epididymis

Summary

Summary: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.

Top Publications

  1. Ouvrier A, Cadet R, Vernet P, Laillet B, Chardigny J, Lobaccaro J, et al. LXR and ABCA1 control cholesterol homeostasis in the proximal mouse epididymis in a cell-specific manner. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, molecular mechanisms regulating these transformations inside the epididymis are still poorly understood...
  2. Da Silva N, Cortez Retamozo V, Reinecker H, Wildgruber M, Hill E, Brown D, et al. A dense network of dendritic cells populates the murine epididymis. Reproduction. 2011;141:653-63 pubmed publisher
    ..After leaving the testis, spermatozoa enter the epididymis where they mature and are stored...
  3. Pujianto D, Loanda E, Sari P, Midoen Y, Soeharso P. Sperm-associated antigen 11A is expressed exclusively in the principal cells of the mouse caput epididymis in an androgen-dependent manner. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Spag11a is an epididymal gene that is influenced by androgen. However, little is known about the putative role of this gene in the sperm maturation process. The objective of this study was to characterize Spag11a in the mouse epididymis.
  4. Belleannee C, Calvo E, Caballero J, Sullivan R. Epididymosomes convey different repertoires of microRNAs throughout the bovine epididymis. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:30 pubmed publisher
    ..findings reveal that distinct miRNA repertoires are released into the intraluminal fluid in a region-specific manner and could be involved in a novel mechanism of intercellular communication throughout the epididymis via epididymosomes.
  5. Dube E, Cyr D. The blood-epididymis barrier and human male fertility. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;763:218-36 pubmed
    Spermatozoa undergo a posttesticular maturation in the epididymis to acquire motility and the capacity to fertilize. Sperm maturation depends in part upon the creation of a specific microenvironment within the epididymal lumen...
  6. Fernandes G, Arena A, Campos K, Volpato G, Anselmo Franci J, Damasceno D, et al. Glutamate-induced obesity leads to decreased sperm reserves and acceleration of transit time in the epididymis of adult male rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012;10:105 pubmed publisher
    Given the established fact that obesity interferes with male reproductive functions, the present study aimed to evaluate sperm production in the testis and storage in the epididymis in a glutamate-induced model of obesity.
  7. Fukunaga M, Yamamoto Y, Kawasoe M, Arioka Y, Murakami Y, Hoshi M, et al. Studies on tissue and cellular distribution of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2: the absence of IDO1 upregulates IDO2 expression in the epididymis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..IDO1 mRNA expression was observed in the colon and epididymis, whereas IDO2 mRNA expression was found in the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and epididymis...
  8. Belleannee C, Calvo E, Thimon V, Cyr D, Légaré C, Garneau L, et al. Role of microRNAs in controlling gene expression in different segments of the human epididymis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34996 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanisms implicated in regionalized gene expression in the human epididymis have not yet been fully elucidated...
  9. Nagy B, Krasznai Z, Balla H, Csobán M, Antal Szalmas P, Hernadi Z, et al. Elevated human epididymis protein 4 concentrations in chronic kidney disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2012;49:377-80 pubmed publisher
    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has recently become an available tumour biomarker for detecting ovarian cancer along with the standard cancer antigen 125 (CA125)...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Ruan Y, Shum W, Belleannee C, Da Silva N, Breton S. ATP secretion in the male reproductive tract: essential role of CFTR. J Physiol. 2012;590:4209-22 pubmed publisher
    Extracellular ATP is essential for the function of the epididymis and spermatozoa, but ATP release in the epididymis remains uncharacterized...
  2. Xiao J, Liu Y, Li Z, Zhou Y, Lin H, Wu X, et al. Effects of the insemination of hydrogen peroxide-treated epididymal mouse spermatozoa on ?H2AX repair and embryo development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38742 pubmed publisher
    ..Cryopreservation of human semen for assisted reproduction is complicated by cryodamage to spermatozoa caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
  3. Kerkhofs S, Dubois V, De Gendt K, Helsen C, Clinckemalie L, Spans L, et al. A role for selective androgen response elements in the development of the epididymis and the androgen control of the 5? reductase II gene. FASEB J. 2012;26:4360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..with the reduced motility of the spermatozoa, a characteristic that is developed during transit through the epididymis. Comparative transcriptome analyses revealed that the expression of 39 genes is changed in SPARKI epididymis...
  4. Hu S, Du H, Yao G, Zhang Y. Molecular cloning and identification of mouse epididymis-specific gene mHong1, the homologue of rat HongrES1. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:626-34 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown that rat epididymis-specific gene HongrES1 plays important roles in sperm capacitation and fertility...
  5. Maclean J, Hayashi K, Turner T, Wilkinson M. The Rhox5 homeobox gene regulates the region-specific expression of its paralogs in the rodent epididymis. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:189 pubmed publisher
    ..The epididymis is an ideal organ to examine this, as it is a highly segmented tissue that differs significantly in structure ..
  6. Belleannee C, Légaré C, Calvo E, Thimon V, Sullivan R. microRNA signature is altered in both human epididymis and seminal microvesicles following vasectomy. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1455-67 pubmed publisher
    Does vasectomy impact microRNA (miRNA) expression in the epididymis and seminal microvesicles (SMVs) in a non-reversible manner?
  7. Li Y, Wang H, Wan F, Liu F, Liu J, Zhang N, et al. Deep sequencing analysis of small non-coding RNAs reveals the diversity of microRNAs and piRNAs in the human epididymis. Gene. 2012;497:330-5 pubmed publisher
    The epididymis plays a crucial role in regulating the development of sperm motility and fertilizing capacity...
  8. Patel R, Al Dossary A, Stabley D, Barone C, Galileo D, Strehler E, et al. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in murine epididymis: secretion of splice variants in the luminal fluid and a role in sperm maturation. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:6 pubmed publisher
    ..in situ RT-PCR, that both the splice variants of Pmca4 mRNA are expressed in murine testis and throughout the epididymis. Immunofluorescence localized PMCA4a to the apical membrane of the epididymal epithelium, and Western analysis ..
  9. Zhang M, Sheng X, Zhang H, Wang Q, Xu M, Weng Q, et al. Seasonal changes in morphology and immunoreactivity of PDGF-A and its receptor PDGFR-? in the epididymis of wild ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt). J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:353-9 pubmed
    ..role in the male reproductive system including the maintenance of morphological structure and function of the epididymis. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the PDGF system and seasonal changes in ..
  10. Rajesh A, Yenugu S. Genomic organization, tissue distribution and functional characterization of the rat Pate gene cluster. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32633 pubmed publisher
    ..to be prostate and testis specific, we observed that rat Pate genes are also expressed in seminal vesicle and epididymis and in tissues beyond the male reproductive tract...
  11. Pihlajamaa P, Sahu B, Lyly L, Aittomäki V, Hautaniemi S, Janne O. Tissue-specific pioneer factors associate with androgen receptor cistromes and transcription programs. EMBO J. 2014;33:312-26 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP-seq analyses of AR-binding events in murine prostate, kidney and epididymis show that in vivo AR cistromes and their respective androgen-dependent transcription programs are highly tissue ..
  12. Caballero J, Frenette G, D Amours O, Belleann e C, Lacroix Pepin N, Robert C, et al. Bovine sperm raft membrane associated Glioma Pathogenesis-Related 1-like protein 1 (GliPr1L1) is modified during the epididymal transit and is potentially involved in sperm binding to the zona pellucida. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:3876-86 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR analysis revealed that GliPr1L1 is expressed in testis and, at a much lower level, all along the epididymis. Western blotting showed a similar distribution of GliPr1L1 in testicular and epididymal tissue extracts...
  13. Whelly S, Johnson S, Powell J, Borchardt C, Hastert M, Cornwall G. Nonpathological extracellular amyloid is present during normal epididymal sperm maturation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36394 pubmed publisher
    ..maturation or maintenance of the luminal milieu and which itself may undergo maturational changes along the epididymis. In contrast to previous examples of functional amyloid which were intracellular, our studies now show that ..
  14. Krutskikh A, Poliandri A, Cabrera Sharp V, Dacheux J, Poutanen M, Huhtaniemi I. Epididymal protein Rnase10 is required for post-testicular sperm maturation and male fertility. FASEB J. 2012;26:4198-209 pubmed publisher
    Eutherian spermatozoa are dependent on the environment of the proximal epididymis to complete their maturation; however, no specific epididymal factors that mediate this process have so far been identified...
  15. Ded L, Sebkova N, Cerna M, Elzeinova F, Dostalova P, Peknicova J, et al. In vivo exposure to 17?-estradiol triggers premature sperm capacitation in cauda epididymis. Reproduction. 2013;145:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..to our results, in vivo exposure to increased E2 concentrations caused premature sperm capacitation in the epididymis. The effect of E2, however, seems reversible because after the termination of the exposure premature epididymal ..
  16. Silva E, Patrão M, TSURUTA J, O Rand M, Avellar M. Epididymal protease inhibitor (EPPIN) is differentially expressed in the male rat reproductive tract and immunolocalized in maturing spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:832-42 pubmed publisher
    ..EPPIN's expression and cellular distribution in rat tissues and its in vivo regulation by androgens in the epididymis. EPPIN (mRNA and protein) was abundantly expressed in the rat testis and epididymis; we also found that the vas ..
  17. Wang K, Li N, Yeung C, Li J, Wang H, Cooper T. Oncogenic Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways in the cancer-resistant epididymis have implications for cancer research. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013;19:57-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This review presents several important cancer-related aspects of Wnt/?-catenin signalling relevant to the epididymis, provides evidence of such epididymal gene expression and suggests a new direction for further research...
  18. Perobelli J, Patrão M, Fernandez C, Sanabria M, Klinefelter G, Avellar M, et al. Androgen deprivation from pre-puberty to peripuberty interferes in proteins expression in pubertal and adult rat epididymis. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;38:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study used sexually immature rats aiming to evaluate the testes and epididymis histology and proteins expression in these organs on PND50 and 75, after premature antiandrogen exposure, from ..
  19. Zhang L, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Zhang Y. Baculo-expression and enzymatic characterization of CES7 esterase. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:731-6 pubmed
    ..Recently, a novel epididymis-specific gene named Ces7 was cloned and characterized, which belongs to the carboxylesterase family...
  20. Zhang J, Liu Q, Zhang W, Li J, Li Z, Tang Z, et al. Comparative profiling of genes and miRNAs expressed in the newborn, young adult, and aged human epididymides. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:145-53 pubmed
    To understand roles of transcriptional factors and miRNAs in regulating gene expression in the epididymis from postnatal development through aging, systematic profiling of genes and miRNAs expressed in the newborn, young adult, and aged ..
  21. Kopera I, Tuz R, Hejmej A, Schwarz T, Koczanowski J, Bilinska B. Immunolocalization of androgen receptor in the boar epididymis: the effect of GnRH agonist deslorelin. Reprod Domest Anim. 2009;44:266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..for the first time the effect of deslorelin on the distribution of the AR in the three regions of the boar epididymis. It is likely that stromal cells are more sensitive than epithelial cells to the regulation of AR expression by ..
  22. Abd Elmaksoud A. Comparative expression of laminin and smooth muscle actin in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbit. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..investigation was conducted to demonstrate laminin and alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) in the testis and epididymis of adult chickens, Sudani ducks, pigeons, and rabbits...
  23. Liu L, Shen W, Ueno M, Patel S, Kraemer F. Characterization of age-related gene expression profiling in bone marrow and epididymal adipocytes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:212 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes that are differentially expressed at greater levels in the bone marrow are highly regulated with age. ..
  24. Zhen W, Li P, He B, Guo J, Zhang Y. The novel epididymis-specific beta-galactosidase-like gene Glb1l4 is essential in epididymal development and sperm maturation in rats. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:696-706 pubmed publisher
    We describe a novel epididymis-specific cDNA named Glb1l4, which was isolated from rat epididymis by differential display of mRNAs...
  25. Alvarez Maestro M, Tur Gonzalez R, Alonso Dorrego J, Jesus De la Peña Barthel J, Nistal Martin De Serrano M. [Adenomatoid tumors of the epididymis and testicle: report of 9 cases and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol. 2009;62:137-41 pubmed
    ..Because of their benign nature, the treatment of choice is local excision (conservative surgery), but orchidectomy was performed in two cases due to tumor location. ..
  26. O Hara L, Welsh M, Saunders P, Smith L. Androgen receptor expression in the caput epididymal epithelium is essential for development of the initial segment and epididymal spermatozoa transit. Endocrinology. 2011;152:718-29 pubmed publisher
    The epididymis plays an essential role in male fertility, and disruption of epididymal function can lead to obstructive azoospermia. Formation and function of the epididymis is androgen-dependent...
  27. Li X, Liu Q, Liu S, Zhang J, Zhang Y. New member of the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein family in the human epididymis. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:855-63 pubmed
    ..activating proteins (GAPs) on spermatogenesis has been studied for years, though no GAPs have been explored in epididymis, an essential organ for sperm maturation...
  28. Du J, Zuo W, Ruan Y, Yang Z, Chen M, Chen S, et al. Stimulating effects of dopamine on chloride transport across the rat caudal epididymal epithelium in culture. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that extracellular dopamine activates Ca2+-dependent and cAMP-dependent regulatory pathways, leading to activation of both Ca2+-dependent and cAMP-dependent Cl- conductances in epididymal epithelial cells. ..
  29. Parent A, Cornwall G, Liu L, Smith C, Hermo L. Alterations in the testis and epididymis associated with loss of function of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (CRES) protein. J Androl. 2011;32:444-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In the initial segment of the epididymis, principal cells showed supranuclear and luminal reactions...
  30. Cooper T. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this hypothesis, the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa, which influences RVD and ..
  31. Caesar R, Manieri M, Kelder T, Boekschoten M, Evelo C, Muller M, et al. A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11525 pubmed publisher
    ..EWAT was found to exhibit physiological zonation. De novo lipogenesis in fat proximal to epididymis was stably low, whereas de novo lipogenesis distal to epididymis and at other locations was down-regulated in ..
  32. Hermo L, Schellenberg M, Liu L, Dayanandan B, Zhang T, Mandato C, et al. Membrane domain specificity in the spatial distribution of aquaporins 5, 7, 9, and 11 in efferent ducts and epididymis of rats. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:1121-35 pubmed publisher
    Water content within the epididymis of the male reproductive system is stringently regulated to promote sperm maturation...
  33. Belva F, De Schrijver F, Tournaye H, Liebaers I, Devroey P, Haentjens P, et al. Neonatal outcome of 724 children born after ICSI using non-ejaculated sperm. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1752-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Salian S, Doshi T, Vanage G. Neonatal exposure of male rats to Bisphenol A impairs fertility and expression of sertoli cell junctional proteins in the testis. Toxicology. 2009;265:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These perturbations may be one of the contributing factors that lead to impairments in spermatogenesis in the exposed animals and can be used as potential biomarkers to study BPA-induced effects on testes. ..
  35. Zhou Y, Zheng M, Shi Q, Zhang L, Zhen W, Chen W, et al. An epididymis-specific secretory protein HongrES1 critically regulates sperm capacitation and male fertility. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4106 pubmed publisher
    ..HongrES1, a new member of the SERPIN (serine proteinase inhibitor) family exclusively expressed in the rat cauda epididymis and up-regulated by androgen, is secreted into the lumen and covers the sperm head...
  36. Kawasaki T, Igarashi K, Koeda T, Sugimoto K, Nakagawa K, Hayashi S, et al. Rats fed fructose-enriched diets have characteristics of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. J Nutr. 2009;139:2067-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The distribution of lobular inflammation was predominant over portal inflammation, which is consistent with human NASH. In conclusion, rats fed fructose-enriched diets are a better model for NASH than rats fed fat-enriched diets. ..
  37. Yamaguchi R, Yamagata K, Hasuwa H, Inano E, Ikawa M, Okabe M. Cd52, known as a major maturation-associated sperm membrane antigen secreted from the epididymis, is not required for fertilization in the mouse. Genes Cells. 2008;13:851-61 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, there was no difference in the litter size from the wild-type and Cd52-null males. Our results therefore indicate CD52 is not required for fertilization in the mouse either in vivo or in vitro. ..
  38. Fujisaka S, Usui I, Bukhari A, Ikutani M, Oya T, Kanatani Y, et al. Regulatory mechanisms for adipose tissue M1 and M2 macrophages in diet-induced obese mice. Diabetes. 2009;58:2574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the phenotypic changes of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) under different conditions of insulin sensitivity...
  39. Tafuri S, Pavone L, Lo Muto R, Basile M, Langella E, Fiorillo E, et al. Expression of orexin A and its receptor 1 in the rat epididymis. Regul Pept. 2009;155:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the detection of oxA and OX1R in the principal cells of the rat caudal epididymis by immunohistochemistry...
  40. Raymond A, Shur B. A novel role for SED1 (MFG-E8) in maintaining the integrity of the epididymal epithelium. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:849-58 pubmed publisher
    The epididymis is a highly convoluted tubule that connects the testis with the vas deferens, and in which mammalian sperm acquire the ability to fertilize eggs...
  41. Vigueras Villaseñor R, Rojas Castañeda J, Chavez Saldaña M, Gutierrez Pérez O, García Cruz M, Cuevas Alpuche O, et al. Alterations in the spermatic function generated by obesity in rats. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..induced by a high fat diet, we evaluated the epididymal and testicular morphologies, lipid peroxidation in the epididymis, leptin serum levels, steroid hormones, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glycemia and some spermatobioscopic ..
  42. Hess R, Fernandes S, Gomes G, Oliveira C, Lazari M, Porto C. Estrogen and its receptors in efferent ductules and epididymis. J Androl. 2011;32:600-13 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER, formerly known as GPR30) in efferent ductules and epididymis. The efferent ductules present the highest levels of ESR1 and ESR2 in the male reproductive system, and ..
  43. Belleannee C, Da Silva N, Shum W, Marsolais M, Laprade R, Brown D, et al. Segmental expression of the bradykinin type 2 receptor in rat efferent ducts and epididymis and its role in the regulation of aquaporin 9. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:134-43 pubmed publisher
    Water and solute transport in the efferent ducts and epididymis are important for the establishment of the appropriate luminal environment for sperm maturation and storage...
  44. Fibbi B, Filippi S, Morelli A, Vignozzi L, Silvestrini E, Chavalmane A, et al. Estrogens regulate humans and rabbit epididymal contractility through the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2173-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Because RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway is a contractile effector downstream to both OT and ET-1 receptors, we hypothesized an estrogenic modulation of OT- and ET-1-induced contraction through the up-regulation of RhoA/ROCK signaling...
  45. Mital P, Hinton B, Dufour J. The blood-testis and blood-epididymis barriers are more than just their tight junctions. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:851-8 pubmed publisher
    The terms blood-testis barrier (BTB) or blood-epididymis barrier (BEB), are often described as Sertoli cell-Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) or TJs between the epithelial cells in the epididymis, respectively...
  46. Deshpande S, Vijayakumar G, Rao A. Oestrogenic regulation and differential expression of WNT4 in the bonnet monkey and rodent epididymis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:555-61 pubmed
    A role for oestrogen in regulating fluid reabsorption in the monkey epididymis was recently demonstrated...
  47. Hirai S, Naito M, Terayama H, Ning Q, Miura M, Shirakami G, et al. Difference in abundance of blood and lymphatic capillaries in the murine epididymis. Med Mol Morphol. 2010;43:37-42 pubmed publisher
    It is well known that the epididymis is responsible for the transportation, storage, and maturation of spermatozoa, and that it has four segments: i.e., initial segment, caput, corpus, and cauda...
  48. Avellar M, Siu E, Yasuhara F, Maróstica E, Porto C. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the male reproductive tract: expression and function in rat efferent ductules and epididymis. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;40:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The rat efferent ductules and epididymis are androgen-dependent tissues of the male reproductive tract, with important roles in the process to form a ..
  49. Singh S, Malini T, Rengarajan S, Balasubramanian K. Impact of experimental diabetes and insulin replacement on epididymal secretory products and sperm maturation in albino rats. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:1094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..From the above findings, it is evident that STZ-diabetes has an adverse effect on sperm maturation, which may be due to the decrease in the bioavailability of testosterone and epididymal secretory products...
  50. Dahia C, Petrusz P, Hall S, Rao A. Effect of deprivation of endogenous follicle stimulating hormone on rat epididymis: a histological evaluation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:331-7 pubmed
    The growth and function of the epididymis are regulated by testosterone produced by Leydig cells in the testes...
  51. Clauss A, Persson M, Lilja H, Lundwall A. Three genes expressing Kunitz domains in the epididymis are related to genes of WFDC-type protease inhibitors and semen coagulum proteins in spite of lacking similarity between their protein products. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we have reinvestigated the locus for homologous genes encoding Kunitz motif only. The identified genes have been analyzed with respect to structure, expression and function...
  52. Cheng G, Li J, Li F, Wang H, Shi G. Human ribonuclease 9, a member of ribonuclease A superfamily, specifically expressed in epididymis, is a novel sperm-binding protein. Asian J Androl. 2009;11:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Immunofluorescent analyses showed that the predicted human RNase 9 was present throughout the epididymis, but not present in other tissues examined, and human RNase 9 was also present on the entire head and neck ..
  53. Shrestha Y, Vaughan C, Smith B, Song C, Baro D, Bartness T. Central melanocortin stimulation increases phosphorylated perilipin A and hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissues. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show for the first time in rodents that p-perilipin A can serve as an in vivo, fat pad-specific indictor of lipolysis and extend our previous findings showing that central melanocortin stimulation increases WAT lipolysis...
  54. Wang J, Ruan K. miR-200c affects the mRNA expression of E-cadherin by regulating the mRNA level of TCF8 during post-natal epididymal development in juvenile rats. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:628-34 pubmed publisher
    The unique temporal expression pattern of miR-200c in epididymis during post-natal development in juvenile rats was revealed by our home-made miRNA microarray in this paper...
  55. Tunuguntla H, Mishra A, Jorda M, Gosalbez R. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the epididymis: case report and review of the literature. Urology. 2011;78:183-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to counsel patients with scrotal masses regarding the possibility of orchiectomy, even in the case of a benign tumor such as IMT...
  56. Fossato da Silva D, Teixeira C, Scarano W, Favareto A, Fernandez C, Grotto D, et al. Effects of methylmercury on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sperm motility, the relative sperm count and transit time in the caput/corpus epididymis, were all reduced at all doses...
  57. Ai Q, Tian H, Zhang J, Ma L, Miao N, Huo Y, et al. [Expressions of VEGF and Flt-1 in the testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm of adolescent rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:871-5 pubmed
    ..the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) in the testis, epididymis and epididymal sperm of adolescent rats and explore the functions of both the proteins in the male reproductive ..
  58. Kim H, Ahn M, Moon C, Kim S, Jee Y, Joo H, et al. Immunohistochemical study of galectin-3 in mature and immature bull testis and epididymis. J Vet Sci. 2008;9:339-44 pubmed
    ..We examined galectin-3 expression in the testis and epididymis of sexually mature and immature bulls...
  59. Desai N, Abdelhafez F, Sabanegh E, Goldfarb J. Paternal effect on genomic activation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rate after ICSI with cryopreserved epididymal versus testicular spermatozoa. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:142 pubmed publisher
    ..This study takes an in depth look at embryonic development, implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates with frozen epididymal and testicular sperm from obstructed (OA) and non-obstructed (NOA) patients...
  60. Bedford J. Puzzles of mammalian fertilization--and beyond. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of the sperm head, its behaviour at fertilization, and indirectly even the pattern of sperm maturation in the epididymis. In turn, that pattern appears to have evoked the development of the sperm storage function of the cauda region, ..
  61. Guyonnet B, Marot G, Dacheux J, Mercat M, Schwob S, Jaffrezic F, et al. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:369 pubmed publisher
    ..It is only after their travel in the epididymis that sperm gain their motility and fertility...
  62. Hedger M. Immunophysiology and pathology of inflammation in the testis and epididymis. J Androl. 2011;32:625-40 pubmed publisher
    ..consideration must be the very different immunological environments of the testis, where sperm develop, and the epididymis, where sperm mature and are stored...
  63. Guyonnet B, Dacheux F, Dacheux J, Gatti J. The epididymal transcriptome and proteome provide some insights into new epididymal regulations. J Androl. 2011;32:651-64 pubmed publisher
    ..days to weeks, depending on the species, and may be stored for even longer periods in the cauda part of the epididymis and vas deferens...
  64. Ma L, Li W, Zhu H, Li Z, Sun Z, Liu X, et al. Localization and androgen regulation of metastasis-associated protein 1 in mouse epididymis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15439 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of present study was to further assess the localization of MTA1 in mouse epididymis on both transcriptional and translational level, and then to explore whether MTA1 expression is regulated by ..
  65. Jones S, Cyr D. Regulation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter-B1 in the epididymis and epididymal spermatozoa of the rat. Toxicol Sci. 2011;119:369-79 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that following administration, alkylphenols, such as octylphenol, reach the testis and epididymis but fail to accumulate in these tissues, suggesting the rapid expulsion of these chemicals by transporters...
  66. Zuo W, Huang J, Shan J, Li S, Wong P, Zhou W. Functional studies of acid transporter in cultured rat epididymal cell. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the functional role of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in the pH regulation of epididymal fluid and its effect on sperm motility...
  67. Navarro Casado L, Juncos Tobarra M, Cháfer Rudilla M, de Onzoño L, Blázquez Cabrera J, Miralles Garcia J. Effect of experimental diabetes and STZ on male fertility capacity. Study in rats. J Androl. 2010;31:584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and sperm count (6W, P < .01) compared with buffer-injected controls. Experimental STZ diabetes increases teratozoospermia and decreases sTT, testicular weight (reverting at medium-term), and epididymal weight...
  68. Contri A, Gloria A, Robbe D, De Amicis I, Carluccio A. Characteristics of donkey spermatozoa along the length of the epididymis. Theriogenology. 2012;77:166-73 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, the epididymis has numerous interrelated functions including absorptive and secretory activity that affect luminal environment and cell membrane, and the maturation and storage of sperm...
  69. Cornwall G. New insights into epididymal biology and function. Hum Reprod Update. 2009;15:213-27 pubmed publisher
    The epididymis performs an important role in the maturation of spermatozoa including their acquisition of progressive motility and fertilizing ability...
  70. Saewu A, Asuvapongpatana S, Chotwiwatthanakun C, Tantiwongse A, Weerachatyanukul W, Thitilertdecha S. Cathepsin D in human reproductive tissues: cellular localization in testis and epididymis and surface distribution in different sperm conditions. J Androl. 2012;33:726-34 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian sperm surface antigens are acquired either during spermatogenesis or sperm maturation in the epididymis. These antigens, many of which are hydrolytic enzymes, are actively synthesized and secreted by the resident epithelial ..
  71. Schick B, Habermann F, Sinowatz F. Histochemical detection of glycoconjugates in the canine epididymis. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..lectins to identify glycoconjugates present in the efferent ductules and the three segments of the ductus epididymis (initial, middle and terminal segment) of dogs was carried out...
  72. Yoon S, Park C, Nah W, Gye M. Expression of occludin in testis and epididymis of wild rabbits, Lepus sinensis coreanus. Reprod Domest Anim. 2009;44:745-50 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of occludin, an integral member of the TJs, was examined in testis and different regions of epididymis of Lepus sinensis coreanus, an Korean wild rabbit species...
  73. Zhang L, Hu Z, Zhu C, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Zhang Y. Identification and characterization of an epididymis-specific gene, Ces7. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:809-15 pubmed
    ..Here, a novel rat epididymis-specific gene named Ces7 was cloned and characterized...
  74. Krutskikh A, De Gendt K, Sharp V, Verhoeven G, Poutanen M, Huhtaniemi I. Targeted inactivation of the androgen receptor gene in murine proximal epididymis causes epithelial hypotrophy and obstructive azoospermia. Endocrinology. 2011;152:689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..this question in a mouse model with intact testicular output and selective Ar inactivation in the proximal epididymis by creating double-transgenic males carrying a conditional Ar(loxP) allele and expressing Cre recombinase under ..
  75. Belleannee C, Labas V, Teixeira Gomes A, Gatti J, Dacheux J, Dacheux F. Identification of luminal and secreted proteins in bull epididymis. J Proteomics. 2011;74:59-78 pubmed publisher
    The epididymis plays a major role in the acquisition of sperm fertility...