;40:684-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although challenging and demanding, surgery represents the only mode of treatment that can offer the patient with a giant inguinoscrotal hernia a satisfactory level of function and quality of life...
  26. Monoski M, Gonzalez R, Thomas A, Goldstein M. Arteriovenous malformation of scrotum causing virtual azoospermia. Urology. 2006;68:203.e5-6 pubmed
    ..Surgical correction of the scrotal AVM resulted in marked improvement in his semen parameters. The effect of the AVM on spermatogenesis was most likely mediated by an elevation in scrotal temperature...
  27. Grove G, Grove M, Bates N, Wagman L, Leyden J. Scrotal temperatures do not differ among young boys wearing disposable or reusable diapers. Skin Res Technol. 2002;8:260-70 pubmed
    ..These included both modern disposable and reusable diapers as well as various types of protective outer coverings that are in common use in both North America and Europe..
  28. Kim N, Sung C, Han J. Bizarre leiomyoma of the scrotum. J Korean Med Sci. 2003;18:452-4 pubmed
    ..Although morphologically atypical, scrotal bizarre leiomyomas take on a biologic behavior not different from that of conventional leiomyoma, they should be distinguished from leiomyosarcoma to avoid unnecessary treatment...
  29. Jeong H. Fournier's gangrene associated with sparganosis in the scrotum. Urology. 2004;63:176-7 pubmed
    Fournier's gangrene is a necrotizing fasciitis of the scrotum or perineum that may extend by way of the fascial planes to the penis and the anterior abdominal wall up to the clavicles, buttocks, or lower extremities...
  30. Desai N, Desai D, Ghag G, Waghela J, Rao R, Sawant P. Giant mesenteric cyst of abdomen herniating into scrotum. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2004;23:74-5 pubmed
    ..We report a 55-year-old man with recurrent benign mesothelioma arising from the left colonic mesentery and extending into the scrotal sac. He recovered well after excision of the abdominal and scrotal mass...
  31. Lam W, Yap T, Jacobsen A, Teo H. Colour Doppler ultrasonography replacing surgical exploration for acute scrotum: myth or reality?. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:597-600 pubmed
    Traditionally, every patient with an acute scrotum needed surgical exploration for definitive exclusion of testicular torsion.
  32. Carrasco D, Trizna Z, Colome Grimmer M, Tyring S. Verrucous herpes of the scrotum in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive man: case report and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:511-5 pubmed
    We report a case of a 28-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man. He presented with confluent verrucous papules and nodules on his scrotum that were due to herpes simplex infection.
  33. Kleisner K, Ivell R, Flegr J. The evolutionary history of testicular externalization and the origin of the scrotum. J Biosci. 2010;35:27-37 pubmed
    This paper re-examines the evolution of the scrotum and testicular descent in the context of the recent phylogeny of mammals. The adaptive significance of testicular descent and scrotality is briefly discussed...
  34. Rossetto A, Dellatorre G, Pérsio R, Romeiro J, Cruz R. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on the scrotum caused by Exophiala jeanselmei: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85:517-20 pubmed
    ..The abscess was treated successfully with oral fluconazole associated with surgical excision...
  35. Samaratunga H, Fitzpatrick P. Cellular angiofibroma of the scrotum. Pathology. 2008;40:330-3 pubmed publisher
  36. Hankins C, Weston P. Re: Melanoma of the penis, scrotum and male urethra: a 40-year single institution experience. R. Sánchez-Ortiz, S. F. Huang, P. Tamboli, V. C. Prieto, G. Hester and C. A. Pettaway. J Urol. 2006;175:1574-5; author reply 1575-6 pubmed
  37. Ng A, Leung A, Robson W. Urinary bladder calculi in a sliding vesical-inguinal-scrotal hernia diagnosed preoperatively by plain abdominal radiography. Adv Ther. 2007;24:1016-9 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature revealed only 2 prior reported cases of bladder calculi within a vesical-inguinal-scrotal hernia...
  38. Bengoudifa B, Mieusset R. Thermal asymmetry of the human scrotum. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2178-82 pubmed
    Scrotal temperatures in men have been reported to be either similar on both sides or higher on the left than the right scrotum. We aimed to clarify this discrepancy from new data.
  39. Kinoshita R, Yamamoto O, Yasuda H, Tokura Y. Basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum with lymph node metastasis: report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:54-6 pubmed
  40. Hara N, Kawaguchi M, Koike H, Takahashi K. Median raphe cyst in the scrotum, mimicking a serous borderline tumor, associated with cryptorchidism after orchiopecxy. Int J Urol. 2004;11:1150-2 pubmed
    ..We describe a case of MRC with features of SBT, which appeared in the scrotum of a 9-year-old boy after orchiopexy and was associated with surgery for cryptorchidism...
  41. Prochnau A, de Almeida H, Souza P, Vetoratto G, Duquia R, Defferrari R. Scutular tinea of the scrotum: report of two cases. Mycoses. 2005;48:162-4 pubmed
    ..In the literature we found only two reports in immunocompetent patients and some in immune suppressed with similar symptoms...
  42. Gatti J, Patrick Murphy J. Current management of the acute scrotum. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2007;16:58-63 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to update/review the appropriate evaluation and management of the acute scrotum and to guide the clinician in distinguishing testicular torsion from the other conditions that commonly mimic ..
  43. Defoor W, Wacksman J. Results of single staged hypospadias surgery to repair penoscrotal hypospadias with bifid scrotum or penoscrotal transposition. J Urol. 2003;170:1585-8; discussion 1588 pubmed
    ..We review our results during the last 5 years in severe cases of penoscrotal hypospadias with bifid scrotum or penoscrotal transposition.
  44. Chen J, Gao H, Wu B, Tsai W, Chiang C. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia affecting the scrotum: a rare case report with molecular evidence of T-cell clonality. J Dermatol. 2010;37:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A 38-year-old man had a gradually enlarging and mild pruritic plaque on the scrotum for half a year...
  45. Onol F, Tanıdır Y, Kotiloglu E, Bayramicli M, Turhal S, Turkeri L. Proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the scrotum: a source of diagnostic confusion that needs immediate attention. Eur Urol. 2006;49:406-7 pubmed
    ..We herein report a case of metastatic proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma arising from the scrotum of a 50-year-old man managed by radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  46. Nakamura Y, Tajima F, Omura H, Ishiga K, Kawatani T, Murawaki Y. Primary effusion lymphoma of the left scrotum. Intern Med. 2003;42:351-3 pubmed without human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus was admitted with left scrotum swelling and hydrocele...
  47. Myers J, Lovell M, Lee R, Furness P, Koyle M. Torsion of an indirect hernia sac causing acute scrotum. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:122-3 pubmed
    A 6-year-old boy presented with an acute scrotum and was found at surgical exploration to have torsion and infarction of an indirect hernia sac. This represents the sixth reported case of this entity in the literature...
  48. Matsumoto A, Nagatomi Y, Sakai M, Oshi M. Torsion of the hernia sac within a hydrocele of the scrotum in a child. Int J Urol. 2004;11:789-91 pubmed
    Torsion of the hernia sac is a rare disease that presents as acute scrotum in children. Including the present case, only six cases have been reported in the English literature...
  49. Ciftci A, Senocak M, Tanyel F, Buyukpamukcu N. Clinical predictors for differential diagnosis of acute scrotum. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2004;14:333-8 pubmed
    Accurate and early diagnosis of acute scrotum is of the utmost importance to avoid testicular loss and/or needless surgery...
  50. Sanchez Ortiz R, Huang S, Tamboli P, Prieto V, Hester G, Pettaway C. Melanoma of the penis, scrotum and male urethra: a 40-year single institution experience. J Urol. 2005;173:1958-65 pubmed
    ..We describe our experience with 10 patients with penile or urethral involvement. In addition, we present what is to our knowledge the largest reported series of melanoma of the scrotum (6 cases).
  51. Siddiqui M, Bhattacharjee J, Das Z, Islam M, Islam M, Haque M, et al. Crossbred bull selection for bigger scrotum and shorter age at puberty with potentials for better quality semen. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed at selecting crossbred bulls at earliest possible age with bigger scrotum and potential for donating quality semen...
  52. Kim Y, Lee M, Jeon H, Yi J, Paick S, Kim H, et al. Sparganosis in the scrotum: sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:129-31 pubmed
  53. Paul C, Murray A, Spears N, Saunders P. A single, mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes DNA damage, subfertility and impairs formation of blastocysts in mice. Reproduction. 2008;136:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Testicular function is temperature dependent, and in both man and mouse the position of the testes in the scrotum ensures that they are kept at between 2 and 8 degrees C below core body temperature...
  54. Jung A, Leonhardt F, Schill W, Schuppe H. Influence of the type of undertrousers and physical activity on scrotal temperature. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:1022-7 pubmed
    ..Testicular temperature correlates highly with scrotal temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the type of undertrousers on scrotal temperature during standardized periods of sitting and walking...
  55. Sidwell R, Rouse P, Owen R, Green J. Granular cell tumor of the scrotum in a child with Noonan syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. 2008;25:341-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a granular cell tumor of the scrotum in a child with Noonan syndrome, known to have a mutation in the PTPN11 gene...
  56. Matsui F, Kobori Y, Takashima H, Amano T, Takemae K. [A case of intrascrotal schwannoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2002;48:749-51 pubmed
    ..A painless, solid and elastic-hard mass was palpable in the left scrotum. The testis, epididymis and spermatic cord could not be palpated separately from the mass...
  57. Al Awami M, Schillinger M, Minar E. Vasospasm of the scrotum--a manifestation of Raynaud's phenomenon?. Vasa. 2004;33:87-8 pubmed
    ..Other sites such as nose, ears could also be affected. We report a patient who has been suffering for long time of cold induced sensitivity associated with well demarcated pallor of the scrotum.
  58. Modolin M, Mitre A, da Silva J, Cintra W, Quagliano A, Arap S, et al. Surgical treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006;61:289-94 pubmed
    Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum, regardless of its etiology, is determined by reduced lymphatic flow with subsequent enlargement of the penis and scrotum...
  59. Muttarak M, Lojanapiwat B. The painful scrotum: an ultrasonographical approach to diagnosis. Singapore Med J. 2005;46:352-7; quiz 358 pubmed
    ..torsion, testicular trauma, and testicular cancer, may have a similar clinical presentation as a painful scrotum. Differentiation of these disease processes is important for proper management...
  60. Tsujino Y, Kusatake K, Kaneko S, Yamamoto Y, Furumura M, Morita E. Fusion of single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images of sentinel lymph nodes in extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum. J Dermatol. 2007;34:712-5 pubmed
    ..0 for Windows). This method provided the fusion of SPECT and CT images in a short time and made it easy to identify the sentinel lymph nodes in the patient with extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum.
  61. Weinfeld A, Kelley P, Yuksel E, Tiwari P, Hsu P, Choo J, et al. Circumferential negative-pressure dressing (VAC) to bolster skin grafts in the reconstruction of the penile shaft and scrotum. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:178-83 pubmed the penis to secure skin grafts either directly to the penile shaft or to facilitate skin grafting to the scrotum. Graft areas ranged from 75 to 250 cm...
  62. Dehner L, Yin H, Yost R. Median raphe cyst in the scrotum after orchiopexy. Int J Urol. 2007;14:573-4; author reply 574 pubmed
  63. Lee R, Goodwin T, Miller D, Songster G. Accessory scrotum: prenatal sonographic features. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;30:118-9 pubmed
  64. Ng K, Chung Y, Cwilde C, Chee C. An unusual presentation of acute scrotum after appendicitis. Singapore Med J. 2002;43:365-6 pubmed
    Acute scrotum following perforated appendicitis is a rare complication. This usually occurs in the presence of a patent processus vaginalis in children...
  65. Sheynkin Y, Jung M, Yoo P, Schulsinger D, Komaroff E. Increase in scrotal temperature in laptop computer users. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:452-5 pubmed
    ..LC are known to reach high internal operating temperatures. We evaluated the thermal effect of LC on the scrotum.
  66. Maguina P, Palmieri T, Greenhalgh D. Split thickness skin grafting for recreation of the scrotum following Fournier's gangrene. Burns. 2003;29:857-62 pubmed
    ..Multiple options for reconstruction of the scrotum are available...
  67. Altunoluk B, Soylemez H, Efe E, Malkoc O. Duration of preoperative scrotal pain may predict the success of microsurgical varicocelectomy. Int Braz J Urol. 2010;36:55-9 pubmed
    ..Varicocelectomy is used in the treatment of scrotal pain. We report our results with microsurgical subinguinal varicocele ligation to treat pain...
  68. Kumar S, Nagappa B, Ganesamoniv R. Extensive balanitis xerotica obliterans of urethrocutaneous fistula presenting as mass in scrotum. Urology. 2010;76:332-3 pubmed publisher
    ..lichen sclerosis (balanitis xerotica obliterans) involving the anterior urethra, urethrocutaneous fistula, and scrotum is described in a middle-aged man who presented with a history of obstructive voiding symptoms...
  69. Liang C, Batra P, Patel R, Kamino H. Genital porokeratosis. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15:23 pubmed
    A 22-year-old man presented with a two-year history of warts on the penis, scrotum, and thighs. Physical examination showed multiple annular plaques with thin, threadlike borders on the penis and scrotum...
  70. Sadeghi Nejad H, Ilbeigi P, Wilson S, Delk J, Siegel A, Seftel A, et al. Multi-institutional outcome study on the efficacy of closed-suction drainage of the scrotum in three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis surgery. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:535-8 pubmed
    ..of postoperative scrotal swelling and associated adverse effects, many urologists are reluctant to drain the scrotum because of a theoretical risk of introducing an infection...
  71. Cannavo S, Guarneri F, Napoli P. Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum with Bowenoid features. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16:203-4 pubmed
  72. Mushtaq I, Fung M, Glasson M. Retrospective review of paediatric patients with acute scrotum. ANZ J Surg. 2003;73:55-8 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the historical features and physical examination findings in boys presenting with acute scrotum and to determine the reliability of these modalities to make the correct clinical diagnosis.